PEERAGE
Last updated 16/06/2013
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
ABERCONWAY
21 Jun 1911 B 1 Sir Charles Benjamin Bright McLaren,1st baronet 12 May 1850 23 Jan 1934 83
Created Baron Aberconway 
21 Jun 1911
MP for Stafford  1880-1886 and Bosworth
1892-1910. PC 1908
23 Jan 1934   2 Henry Duncan McLaren 16 Apr 1879 23 May 1953 74
MP for Staffordshire West 1906-1910 and
Bosworth 1910-1922
23 May 1953   3 Charles Melville McLaren 16 Apr 1913 4 Feb 2003 89
4 Feb 2003 4 Henry Charles McLaren 26 May 1948
ABERCORN
10 Jul 1606 E[S] 1 James Hamilton  23 Mar 1618
Created Baron of Abercorn 5 Apr 1603
and Lord Paisley,Hamilton,Mountcastell
and Kilpatrick,and Earl of Abercorn
10 Jul 1606
23 Mar 1618   2 James Hamilton     c 1670
  Created Lord Hamilton,Baron of 
Strabane [I] 8 May 1617
He succeeded as 2nd Lord Paisley (qv) in 1621
    c 1670   3 George Hamilton     c 1636 by 1683
by 1683   4 Claud Hamilton 13 Sep 1659        1690 30
He was outlawed after his death, and the
Barony of Hamilton of Strabane [I] was
forfeited
       1690   5 Charles Hamilton    Jun 1701
He obtained a reversal of the attainder of the 
Barony of Hamilton of Strabane 24 May 1692
   Jun 1701   6 Sir James Hamilton,2nd baronet 1661 28 Nov 1734 73
Created Baron Mountcastle [I] and
Viscount Strabane [I] 2 Sep 1701
PC [I] by 1711
28 Nov 1734   7 James Hamilton
PC 1738  PC [I] 1739 22 Mar 1686 11 Jan 1744 57
11 Jan 1744   8 James Hamilton 22 Oct 1712  9 Oct 1789 76
Created Baron Mountcastle [I] 23 Mar 1736 and 
Viscount Hamilton of Hamilton 24 Aug 1786
PC [I] 1756
 9 Oct 1789   9 John James Hamilton    Jul 1756 27 Jan 1818 61
15 Oct 1790 M 1 Created Marquess of Abercorn [GB]
15 Oct 1790
MP for East Looe 1783-84 and St Germans 
1784-1790  PC [I] 1794. KG 1805
for further information on this peer, see note
at the foot of this page
27 Jan 1818   2 James Hamilton 21 Jan 1811 31 Oct 1885 74
10 Aug 1868 D[I] 1 Created Marquess of Hamilton of
Strabane and Duke of Abercorn 
10 Aug 1868
Lord Lieutenant Donegal 1844-1885, 
KG 1844 PC 1846,Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
1866-1868 and 1874-1876
31 Oct 1885   2 James Hamilton 24 Aug 1838  3 Jan 1913 74
Lord Lieutenant Donegal 1886-1913
MP for Donegal 1860-1880  KG 1892  PC [I] 1887
 3 Jan 1913   3 James Albert Edward Hamilton 30 Nov 1869 12 Sep 1953 83
MP for Londonderry 1900-1913, Governor
of Northern Ireland 1922-1945, KP 1922,
KG 1928, PC [NI] 1923  PC 1945  Lord 
Lieutenant Tyrone 1917-1951
12 Sep 1953   4 James Edward Hamilton 29 Feb 1904  4 Jun 1979 75
Lord Lieutenant Tyrone 1951-1979
 4 Jun 1979   5 James Hamilton  4 Jul 1934
MP for Fermanagh & South Tyrone 1964-1970
Lord Lieutenant Tyrone 1987-2009   KG 1999
ABERCROMBIE
12 Dec 1647 B[S] 1 James Sandilands after 1658
Created Lord of Abercrombie [S]
12 Dec 1647
after 1658 2 James Sandilands 1681
to     Peerage extinct on his death
1681
ABERCROMBY
28 May 1801 B 1 Mary Anne Abercromby 11 Feb 1821
Created Baroness Abercromby 
28 May 1801
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the foot
of this page
11 Feb 1821 2 George Abercromby 14 Oct 1770 14 Feb 1843 72
MP for Edinburgh 1805-1806 and
Clackmannanshire 1806-1807 & 1812-1815.
Lord Lieutenant Stirling 1837-1843
14 Feb 1843 3 George Ralph Abercromby 30 May 1800 25 Jun 1852 52
MP for Clackmannanshire 1824-1826 & 1830-1831,
Stirling 1838-1841 and Clackmannan &
Kinross 1841-1842. Lord Lieutenant
Clackmannan 1840-1852
25 Jun 1852 4 George Ralph Campbell Abercromby 23 Sep 1838 30 Oct 1917 79
30 Oct 1917 5 John Abercromby 15 Jan 1841  7 Oct 1924 83
to     Peerage extinct on his death
7 Oct 1924
ABERDARE
23 Aug 1873 B 1 Henry Austin Bruce 16 Apr 1815 25 Feb 1895 79
Created Baron Aberdare 23 Aug 1873
MP for Merthyr Tydvil 1852-1868 and
Renfrewshire 1869-1873. Under-Secretary 
Home Department 1862-1864, Vice-President
of the Council of Education 1864-1866, Home
Secretary 1868-1873, Lord President of the 
Council 1873-1874. PC 1864
25 Feb 1895 2 Henry Campbell Bruce 19 Jun 1851 20 Feb 1929 77
20 Feb 1929 3 Clarence Napier Bruce  2 Aug 1885  4 Oct 1957 72
 4 Oct 1957 4 Morys George Lyndhurst Bruce 16 Jun 1919 23 Jan 2005 85
Minister without Portfolio 1974  PC 1974
23 Jan 2005 5 Alastair John Lyndhurst Bruce 2 May 1947
ABERDEEN & TEMAIR
30 Nov 1682 E[S] 1 Sir George Gordon,3rd baronet  3 Oct 1637 20 Apr 1720 82
Created Lord Haddo,Methlick,Tarves
and Kellie,Viscount of Formartine and
Earl of Aberdeen 30 Nov 1682
20 Apr 1720 2 William Gordon 22 Dec 1679 30 Mar 1745 65
MP for Aberdeenshire 1708
30 Mar 1745 3 George Gordon 30 Aug 1801
30 Aug 1801 4 George Hamilton-Gordon 28 Jan 1784 14 Dec 1860 76
Created Viscount Gordon of Aberdeen
1 Jun 1814
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1828, Foreign Secretary 1828-1830 and
1841-1846, Prime Minister 1852-1855.
