KNIGHTS AND DAMES 
INTRODUCTION
This page is dedicated to my all-time favourite knight, Sir Thomas Tom of Appledore.
Eligibility for inclusion
The aim of these pages is to list all men and women who have been made a Knight or a Dame in any country which is a member of
the British Commonwealth of Nations since the accession of Queen Victoria to the throne of the United Kingdom in 1837. These nations
include the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Barbados, Antigua and Barbuda, and St. Lucia, each of which retains orders of 
knighthood under various names. Therefore, any person who is entitled to the appellation "Sir" or "Dame" under any of these orders is 
eligible for inclusion in these pages.
Sources and acknowledgments
The primary source for knights prior to the end of 1904 is "The Knights of England" compiled by William Arthur Shaw, published in 1906.
Since that time, I have relied on a number of sources, the most important of which are the various Gazettes (i.e. the London, 
Edinburgh, Dublin (until 1921) and the Belfast (after 1921) Gazettes, which are the official journals of record of the British Government.
Other primary sources include the various editions of "Who's Who" and "Who Was Who", together with correspondence with various
official government departments in other Commonwealth countries. For Knights Bachelor, I have relied heavily upon my collection of 
the various editions of the listings published by the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor.
Neither the Gazettes or Who's Who/Who Was Who, when taken in isolation, will provide complete listings. For example, I have come 
across many names of knights or dames in Who's Who/Who Was Who whose appointment as knights or dames I have been unable to
find in the Gazettes. Conversely, some knights or dames have never appeared in Who's Who, generally because they are members of
orders of knighthood of Commonwealth countries other than the United Kingdom and are not therefore noticed by "Who's Who", or are 
due simply to a desire for anonymity.
I also gratefully acknowledge the assistance of my friend James Lockwood in filling in many gaps in dates of birth and death.
The various Orders of Knighthood
The United Kingdom
The following orders of knighthood are shown in order of descending precedence:-
The Most Noble Order of the Garter
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle
The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick
Members of these orders are already listed on my pages under "Orders of Chivalry" and are therefore generally not included in the 
pages devoted to knights and dames. However, if a person received various knighthoods prior to being appointed to the Garter or to
the Thistle, his or her appointment to these orders is included for the sake of completeness. See, for example, Sir Anthony Acland.
Conversely, if a person's only appointment as a knight or dame is to one of these orders (for example Sir John Major), they will not
be included in these listings.
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath was founded by George I on 18 May 1725. From that date until 2 January 1815, the Order 
consisted of a single class - Knight Companion of the Bath (KB) - which no longer exists. Since 1815 the Order has consisted of
three classes of members, being Knights or Dames Grand Cross (GCB), Knights or Dames Commander (KCB/DCB) and Companions (CB).
The Order is divided into two divisions, Military and Civil. Recipients of the Military division are now usually senior military officers,
while recipients of the Civil division are usually senior civil servants. The Order was opened to women in 1971 with the first female 
member - Dame Mildred Riddelsdell - appointed on 1 January 1972.
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
This Order was instituted by Queen Victoria by Letters Patent dated 23 February 1861, which were gazetted on 25 June 1861. The
gazette notice reads in part "The Queen, being desirous of affording to the Princes, Chiefs and People of the Indian Empire, a public
and signal testimony of Her regard, by the Institution of an Order of knighthood, whereby Her resolution to take upon herself the
Government of the Territories of India may be commemorated, and by which Her Majesty may be enabled to reward conspicuous merit
and loyalty, has been graciously pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to
institute, erect, constitute, and create, an Order of Knighthood, to be known by, and have for ever hereafter, the name, style, and 
designation, of the "Most Exalted Order of the Star of India."
The original Order had only one class - Knights of the Order of the Star of India (KSI). However, the Order was completely remodelled
by Letters Patent dated 28 March 1866 (gazetted 25 May 1866). In its new form, the Order consisted of three classes - Knights Grand
Commander (GCSI), Knights Commander (KCSI) and Companions (CSI). At the same time, all existing Knights of the Order became 
Knights Grand Commander of the remodelled Order. The word "Commander" was chosen instead of the more normal "Knight Grand Cross"
so as to not offend non-Christian recipients.