KG 1855. Lord Lieutenant of Aberdeen
1846-1860. KT 1808  PC 1814
14 Dec 1860 5 George John James Hamilton-Gordon 28 Sep 1816 18 Mar 1864 47
MP Aberdeen 1854-1860
18 Mar 1864 6 George Hamilton-Gordon 10 Dec 1841 27 Jan 1870 28
For further information on this peer,and also on
his younger brother,see the note at the foot 
of this page
27 Jan 1870 7 John Campbell Hamilton-Gordon  3 Aug 1847  7 Mar 1934 86
15 May 1915 M 1 Created Earl of Haddo and Marquess 
of Aberdeen and Temair 15 May 1915
Lord Lieutenant Aberdeen 1880-1934. Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland 1886 and 1905-1915.
Governor-General of Canada 1893-1898
PC 1886, KT 1906
For a discussion on the date of creation of these
peerages,see the note at the foot of this page
 7 Mar 1934 2 George Gordon 20 Jan 1879  6 Jan 1965 85
Lord Lieutenant Aberdeen 1934-1959
 6 Jan 1965 3 Dudley Gladstone Gordon  6 May 1883 16 Apr 1972 88
16 Apr 1972 4 David George Ian Gordon 21 Jan 1908 13 Sep 1974 66
Lord Lieutenant Aberdeen 1973-1974
13 Sep 1974 5 Archibald Victor Dudley Gordon  9 Jul 1913 7 Sep 1984 71
7 Sep 1984 6 Alastair Ninian John Gordon 20 Jul 1920 19 Aug 2002 82
19 Aug 2002 7 Alexander George Gordon 31 Mar 1955
ABERDOUR
    Lord Aberdour is used as a courtesy title by
the Earls of Morton, but there is no 
evidence that a peerage of this name was
ever created within that family
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5 Aug 1581 B[S] 1 Esme Stuart c 1542 26 May 1583
Created Lord Darnley,Aubigny and
Dalkeith and Earl of Lennox 5 Mar 1580
and Lord Aubigny,Dalkeith,Torboltoun
and Aberdour,Earl of Darnley and
Duke of Lennox 5 Aug 1581
See "Lennox"
ABERGAVENNY
Barons by Tenure
William I B 1 Hamelin de Balun William I
William I 2 Brientius de Insula Henry I
Henry I 3 Walter de Gloucester Henry I
Henry I 4 Henry Fitzmiles Henry II
Henry II 5 Seisill ap Yago Henry II
Henry II 6 Seisill ap Dunwall        1175
       1175 7 William de Braose        1212
       1212 8 Giles de Braose 13 Nov 1216
13 Nov 1216 9 Reginald de Braose        1222
       1222 10 William de Braose        1230
       1230 11 William de Cantilupe        1254
       1254 12 George de Cantilupe        1273
       1273 13 John Hastings,later [1295] 1st Lord Hastings 6 May 1262 28 Feb 1313 50
28 Feb 1313 14 John Hastings,2nd Lord Hastings 29 Sep 1287 20 Jan 1325 37
       1325 15 Lawrence Hastings,3rd Lord Hastings later 
[1339] 1st Earl of Pembroke 20 Mar 1318 30 Aug 1348 30
       1348 16 John Hastings,2nd Earl of Pembroke 29 Aug 1347 16 Apr 1375 27
       1375 17 John Hastings,3rd Earl of Pembroke 11 Nov 1372 31 Dec 1389 17
31 Dec 1389 18 William Beauchamp  8 May 1411
       1392 B 1 Summoned to Parliament as Baron
Bergavenny 1392
KG 1376
 8 May 1411 2 Richard Beauchamp,later [1421] 1st Earl by 1397        1422
of Worcester
       1422 3 Elizabeth Beauchamp 16 Dec 1415 18 Jun 1447 31
After her death, her husband Edward Nevill
was summoned to Parliament as Baron
Bergavenny 5 Sep 1450. He died 13 Oct 1476
14 Oct 1476 4 George Nevill        1440 20 Sep 1492 52
20 Sep 1492 5 George Nevill   14 Jun 1535
Warden of the Cinque Ports. KG 1513
14 Jun 1535 6 Henry Nevill 10 Feb 1587
10 Feb 1587 7 Edward Nevill 10 Feb 1589
10 Feb 1589 8 Edward Nevill        1551  1 Dec 1622 71
 1 Dec 1622 9 Henry Nevill    Dec 1641
   Dec 1641 10 John Nevill        1614 23 Oct 1662 48
23 Oct 1662 11 George Nevill  2 Jun 1666
 2 Jun 1666 12 George Nevill 21 Apr 1665 26 Mar 1695 29
26 Mar 1695 13 George Nevill 11 Mar 1721
11 Mar 1721 14 George Nevill 16 May 1702 15 Nov 1723 21
15 Nov 1723 15 Edward Nevill  5 Oct 1724
 5 Oct 1724 16 William Nevill 21 Sep 1744
21 Sep 1744 17 George Nevill 24 Jun 1727  9 Sep 1785 58
17 May 1784 E 1 Created Viscount Nevill and Earl of
Abergavenny 17 May 1784
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex 1757-1761
 9 Sep 1785 2 Henry Nevill 22 Feb 1755 27 Mar 1843 88
MP for Monmouthshire 1784-1785  KT 1814
27 Mar 1843 3 John Nevill 25 Dec 1789 12 Apr 1845 55
12 Apr 1845 4 William Nevill 28 Jun 1792 17 Aug 1868 76
17 Aug 1868 5 William Nevill 16 Sep 1826 12 Dec 1915 89
14 Jan 1876 M 1 Created Earl of Lewes and Marquess 
of Abergavenny 14 Jan 1876
Lord Lieutenant of Sussex 1892-1905
KG 1886
12 Dec 1915 2 Reginald William Bransby Nevill  4 Mar 1853 13 Oct 1927 74
13 Oct 1927 3 Henry Gilbert Ralph Nevill  2 Sep 1854 10 Jan 1938 83
10 Jan 1938 4 Guy Temple Montacute Larnach-Nevill 15 Jul 1883 30 Mar 1954 70
30 Mar 1954 5 John Henry Guy Nevill  8 Nov 1914 23 Feb 2000 85
Lord Lieutenant Sussex East 1974-1989
KG 1974
23 Feb 2000 6 Christopher George Charles Nevill 23 Apr 1955
ABERNETHY
24 Jun 1233 B[S] 1 Laurence Abernethy c 1292
Created Lord Abernethy 24 Jun 1233
c 1292 2 Alexander Abernethy c 1325
to     Peerage extinct on his death
c 1325
 
ABERNETHY AND STRATHEARN
30 Jan 1562 B[S] 1 James Stewart 21 Jan 1570
Created Lord Abernethy and Strathearn
and Earl of Moray 30 Jan 1562
See "Moray"
ABERNETHY AND JEDBURGH FOREST
14 Jun 1633 B[S] 1 William Douglas,11th Earl of Angus 1590 19 Feb 1660 69
Created Lord Abernerthy and Jedburgh
Forest,Earl of Angus and Marquess of
Douglas 14 Jun 1633
See "Douglas"
ABERRUTHVEN
24 Apr 1707 B[S] 1 James Graham,4th Marquess of Montrose 1682 7 Jan 1742 59
Created Lord Aberruthven,Viscount of
Dundaff,Earl of Kincardine,Marquess
of Graham and Duke of Montrose
24 Apr 1707
See "Montrose"
ABERTAY
26 Jun 1940 B 1 Sir Charles Coupar Barrie 1875  6 Dec 1940 65
to     Created Baron Abertay 26 Jun 1940
6 Dec 1940 MP for Elgin 1918, Banffshire 1918-1924
and Southampton 1931-1940
Peerage extinct on his death
ABINGDON
30 Nov 1682 E 1 James Bertie,5th Baron Norris de Rycote 22 May 1699
Created Earl of Abingdon 30 Nov 1682
Lord Lieutenant Oxford 1674-1687 and
1689-1697
22 May 1699 2 Montagu Venables-Bertie 4 Feb 1673 16 Jun 1743 70
MP for Berkshire 1689-1690 and Oxfordshire
1690-1699. Lord Lieutenant of Tower of
London. Lord Lieutenant Berkshire 1701-02
and Oxfordshire 1702-06 and 1712-15. PC 1702
16 Jun 1743 3 Willoughby Bertie 10 Jun 1760
10 Jun 1760 4 Willoughby Bertie 16 Jan 1740 26 Sep 1799 59
26 Sep 1799 5 Montagu Bertie 30 Apr 1784 16 Oct 1854 70
Lord Lieutenant Berkshire 1826-1854
16 Oct 1854 6 Montagu Bertie 19 Jun 1808  8 Feb 1884 75
MP for Oxford 1830-1831 & 1832-1852 and 
Abingdon 1852-1854. Lord Lieutenant
Berkshire 1855-1881
8 Feb 1884 7 Montagu Bertie 13 May 1836 10 Mar 1928 91
10 Mar 1928 8 Montagu Henry Edmund Cecil 
Townley-Bertie 2 Nov 1887 11 Sep 1963 75
He succeeded to the Earldom of Lindsey (qv)
in 1938
11 Sep 1963 9 Richard Henry Rupert Bertie (also 14th Earl of
Lindsey) 28 Jun 1931
ABINGER
12 Jan 1835 B 1 Sir James Scarlett 13 Dec 1769  7 Apr 1844 74
Created Baron Abinger 12 Jan 1835
MP for Peterborough 1819-1830, Malton
1830-1831, Cockermouth 1831 and Norwich
1832-1834. Attorney General 1827 and 1829.
Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer 1834-1844
PC 1834
 7 Apr 1844 2 Robert Campbell Scarlett  5 Sep 1794 24 Jun 1861 66
MP for Norwich 1835-1838 and Horsham
1841-1844
24 Jun 1861 3 William Frederick Scarlett 30 Aug 1826 16 Jan 1892 65
16 Jan 1892 4 James Yorke Macgregor Scarlett 13 Mar 1871 11 Dec 1903 32
For information on the death of this peer,see
the note at the foot of this page
11 Dec 1903 5 Shelley Leopold Laurence Scarlett  1 Apr 1872 23 May 1917 45
23 May 1917 6 Robert Brooke Campbell Scarlett  8 Jan 1876 10 Jun 1927 51
For information on this peer's wife,see the
note at the foot of this page
10 Jun 1927 7 Hugh Richard Scarlett 25 Nov 1878 21 Jul 1943 64
21 Jul 1943 8 James Richard Scarlett 28 Sep 1914 23 Sep 2002 87
23 Sep 2002 9 James Harry Scarlett 28 May 1959
ABOYNE
20 Apr 1632 V[S] 1 George Gordon 22 Mar 1649
Created Viscount Aboyne 20 Apr 1632
He succeeded to the Marquessate of Huntly (qv)
in 1636 when,by special remainder,the
Viscountcy passed to his second son -
1636 2 James Gordon Feb 1649
to     Peerage presumed to have become extinct
Feb 1649 on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
10 Sep 1660 E[S] 1 Charles Gordon Mar 1681
Created Lord Gordon of Strathavon
and Glenlivet,and Earl of Aboyne
10 Sep 1660
Mar 1681 2 Charles Gordon Apr 1702
Apr 1702 3 John Gordon 7 Apr 1732
7 Apr 1732 4 Charles Gordon     c 1728 28 Dec 1795
28 Dec 1795 5 George Gordon 28 Jun 1761 17 Jun 1853 91
He succeeded to the Marquessate of Huntly
in 1836, into which title these peerages then
merged and still remain so
ACHESON
18 Sep 1847 B 1 Archibald Acheson 20 Aug 1806 15 Jun 1864 57
Created Baron Acheson 18 Sep 1847
He succeeded to the Earldom of Gosford (qv)
in 1849 with which title this peerage
then merged and still remains so
ACKNER
30 Jan 1986 B[L] 1 Desmond James Conrad Ackner 18 Sep 1920 21 Mar 2006 85
to     Created Baron Ackner for life 30 Jan 1986
21 Mar 2006 Lord Justice of Appeal 1980-1986. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1986-1992.  PC 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
ACTON
11 Dec 1869 B 1 Sir John Emerich Edward Dalberg-Acton,8th
baronet 10 Jan 1834 19 Jun 1902 68
Created Baron Acton 11 Dec 1869
MP for Carlow 1859-1865 and Bridgnorth
1865-1866
19 Jun 1902 2 Richard Maximilian Lyon-Dalberg-Acton  7 Aug 1870 16 Jun 1924 53
16 Jun 1924 3 John Emerich Henry Lyon-Dalberg-Acton 15 Dec 1907 23 Jan 1989 81
23 Jan 1989 4 Richard Gerald Lyon-Dalberg-Acton 30 Jul 1941 10 Oct 2010 69
17 Apr 2000 B[L] 1 Created Baron Acton of Bridgnorth for life
to     17 Apr 2000 - this peerage became extinct on 
10 Oct 2010 his death
10 Oct 2010 5 John Charles Ferdinand Harold Lyon-Dalberg-Acton 19 Aug 1966
ADAMS
16 Feb 1949 B 1 John Jackson Adams 12 Oct 1890 23 Aug 1960 69
to     Created Baron Adams 16 Feb 1949
23 Aug 1960 Peerage extinct on his death
ADAMS OF CRAIGIELEA
28 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Katherine Patricia Irene Adams 27 Dec 1947
Created Baroness Adams of Craigielea
for life 28 Jun 2005
MP for Paisley North 1990-2005
ADARE
31 Jul 1800 B[I]  1 Valentine Richard Quin 30 Jul 1752 24 Aug 1824 72
Created Baron Adare 31 Jul 1800 and
Viscount Adare 5 Feb 1822
He was subsequently created Earl of
Dunraven and Mount Earl (qv) in 1822 with
which title these peerages then merged
ADBASTON
25 Nov 1815 B 1 Charles Whitworth 29 May 1752 13 May 1825 72
to     Created Baron Adbaston and Earl
13 May 1825 Whitworth (qv) 25 Nov 1815
Peerage extinct on his death
ADDINGTON
22 Jul 1887 B 1 John Gellibrand Hubbard 21 Mar 1805 28 Aug 1889 84
Created Baron Addington 22 Jul 1887
MP for Buckingham 1858-1868 and London
1874-1887. PC 1874
28 Aug 1889 2 Egerton Hubbard 29 Dec 1842 14 Jun 1915 72
MP for Buckingham 1874-1880 and 
Buckinghamshire North 1886-1889
14 Jun 1915 3 John Gellibrand Hubbard  7 Jun 1883 19 Jul 1966 83
19 Jul 1966 4 Raymond Egerton Hubbard 11 Nov 1884 17 Aug 1971 86
17 Aug 1971 5 James Hubbard  3 Nov 1930 26 Jun 1982 51
26 Jun 1982 6 Dominic Bryce Hubbard 24 Aug 1963
ADDISON
 2 Jul 1945 V 1 Christopher Addison 19 Jun 1869 11 Dec 1951 82
Created Baron Addison 22 May 1937 and
Viscount Addison 2 Jul 1945
MP for Hoxton 1910-1918, Shoreditch
1918-1922, and Swindon 1929-1931 and
1934-1935. Minister of Munitions 1916-1917,
Minister of Reconstruction 1917-1919,