It is interesting to note that one of the original knights was a female, the Begum of Bhopal, and that two of her successors were also
knighted under the same Order. Women, apart from princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order, but the Begum was 
appointed as a princely ruler. In 1911, the Order's statutes were amended to allow the appointment of Queen Mary as a Knight Grand
Commander.
The last appointments to the Order were made in the 1948 New Year's Honours. There are currently no living members - the last 
member, the Maharaja of Alwar, died in 2011. Since the Order has never been officially abolished, it is now considered as being
dormant.
The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
This Order was established on 28 Apr 1818 by the Prince Regent, later King George IV. It was originally established to reward "natives
of the Ionian Islands and of the island of Malta and its dependencies, and for such other subjects as His Majesty as may hold high and
confidential situations in the Mediterranean." In 1864, following the ceding of the Ionian Islands to Greece, it became necessary to
remodel the Order, so as to expand its scope to the British colonies in general. As a result, appointments to the Order are now 
generally made up of colonial governors and politicians, together with senior diplomats and members of the Foreign and Commonwealth
Office. 
The Order comprises three classes - Knight or Dame Grand Cross (GCMG), Knight or Dame Commander (KCMG/DCMG) and 
Commander (CMG).
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
Queen Victoria established this Order on 1 January 1878 to reward services rendered to the Indian Empire by British and native officials
serving in India. Initially, it consisted of one class only - Companions, who were not Knights. On 15 Feb 1887, the Order was divided
into two classes - Knights Commanders and Companions. Shortly thereafter, in June 1887, the Order was again amended so as to
consist of three classes - Knights Grand Commander (GCIE), Knights Commander (KCIE) and Companions (CIE).
Appointments to the Order ceased after Indian independence, and, although never formally abolished, following the death of the last
member, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra in August 2010, this Order is now considered to be dormant.
The Royal Victorian Order
Toward the close of the 19th century, most honours within the British Empire were granted by the sovereign on the advice of his or
her ministers, including dominions and colonies. On 21 April 1896 Queen Victoria established the Royal Victorian Order, with its statutes
providing that the members were to be "such persons, being subjects of our Crown, as may have rendered or shall hereafter render
extraordinary or important or personal services to Us, our heirs and successors, who have merited or may hereafter merit our royal
favour, or any persons who may hereafter be appointed officers of this Royal Order."
The Order originally consisted of five classes - Knights and Dames Grand Cross (GCVO), Knights and Dames Commander (KCVO/
DCVO), Commanders (CVO), and Members of the 4th and 5th classes (MVO). In 1984, Members of the 4th class became Lieutenants
with the post-nominal letters of LVO.
The Royal Victorian Order remains entirely within the Queen's personal gift. It has been open to foreigners since inception, and 
honorary awards are frequently made during state visits by the sovereign to overseas countries, or during visits by overseas
leaders to the United Kingdom. 
 
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
The Order of the British Empire was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V, who recognised the need for a new award
which could be more widely awarded, in recognition of the large numbers of people in the United Kingdom and other parts of the
British Empire who had contributed to the war effort in non-combatant roles. 
The Order consists of five classes - Knights and Dames Grand Cross (GBE), Knights and Dames Commander (KBE/DBE), 
Commander (CBE), Officer (OBE) and Member (MBE).
When first established, the Order consisted of only one division. However, on 27 December 1918, the Order was divided into Military
and Civil Divisions.
Knight Bachelor
Knights Bachelor are the oldest but lowest rank of knights in the British honours system. A Knight Bachelor is not a member of an
Order of Chivalry, unlike members of each of the other orders of knighthood outlined above. 