President of the Local Government Board
1919, Minister of Health 1919-1921, Minister
of Agriculture & Fisheries 1930-1931,
Secretary of State for Commonwealth
Relations 1945-1947, Lord Privy Seal
1947-1951, Lord President of the Council
1951. PC 1916, KG 1946
11 Dec 1951 2 Christopher Addison  8 Dec 1904 18 Nov 1976 71
18 Nov 1976 3 Michael Addison 12 Apr 1914 23 Mar 1992 77
23 Mar 1992 4 William Matthew Wand Addison 13 Jun 1945
ADEANE
20 Apr 1972 B[L] 1 Michael Edward Adeane 30 Sep 1910 30 Apr 1984 73
to     Created Baron Adeane for life 20 Apr 1972
30 Apr 1984 PC 1953
Peerage extinct on his death
ADEBOWALE
30 Jun 2001 B[L] 1 Victor Olufeni Adebowale 21 Jul 1962
Created Baron Adebowale for life
30 Jun 2001
ADONIS
16 May 2005 B[L] 1 Andrew Adonis 22 Feb 1963
Created Baron Adonis for life 16 May 2005
Secretary of State for Transport 2009-2010 
PC 2009
ADRIAN
28 Jan 1955 B 1 Edgar Douglas Adrian 30 Nov 1889  4 Aug 1977 87
Created Baron Adrian 28 Jan 1955
Nobel Prize for Medicine 1932, President
of the Royal Society 1950-1955. OM 1942
 4 Aug 1977 2 Richard Hume Adrian 16 Oct 1927 4 Apr 1995 67
to     Peerage extinct on his death
4 Apr 1995
AFSHAR
11 Dec 2007 B[L] 1 Haleh Afshar 21 May 1944
Created Baroness Afshar for life 11 Dec 2007
AGHRIM
13 Apr 1676 B[I]  1 Lord John Butler 1643 Aug 1677 34
to     Created Baron of Aghrim,Viscount
Aug 1677 Clonmore and Earl of Gowran 
13 Apr 1676
Peerages extinct on his death
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4 Mar 1692 B[I]  1 Godert de Ginkell 11 Feb 1703
Created Baron of Aghrim and Earl of
Athlone (qv) 4 Mar 1692
Peerages remained united until extinct in
1844 - see "Athlone"
AHMAD OF WIMBLEDON
13 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Tariq Mahmood Ahmad 3 Apr 1968
Created Baron Ahmad of Wimbledon for life
13 Jan 2011
AHMED
3 Aug 1998 B[L] 1 Nazir Ahmed 24 Apr 1957
Created Baron Ahmed for life 3 Aug 1998
AILESBURY
18 Mar 1664 E 1 Robert Bruce,2nd Earl of Elgin 19 Mar 1626 20 Oct 1685 59
Created Baron Bruce of Skelton,
Viscount Bruce of Ampthill and
Earl of Ailesbury 18 Mar 1664
Lord Lieutenant Bedford 1660-1685 and 
Huntingdon 1681-1685. MP for Bedfordshire
1660-1664. PC 1681
20 Oct 1685 2 Thomas Bruce 1656 16 Dec 1741 85
MP for Marlborough 1679-1681 and
Wiltshire 1685. Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon
1681-1689 and Bedfordshire 1685-1689
16 Dec 1741 3 Charles Bruce 29 May 1682 10 Feb 1747 64
  to MP for Great Bedwyn 1705-1710 and 
10 Feb 1747 Marlborough 1710-1711
Summoned to Parliament as Baron 
Bruce of Whorlton 31 Dec 1711. 
Created Baron Bruce of Tottenham
17 Apr 1746
On his death the Earldom of Elgin passed to
his cousin (see "Elgin"), the Earldom of
Ailesbury, the Viscountcy of Bruce,and the
Baronies of Bruce of Skelton and Bruce of
Whorlton became extinct,but the Barony of
Bruce of Tottenham passed to his nephew
(see next below)
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10 Jun 1776 E 1 Thomas Brudenell-Bruce,2nd Baron Bruce 30 Apr 1729 19 Apr 1814 84
of Tottenham
Created Earl of Ailesbury 10 Jun 1776
Lord Lieutenant Wiltshire 1780-1782. 
PC 1776  KT 1786
19 Apr 1814 2 Charles Brudenell-Bruce 14 Feb 1773  4 Jan 1856 82
17 Jul 1821 M 1 Created Viscount Savernake,Earl Bruce
and Marquess of Ailesbury 17 Jul 1821
MP for Marlborough 1796-1814  KT 1819
 4 Jan 1856 2 George Brudenell-Bruce 20 Nov 1804  6 Jan 1878 73
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Bruce of Tottenham 
10 Jul 1838
Lord Lieutenant Wiltshire 1863-1878. MP for
Marlborough 1826-1829  PC 1859  KG 1864
He succeeded to the Earldom of Cardigan
and Barony of Brudenell of Stonton in 1868
 6 Jan 1878 3 Ernest Augustus Charles Brudenell-Bruce  8 Jan 1811 18 Oct 1886 75
MP for Marlborough 1832-1878. Lord
Lieutenant Berkshire 1884-1886  PC 1841
18 Oct 1886 4 George William Thomas Brudenell-Bruce 8 Jun 1863 10 Apr 1894 30
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
10 Apr 1894 5 Henry Augustus Brudenell-Bruce 11 Apr 1842 10 Mar 1911 68
10 Mar 1911 6 George William James Chandos 
Brudenell-Bruce 21 May 1873  4 Aug 1961 88
 4 Aug 1961 7 Chandos Sydney Cedric Brudenell-Bruce 26 Jan 1904 15 Jul 1974 70
15 Jul 1974 8 Michael Sidney Cedric Brudenell-Bruce 31 Mar 1926
AILSA
10 Sep 1831 M 1 Archibald Kennedy,12th Earl of Cassillis    Feb 1770  8 Sep 1846 76