There is no female equivalent of a Knight Bachelor. The lowest honour that can be bestowed upon a woman is a Dame Commander of 
the British Empire (DBE) which technically is one rank higher than a Knight Bachelor. In addition, a foreigner can be appointed as an
Honorary knight in any of the existing Orders of Chivalry (Garter, Thistle, Bath, St. Michael and St. George, Royal Victorian Order and
British Empire) but cannot be appointed as an honorary Knight Bachelor.
By tradition, members of the clergy receiving a knighthood are not dubbed as knights, as the use of a sword in the dubbing ceremony
is thought to be innappropriate to their calling. As a result, they are not able to use the title "Sir."
Honorary knights and dames
As noted above, each of the Orders of Chivalry (but not Knights Bachelor) have had reasonably large numbers of Honorary Knights
and Dames appointed to these respective Orders. These awards are generally made to citizens of countries that are not part of
the British Commonwealth. Recipients of such honorary awards cannot use the pre-nominal syle of "Sir" or "Dame." If an award was
made to a person at the time when his country of citizenship was a member of the Commonwealth, then the subsequent departure of
that country from the Commonwealth does not affect that person's right to the title. Conversely, when a person awarded an honorary
knighthood later becomes a citizen of the Commonwealth then the honorary award usually becomes substantive - for example, Sir
Terry Wogan who was made an honorary KBE in the Queen's Birthday Honours in 2005. This award was made substantive later that 
year when he became a dual British-Irish citizen.
 
Honours systems in other Commonwealth countries
Canada
Prior to Confederation in 1867, British Imperial honours were awarded by the Crown on the advice of the British Prime Minister, or on
the recommendation of the colonial governors of what was then British North America. After Confederation, the Prime Minister of 
Canada submitted, via the Governor General, a list of names for consideration. However, the Governor General also continued to
recommend individuals for honours without the knowledge or approval of the Prime Minister, a practice which sometimes led to conflict
between the Governor General and the Prime Minister. 
Public opinion gradually turned against the continued awarding of Imperial honours. The awarding of a knighthood to Samuel Hughes 
in 1915 caused great controversy, culminating in 1917 when Sir Hugh Graham, a newspaper publisher, was created Baron Atholstan.
The granting of this peerage was made against the advice of both the Governor General and the Canadian Prime Minister, and was
viewed by the Canadian public as seemingly without merit, particularly as it came at a time when rumours regarding Lloyd George's 
sales of honours were starting to circulate. 
In 1917 William Folger Nickle, a Conservative MP in the Canadian House of Commons, successfully moved a resolution calling for an
address to be made to King George V requesting that he no longer grant hereditary peerages to Canadians. The resolution was never
sent to the Canadian Senate, and thus no address to the King was made. Following the establishment of the Order of the British
Empire, Nickle put a further resolution to the House, and it was decided that the King should be asked to cease conferring "any title
of honour or titular distinction." Again, the resolution was not forwarded to the Senate and therefore never became legally binding.
However, it established a policy precedent.
This precedent was overturned for a brief period between 1933 and 1935 during the government of Richard Bennett, when a number
of Canadians were granted knighthoods. After William Lyon Mackenzie King returned as Prime Minister in 1935, the precedent set by
Bennett's government was ignored and the former policy of no titles was resumed and has been in effect ever since.
As is usually the case, there have, however, been some anomalies. Sir James Hamet Dunn was created a baronet in 1921; Sir William
Stephenson was knighted in 1945 and Vincent Massey (Governor General of Canada 1952-1959) was made a Companion of Honour in
in 1946 and received the Royal Victorian Chain in 1960, although neither of these awards carried with it the appellation of "Sir."
Similarly, Pierre Trudeau was made a Companion of Honour in 1984.
Dual citizenship of Canada and Britain was been allowed since 1977. Since that time, a number of dual citizens (for example the MP 
Sir Bryant Godman Irvine and Sir Conrad Swan) received knighthoods. On the other hand, in order to receive a life peerage, Conrad
Black was forced to relinquish his Canadian citizenship in 2001.
Australia
The Australian Commonwealth and each of its constituent states originally used the Imperial Honours system. In 1975, the ruling
Australian Labor Party created the Order of Australia, which has now entirely replaced the Imperial system. Commonwealth-
recommended awards continued under the Fraser Liberal government until 1983, but these ceased with the election of the Hawke
Labor government in that year. Two States (Queensland and Tasmania) continued to make Imperial recommendations until 1989 but
the defeat of both of those states' governments in that year marked the end of Australian recommendations for Imperial awards.
The Order of Australia was established by Letters Patent on 14 February 1975. It originally consisted of three grades - Companion (AC),
Officer (AO) and Member (AM), and two divisions - Civil and Military. The Order was re-modelled in May 1976, with two new grades
being added - Knight or Dame (AK or AD) as the highest grade and Medal of the Order (OAM) as the lowest.
Following the election of the Hawke Labour government in 1983, the Queen was advised to abolish the Knight/Dame grade, which
occurred on 3 March 1986. This revocation had no effect upon existing Knights and Dames. The Knight/Dame grade was restored in
March 2014, and led to a huge controversy in Australia when Prime Minister Abbott granted a Knighthood of the Order of Australia to
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. After Abbott was replaced as Prime Minister in September 2015, his successor, Malcolm Turnbull, a
staunch republican, on 2 November 2015 announced that the grade of Knight or Dame was to be discontinued.
New Zealand
 
Prior to 30 May 1996, New Zealanders received knighthoods or damehoods from each of the existing British orders. After that date,
appointments have been made to the New Zealand Order of Merit. On 23 January 1995, the then Prime Minister of New Zealand, Jim 
Bolger, established an Advisory Committee on the Royal Honours system. The terms of reference for the Committee were "to consider
and present options and suggestions on the structure of a New Zealand Royal Honours system, which is designed to recognize 
meritorious service, gallantry and bravery and long service." Specifically, the Committee was to review "the purpose and coverage of 
the current honours system; the appropriateness of the current honours system of a mix of traditional (i.e. British or Imperial) and 
indigenous Royal Honours; whether new honours and awards should be instituted and whether either or both of the existing indigenous
Orders (i.e. the Order of New Zealand, which was modelled on the British Order of Merit and the Order of the Companions of Honour,
including the lack of automatic appellations of "Sir" or "Dame", and the Queen's Service Order) should be modified; whether certain 
honours should or should not be titular (i.e. carry the appellation of "Sir" or "Dame"), or some other appellation; and other significant
aspects of the honours system, for example, timing, frequency, nominations for and number of awards."
The Committee released its report on 21 September 1995. It recommended that existing British awards be replaced by a New Zealand
Order of Merit. No titles ("Sir" or "Dame") would be awarded under the Order, and the only British awards which it recommended should
continue would be those in the personal gift of the Queen - i.e. the Orders of the Garter and the Thistle, the Order of Merit and the 
Royal Victorian Order.
The New Zealand Order of Merit was established on 30 May 1996. The Order initially contained five levels - Knight or Dame Grand
Companion (GNZM), Knight or Dame Companion (KNZM/DNZM), Companion (CNZM), Officer (ONZM) and Member (MNZM). Note that
titles of "Sir" and "Dame" were retained, notwithstanding the recommendation of the Committee.
On 10 April 2000, the then Prime Minister of New Zealand, Helen Clark, announced that the Queen had approved the recommendation
of her government to discontinue in future the titles of "Sir" and "Dame" in the New Zealand Honours system. As a result, the two 
highest levels of the Order were re-named, with Knights or Dames Grand Companions becoming Principal Companions (PCNZM) and 
Knights or Dames Companions becoming Distinguished Companions (DCNZM). Neither of these two re-named levels carried with them
the appellation of "Sir" or "Dame", although the existing Knights and Dames of these two levels were permitted to retain their
titles.