Created Baron Ailsa 12 Nov 1806 and
Marquess of Ailsa 10 Sep 1831
KT 1821
 8 Sep 1846 2 Archibald Kennedy    Aug 1816 20 Mar 1870 53
Lord Lieutenant Ayrshire 1861-1870
KT 1859
20 Mar 1870 3 Archibald Kennedy  1 Sep 1847  9 Apr 1938 90
Lord Lieutenant Ayrshire 1919-1937
 9 Apr 1938 4 Archibald Kennedy 22 May 1872 27 Feb 1943 70
27 Feb 1943 5 Charles Kennedy 10 Apr 1875  1 Jun 1956 81
 1 Jun 1956 6 Angus Kennedy 28 Oct 1882 31 May 1957 74
31 May 1957 7 Archibald David Kennedy  3 Dec 1925 7 Apr 1994 68
7 Apr 1994 8 Archibald Angus Charles Kennedy 13 Sep 1956
AILWYN
 1 Jul 1921 B 1 Ailwyn Edward Fellowes 10 Nov 1855 23 Sep 1924 68
Created Baron Ailwyn 1 Jul 1921
MP for Ramsay 1887-1906. President of the
Board of Agriculture 1905-1906. PC 1905
23 Sep 1924 2 Ronald Townshend Fellowes  7 Dec 1886 30 Aug 1936 69
30 Aug 1936 3 Eric William Edward Fellowes 24 Nov 1887 23 Mar 1976 88
23 Mar 1976 4 Carol Arthur Fellowes 23 Nov 1896 27 Sep 1988 91
to     Peerage extinct on his death
27 Sep 1988
AIR
2 Feb 1622 V[S] 1 William Crichton,9th Lord Crichton of Sanquhar 1643
12 Jun 1633 V[S] 1 Created Lord of Sanquhar and 
Viscount of Air 2 Feb 1622,and Lord
Crichton,Viscount of Air and Earl of
Dumfries 12 Jun 1633
See "Dumfries"
AIREDALE
17 Jul 1907 B 1 Sir James Kitson,1st baronet 22 Sep 1835 16 Mar 1911 75
Created Baron Airedale 17 Jul 1907
MP for Colne Valley 1892-1907. PC 1906
16 Mar 1911 2 Albert Ernest Kitson  7 Oct 1863 11 Mar 1944 80
11 Mar 1944 3 Roland Dudley Kitson 19 Jul 1882 20 Mar 1958 75
20 Mar 1958 4 Oliver James Vandeleur Kitson 22 Apr 1915 19 Mar 1996 80
to     Peerage extinct on his death
19 Mar 1996
AIREY
29 Nov 1876 B 1 Sir Richard Airey Apr 1803 13 Sep 1881 78
to     Created Baron Airey 29 Nov 1876
13 Sep 1881 Governor of Gibraltar 1865-1870
Peerage extinct on his death
AIREY OF ABINGDON
6 Aug 1979 B[L] 1 Diana Josceline Barbara Neave 7 Jul 1919 27 Nov 1992 73
to     Created Baroness Airey of Abingdon for life
27 Nov 1992 6 Aug 1979
Peerage extinct on her death
AIRLIE
For information on the legend of the "Airlie Drummer"
whose drumming is supposed to presage the death
of a member of the family,see the note at the foot
of this page
28 Apr 1491 B[S] 1 Sir James Ogilvy     c 1430     c 1504
Created Lord Ogilvy of Airlie 
28 Apr 1491
    c 1504 2 John Ogilvy
3 James Ogilvy
4 James Ogilvy by 1549
by 1549 5 James Ogilvy        1606
       1606 6 James Ogilvy     c 1617
    c 1617 7 James Ogilvy     c 1648
 2 Apr 1639 E[S] 1 Created Lord Ogilvy of Alith and
Lintrathen,and Earl of Airlie 2 Apr 1639
    c 1648 2 James Ogilvy     c 1615     c 1704
    c 1704 3 David Ogilvy         1717
      [1717]   [James Ogilvy] 12 Jan 1731
On the death of the third Earl in 1717, the
peerage would normally have passed to his
son,James Ogilvy. However,he had been
attainted in 1715. But for this attainder,
those entitled to the Earldom would have
been :-
[12 Jan 1731]   [John Ogilvy]        1669 24 Jul 1761 92
[24 Jul 1761]   [David Ogilvy]   Attainted 1745    Feb 1725  3 Mar 1803 78
For information on his wife, see the note at
the foot of this page
[ 3 Mar 1803]   [David Ogilvy]  4 Dec 1751  6 Apr 1812 60
[ 6 Apr 1812]   [Walter Ogilvy]    Apr 1819
[   Apr 1819] 4 David Ogilvy 16 Dec 1785 20 Aug 1849 63
Obtained reversal of attainders 26 May 1826
Lord Lieutenant Angus (Forfar) 1828-1849
20 Aug 1849 5 David Graham Drummond Ogilvy  4 May 1826 25 Sep 1881 55
KT 1862
25 Sep 1881 6 David Stanley William Drummond Ogilvy 20 Jan 1856 11 Jun 1900 44
11 Jun 1900 7 David Lyulph Gore Wolseley Ogilvy 18 Jul 1893 28 Dec 1968 75
Lord Lieutenant Angus (Forfar) 1936-1967
KT 1942
28 Dec 1968 8 David George Coke Patrick Ogilvy 17 May 1926
Lord Lieutenant Angus (Forfar) 1989-2001
PC 1984  KT 1985
AIRTH
21 Jan 1632 E[S] 1 William Graham,7th Earl of Menteith c 1662
Created Earl of Airth 21 Jan 1632
c 1662 2 William Graham 12 Sep 1694
to     Peerage extinct on his death
12 Sep 1694
AITHRIE
15 Apr 1703 V[S] 1 Charles Hope 1681 26 Feb 1742 60
Created Lord Hope,Viscount Aithrie
and Earl of Hopetoun 15 Apr 1703
See "Hopetoun"
ALANBROOKE
29 Jan 1946 V 1 Alan Francis Brooke 23 Jul 1883 17 Jun 1963 79
Created Baron Alanbrooke 18 Sep 1945
and Viscount Alanbrooke 29 Jan 1946
Field Marshal 1946, KG 1946, Lord
Lieutenant City of London 1950-1957.