On 23 March 2009, the Queen signed an Amending Royal Warrant, which provided for:-
* the reinstatement of titles at the two highest levels of the Order - i.e. Knight and Dame Grand Companion (GNZM) and Knight or
   Dame Companion (KNZM/DNZM) replacing Principal Companions and Distinguished Companions respectively
* the opportunity for Principal and Distinguished Companions of the Order to elect to be redesignated within the Order as Knights
   or Dames Grand Companion and Knights or Dames Companion respectively
* the opportunity for those Principal and Distinguished Companions of the Order who already enjoyed a title in another Order of
   Chivalry, or as a Knight Bachelor, to be redesignated within the New Zealand Order of Merit as a Knight or a Dame [I am not aware
   that anyone availed themselves of this opportunity.]
* an opportunity for the small number of widows of deceased former Principal and Distinguished Companions of the Order to elect to
   use the courtesy title of "Lady" for the rest of their lives. Three widows took advantage of this opportunity.
* those who elected not to accept a title to remain Principal or Distinguished Companions of the Order, and to retain their existing
   privileges and styles.
As at March 2009, 85 men and women who had been appointed as Principal or Distinguished Companions of the Order between 
April 2000 and March 2009 were still alive. Of these 85, 72 elected to avail themselves of the opportunity to be redesignated as
Knights or Dames. For the purposes of this listing each of the redesignated Knights and Dames shows the date of their respective
creations as being the date of such redesignation, which in all cases except two was 1 August 2009. The two exceptions were Sir
Anand Satyanand, who was Chancellor of the Order by virtue of his office as Governor General of New Zealand (redesignated 27 
March 2009), and Dame Heather Begg, whose redesignation on 17 Apr 2009 had been brought forward due to her advanced illness.
She died less than a month later. In all cases, where such a redesignation occurred, the original date of appointment as a Principal or
Distinguished Companion is included as part of the forenames of the respective Knight or Dame.
South Africa
The British Honours system was used in South Africa up until the election of the Hertzog National Party government in 1924. No awards
have been made since that time.
Barbados
The British Honours system was used in Barbados until 1980, when the Order of Barbados was instituted under Royal Letters Patent
dated 27 July of that year. The Order consists of four classes, two of which are awarded in two grades. The highest class is the Knight
or Dame of St. Andrew (KA or DA), which is awarded for "extraordinary and outstanding achievement and merit in service to Barbados
or to humanity at large."  My grateful thanks to Gillian Applewhaite and Andrea Waithe of the Barbadian Cabinet Office for their 
assistance in providing a listing of all Knights and Dames created to date.
Antigua and Barbuda
The British Honours system was used in Barbados until 1987, when the Most Distinguished Order of the Nation was established. The 
Order initially consisted of only one grade, with recipients entitles to the post nominal letters of ON. The Order was re-established in
in 1998, when all existing members of the Order of the Nation became Knights or Dames Grand Cross of the re-constituted order.
The Order has six classes of members, being, in descending order, Knights/Dames Grand Collar (KGN/DGN), Knights/Dames Grand 
Cross (KCGN/DCGN), Knight/Dame Commander (KCN/DCN), Commander (CN), Officer (ON) and Member (MN).
A separate order of chivalry, the Most Exalted Order of the National Hero, was established in 1994. As with the Most Distinguished 
Order of the Nation, this Order was re-constituted in 1998, when all existing members becames Knights or Dames Companion of the
revised Order (KNH/DNH). The revised Order consists of a single class only, and there may be no more than three living members
at any one time. Somewhat confusingly, appointments as a Knight or Dame Companion may be made posthumously. It is not my
intention to include such awards in the relevant listings, but, for the record, these posthumous appointments currently number three,
being:
 
* King Court Tackey (also known as Prince Klaas), granted a posthumous KNH in 2000. He was a slave who, in 1736, planned a revolt 
  against the slave-owners, but the plot was uncovered and he was executed.
* Georgiana Ellen (Nellie) Robinson (1880-1972), granted a posthumous DNH in 2006. She was a teacher who afforded local children
  the chance of a secondary education, which was otherwise unavailable to them at that time.