OM 1946
17 Jun 1963 2 Thomas Brooke  9 Jan 1920 19 Dec 1972 52
19 Dec 1972 3 Alan Victor Harold Brooke 24 Nov 1932
ALBANY
28 Apr 1398 D[S] 1 Robert Stewart c 1340  3 Sep 1420
Created Duke of Albany 28 Apr 1398
Son of Robert II of Scotland. Regent of
Scotland 1406-1420
For further information on this peer,and also his
son listed next below,see the note at the foot
of this page
3 Sep 1420 2 Murdoch Stewart 24 May 1425
to     Regent of Scotland 1420-1424
24 May 1425 He was attainted and executed 1425 when
the peerage was forfeited
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
c 1456 D[S] 1 Alexander Stewart c 1485
Created Earl of March 1455 and Duke
of Albany c 1456
Son of James II of Scotland
c 1485 2 John Stewart 2 Jun 1536
to     Regent of Scotland 1515-1523
2 Jun 1536 Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
1541 D[S] 1 Arthur Stewart 1541 1541  
to     Created Duke of Albany 1541
1541 Peerage extinct on his death,at the age
of 8 days
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
20 Jul 1565 D[S] 1 Henry Stuart 1545 10 Feb 1567 21
Created Lord Ardmannoch and Earl of
Ross 15 May 1565,and Duke of Albany
20 Jul 1565
Better known as Lord Darnley, husband of
Mary,Queen of Scots
10 Feb 1567 2 James Stuart 19 Jun 1566 27 Mar 1625 58
to     He succeeded to the throne of Scotland
8 Feb 1587 in 1587,when the peerage merged with the
Crown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
23 Dec 1600 D[S] 1 Charles Stuart 19 Nov 1600 30 Jan 1649 48
to     Created Lord Ardmannoch,Earl of
27 Mar 1625 Ross,Marquess of Ormond and Duke
of Albany 23 Dec 1600
He succeeded to the throne of England
in 1625,when the peerage merged with the
Crown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
31 Dec 1660 D[S] 1 James Stuart 14 Oct 1633 6 Sep 1701 67
to     Created Duke of Albany 31 Dec 1660
6 Feb 1685 He succeeded to the throne of England
in 1685,when the peerage merged with the
Crown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
24 May 1881 D 1 H R H Leopold George Duncan Albert  7 Apr 1853 28 Mar 1884 30
Created Baron Arklow,Earl of
Clarence and Duke of Albany 
24 May 1881
4th and youngest son of Queen Victoria
PC 1874, KG 1869, KT 1871
28 Mar 1884 2 HRH Leopold Charles Edward 
to     George Albert 19 Jul 1884 6 Mar 1954 69
28 Mar 1919 KG 1902  (struck off 13 May 1915)
Peerages suspended 28 Mar 1919
ALBEMARLE
c 1081 E 1 Adeliza c 1090
Created Countess of Albemarle c 1081
c 1090 2 Stephen de Blois 1127
1127 3 William de Blois 1179
1179 4A Hawise c 1189
She married William de Fortz who assumed
the title in her right
c 1189 4B William de Fortz 1195
1195 4C Baldwin de Betun 1212
Married Hawise (4A) and assumed the title
in her right
1212 5 William de Fortz 1241
1241 6 William de Fortz 1256
1256 7 Thomas de Fortz 1253 by 1269
by 1269 8 Avelina 1274
to     The peerage appears to have been surrendered
1274 to the Crown in 1274
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
3 Sep 1385 D 1 Thomas Plantagenet 7 Jan 1355 8 Sep 1397 42
to     Created Duke of Albemarle 3 Sep 1385
8 Sep 1397 Youngest son of Edward III
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
29 Sep 1397 D 1 Edward Plantagenet c 1373 25 Oct 1415
to     Created Duke of Albemarle 29 Sep 1397
25 Oct 1415 Killed at Agincourt when peerage 
became extinct
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
9 Jul 1411 E 1 Thomas Plantagenet 22 Mar 1421
to     Created Earl of Albemarle and Duke
22 Mar 1421 of Clarence 9 Jul 1411
Second son of Henry IV
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
c 1423 E 1 Richard Beauchamp 30 Apr 1439
to     Created Earl of Albemarle c 1423
30 Apr 1439 Peerage extinct on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
 7 Jul 1660 D 1 George Monck  6 Dec 1608  3 Jan 1670 61
Created Baron Monck,Earl of
Torrington and Duke of Albemarle
7 Jul 1660
KG 1660. Lord Lieutenant Devonshire 1660-1670
and Middlesex 1662-1670  PC [I] 1660
MP for Devon 1660
3 Jan 1670 2 Christopher Monck 14 Aug 1653 6 Oct 1688 35
to     KG 1670, PC 1679 Governor of Jamaica
6 Oct 1688 1687-1688. Lord Lieutenant Devonshire 1675-1685
and Essex 1675-1687
For further information on this peer and his wife,
see the note at the foot of the page containing
details of the Dukedom of Montagu [created 1705].
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
10 Feb 1697 E 1 Arnold Joost van Keppel        1670 30 May 1718 47
Created Baron Ashford,Viscount Bury
and Earl of Albemarle 10 Feb 1697
KG 1700
30 May 1718 2 William Anne van Keppel  5 Jun 1702 22 Dec 1754 52
Governor of Virginia 1737. KG 1749, PC 1751
22 Dec 1754 3 George Keppel  5 Apr 1724 13 Oct 1772 48
MP for Chichester 1746-1754. PC 1761
KG 1765
13 Oct 1772 4 William Charles Keppel 14 May 1772 30 Oct 1849 77
PC 1830
30 Oct 1849 5 Augustus Frederick Keppel  2 Jun 1794 15 Mar 1851 56
MP for Arundel 1820-1826
For further information on this peer, see the 
note at the foot of this page
15 Mar 1851 6 George Thomas Keppel 13 Jun 1799 21 Feb 1891 91
MP for Norfolk East 1832-1835, Lymington
1847-1850
21 Feb 1891 7 William Coutts Keppel 15 Apr 1832 28 Aug 1894 62
MP for Norwich 1857-1859, Wick 1860-1865
and Berwick 1868-1874.  PC 1859
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Ashford 5 Sep 1876
28 Aug 1894 8 Arnold Allan Cecil Keppel  1 Jun 1858 12 Apr 1942 83
MP for Birkenhead 1892-1894
12 Apr 1942 9 Walter Egerton George Lucian Keppel 28 Feb 1882 14 Jul 1979 97
14 Jul 1979 10 Rufus Arnold Alexis Keppel 16 Jul 1965
John James Hamilton, first Marquess of Abercorn
Abercorn was obsessively rank-conscious and went to great lengths to remind the common
people of his exalted status. Even before he succeeded to the Earldom, when he was travelling
in Europe, he had cards printed which described him as "D'Hamilton, Comte Hereditaire
d'Abercorn". His livery was very similar to that of the Royal Family and, when someone remarked
upon this similarity, he replied that that the Royal Family had copied it from the Hamiltons.