* George Herbert Walter (1928-2008), granted a posthumous KNH in 2008. He was Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda 1971-1976.
I have been unable to locate a complete official listing of all knights and dames created under the two orders outlined above. Emails
to the relevant authorities in Antigua have not elicited any responses. As a result, the listings include all of those knights and dames
of whom I am aware, but I cannot at this time guarantee that the listings are complete.
St.Lucia
The Order of Saint Lucia was established in 1980. The highest award in this order is the Grand Cross of the Order of Saint Lucia, which
is granted only to a person holding the office of Governor General of Saint Lucia. The Grand Cross is limited to a membership of 25 at
any one time, and no more than three can be awarded in any one year. The award does not entitle the recipient to become a Knight
or a Dame, but with the exception of Boswell Williams (Governor General 1980-1982) all other Governors General have been created
Knights or Dames of other orders.
In February 2016, the Queen for the first time approved the awarding of Knights and Dames Commander of the Order of Saint Lucia.
Such awards carry the post-nominal letters of KCSL/DCSL. These awards "may be awarded to any person who has rendered
exceptional and outstanding service of national importance to Saint Lucia."  Membership is limited to 20 at any one time, and no more 
than three awards can be made every two years.
Surname/Title and Forenames
In general, I have followed the names of knights and dames as they are shown in the various Gazettes. These entries, however, often
pay no heed to the names by which the person is commonly known - for example Sir Sean Connery's real name is Sir Thomas Sean
Connery. In such cases, the name is shown as Sir (Thomas) Sean Connery and is indexed on the basis that Thomas is his first name.
In addition, where a person is commonly known by a name other than their real name - for example Dame Clementine Laine who is 
known as Dame Cleo Laine - the commonly used name is shown in parentheses after the real name. For naming systems other than
those used in Western countries, and in particular Indian and Moslem names, I have followed, rightly or wrongly, the names shown in
the Gazettes. For those names (particularly in the listings of honorary knights) that contain the nobiliary particle "Von" I have followed
the practice of German alphabetical sorting, under which, for example, Manfred von Richthofen would be found under "Richthofen."
If someone in these listings later became a peer with a title different to their family name, the knighthood is shown under the family
name. The knighthood is also listed under the peerage title, with a pointer to the family name in question.
All double-barrelled or hyphenated surnames are indexed under the first element of the surname.
"Mac" and "Mc" are treated as being the same and are indexed accordingly. Similarly "St." is treated as being "Saint."
Date Knighted
In the foreword to the 1949-1950 edition of "Knights Bachelor" published by the Imperial Society of Knights Bachelor, Sir Gerald
Wollaston (Knight Principal of the Society and a former Garter King of Arms) writes that "the inclusion of a name in an 'Honours List'
as a Knight Bachelor does not make the gentleman a Knight. It only expresses the King's intention to make him a Knight. He does not
become a Knight, and entitled to the prefix "Sir," until (a) he receives the accolade from the king personally, or from someone
specially deputed by his Majesty to confer it, or (b) if abroad, or for any other reason unable to attend for investiture, he receives
Letters Patent under the Great Seal conferring the Degree upon him. The same principle applies to persons nominated to the first and
second Classes of the Orders of Knighthood. A person nominated a K.C.B. in an Honours List is thereby made a member of the Second
Class of the Order of the Bath; but he is not a Knight, nor entitled to the prefix "Sir," until he receives the accolade. My 
experience is that these things are little understood by the majority of the public." [my emphasis]
This situation was somewhat modified by a notice in London Gazette dated 8 June 1965 which reads:-
"It is the Queen's wish that when an announcement has been approved by the Sovereign and has been published officially to the 
effect that the honour of Knighthood is to be conferred on a person he should forthwith assume the distinctive appellation or prefix of 
a Knight.
"Appointment as Knight Bachelor will nevertheless require completion subsequently as heretofore by Investiture. Letters 
patent will be used only in those exceptional cases in which personal Investiture is impracticable [my emphasis].
"Provision is being made, by her Majesty's command, in the Statutes of the Order of the Bath, the Order of St. Michael and St. George,
the Royal Victorian Order and the Order of the British Empire so that Knights Grand Cross and Knights Commander on official publication
of their appointments will forthwith assume the Knighthood prefix. The appointments will require completion subsequently by Investiture
and presentation of the insignia."
One immediate effect of this change was the wording used in various Gazette notices. Prior to this change, a typical notice would read
that the Queen was pleased, on such and such a date, to confer the honour of Knighthood upon John Smith. Following this change, the
wording altered to Sir John Smith.
For all Orders other than Knights Bachelor, the Gazette records that a person has been appointed to or promoted within that particular 
Order. Except in a very few isolated cases, the Gazette does not, however, record any subsequent date of investiture. On the other 
hand, in almost every case of a Knight Bachelor, the Gazette records both the notice of the Sovereign's intention to confer the honour
of Knighthood and the subsequent investiture.
My policy has therefore been, for all Orders other than Knights Bachelor, to use the date shown in the various Gazettes as being the
date of creation of the honour. For Knights Bachelor, I have used the date of investiture. In a small number of cases, the date of
creation is shown in the listings in italics. These instances are due to the following reasons :-
* While the Gazette includes a notice of the intention to confer a Knighthood, I have been unable to find any subsequent notice of
   investiture
* Other works of reference (e.g. Who's Who) show that a person was created a Knight but I have unable to find any notice to that
   effect in the Gazette. In these cases, I have simply used the year of creation shown in that other work of reference
* While the Gazette includes a notice of the intention to confer a Knighthood, the intended recipient died before the investiture could 
   take place
* The notice of intention to create a Knighthood was published so recently as to allow insufficient time for the investiture to take
   place - for example, those knights shown in the 2015 Birthday Honours List. Such cases will be amended to show the date of
   investiture as it takes place.
If any knight included in the listings had received his knighthood prior to the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837 and then received a 
promotion after her accession, the original knighthood is shown in the relevant knights' forenames.
Dates of birth and death
The vast majority of knights and dames who died after 1897 are to be found in the various editions of "Who Was Who." Before that
time, the annual "Who's Who" was made up of a series of listings such as peers, members of Parliament, high ecclesiastical posts etc.
without much in the way of biographical detail. For those knights who died before 1897 and who are not noticed in other publications
such as the the "Dictionary of National Biography" I have relied upon notices of death contained in a large number of contemporary 
newspapers. 
Summary of abbreviations of the various Orders of Knighthood used in these pages
KG/LG Knight/Lady of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
KT/LT Knight/Lady of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle
KP Knight of the Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick
GCB Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
KCB/DCB Knights/Dames Commander of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath
KSI Knights of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
GCSI Knights Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
KCSI Knights Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India
GCMG Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
KCMG/DCMG Knights/Dames Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George
GCIE Knights Grand Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
KCIE Knights Commander of the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire
GCVO Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
KCVO/DCVO Knights/Dames Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
GBE Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
KBE/DBE Knights/Dames Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Kt Bach Knight Bachelor
AK/AD Knight/Dame of the Order of Australia
GNZM Knight/Dame Grand Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit
KNZM/DNZM Knight/Dame Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit
PCNZM Principal Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit
DCNZM Distinguished Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit
KA/DA Knight/Dame of St. Andrew (within the Order of Barbados)
KGN/DGN Knights/Dames Grand Collar of the Most Distinguished Order of the Nation (Antigua and Barbuda)
KGCN/DCGN Knights/Dames Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of the Nation (Antigua and Barbuda)
KCN/DCN Knights/Dames Commander of the Most Distinguished Order of the Nation (Antigua and Barbuda)
KNH/DNH Knights/Dames Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the National Hero (Antigua and Barbuda)
KCSL/DCSL Knights/Dames Commander of the Order of Saint Lucia
Civ Civil Division of the Order of the Bath and the Order of St. Michael and St. George
Mil Military Division of the Order of the Bath and the Order of St. Michael and St. George