For his second wife, he married his cousin, Miss Cecil Hamilton, but before doing so he 
persuaded Pitt the younger, then Prime Minister, to elevate her to the status of an Earl's
daughter so that he might not marry beneath himself. In the event, the marriage was not a
happy one and, when he discovered that his wife was about to elope with her lover, he 
was anxious that aristocratic conventions be observed and begged her to take the family 
carriage to meet her lover "as it ought never to be said that Lady Abercorn left her husband's 
roof in a hack chaise".
Abercorn's style of living was, even in that prodigal time, extremely lavish. Sir Walter Scott, a
friend of the family, once met a procession of five carriages, twenty out-riders and a man on
horseback wearing the blue ribbon of the order of the Garter, all on their way to dine at a public
house. Since a mere public house could not be relied upon to provide food of the quality to
which Abercorn was accustomed, his cook had been sent on ahead to oversee preparations.
He would not accept anything from a servant who had not previously dipped his fingers in a 
bowl of rose-water, and the housemaids had to wear white kid gloves while making his bed.
Visitors to his home at Bentley Priory, Stanmore, were accorded the run of the house and were
free to do whatever they liked, provided they did not speak to their host. Only at meals would
Abercorn speak to any guests - at all other times, guests were to ignore him. On one occasion,
he was anxious to invite some guests, but when they replied that they couldn't afford the 
journey, he sent them a cheque. However, when they arrived, Abercorn, having watched their
arrival from behind some curtains, decided he did not like what he saw and disappeared from the
house until their visit had ended.
For further reading see:-
"The Emperor of the United States of America and Other Magnificent British Eccentrics" by
Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
"Brewer's Rogues, Villains Eccentrics" by William Donaldson (Cassell, London 2002)
The special remainder to the Barony of Abercromby
From the "London Gazette" of 19 May 1801 (issue 15367, page 562):-
"The King has .... been pleased to grant the Dignity of a Baroness of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland unto Mary Anne - Lady Abercromby, Widow of the Right Honorable Lieutenant-
General Sir Ralph Abercromby, K. B. by the Name, Style, and Title of Baroness Abercromby, of
of Aboukir, and of Tullibody, in the County of Clackmannan; and the Dignity of a Baron of the 
said United Kingdom to the Heirs Male of her Body lawfully begotten by the said Lieutenant-
General Sir Ralph Abercromby, deceased."
George Hamilton-Gordon, 6th Earl of Aberdeen
The schooner 'Hera' sailed from Boston on 21 January 1870 bound for Melbourne and China. It
had reached the warm waters of the Gulf Stream when the wind died away into a light air,
leaving a very heavy swell. Tremendous rollers sent the vessel almost rails under and, as the
sails were being taken in, the mate became tangled in some rope and was swept overboard.
Desperate efforts were made to save him, but the sea was too rough to attempt to launch
a boat and the man soon disappeared. It was known that the man, who went by the name of
George Osborne, was an excellent swimmer, and it was believed that he had been knocked
unconscious when he was swept into the ocean.
George Osborne was an assumed name - his true identity was George Hamilton-Gordon, 6th
Earl of Aberdeen. He had written to friends and relatives of his intentions of sailing on the 
'Hera', and when this vessel returned to Halifax, Nova Scotia on its return voyage, it was
met by agents of the Aberdeen family, who sought to establish that Osborne and the Earl
were identical. This they did by way of photographs of the Earl and other people who were
thought to bear a resemblance to him, in the same fashion as a 'line-up' in a police investigation.
In every case, the witnesses picked out the photo of the Earl and identified him as Osborne.
The following extracts from contemporary newspapers are of interest.
From the 'Boston Journal', reprinted in 'The Times' 31 December 1870:-
'As we stated a few days since, an application was made to the Collector of Customs in Boston
for the papers of the schooner Hera, which it was thought would assist in establishing the 
identity of the mate, George Osborne, with the missing Earl of Aberdeen. The documents,
containing a list of the crew that sailed from Boston on the 21st of January of this year and the
signature of "George Osborne" have been photographed in accordance with the instructions
received from Washington, and the originals have been, or will shortly be despatched to the
proper authorities in England. It is right to say, however, that the statement which has been 
made in regard to everything depending on the ship's articles in question is entirely incorrect;
the document is merely one in a hundred other papers that are now in the possession of the
legal gentlemen engaged in the case, including the missing Earl's signature. The circumstances
of the case are well known to the public. The late Earl, a genial and accomplished young man,
and bearing a high reputation for gentlemanly conduct, was slightly eccentric, and two or 
three years ago he left home with the avowed determination to travel. He came to America,
visited the greater portion of it, wrote charming letters of description and of American
peculiarities, and in January last he shipped on board the schooner Hera, bound for Melbourne
and China, where he nominally assumed the duties of mate. On the sixth day out he fell 
overboard and drowned. It is to identify the George Osborne who was seen and was well known
by gentlemen in various parts of the country that a Scotch commissioner and one or two legal
gentlemen are at present on a visit to Boston. There is not much uncertainty in the case, but
the greatest caution is exercised in regard to testimony, as the succession to the estate of
the late Earl and to his seat in the House of Lords depends upon the matter.'
From 'The Times,' 15th May 1871:-
'A few months ago, it was stated, on the authority of an American newspaper 'The Boston 
Weekly Traveller,' that George Gordon Hamilton, third [sic] Earl of Aberdeen, had been drowned
at sea while sailing as chief mate of the schooner Hera, under the assumed name of George H.
Osborne. The Hera left Boston on 21st January 1870, bound for Melbourne, with the late Earl on
board. She has now arrived at Halifax, Nova Scotia, on her return voyage, and the newspaper
referred to has obtained from those on board the following additional particulars relative to the
accident. "The Hera had a glorious run off the coast, and had reached the warm waters of the
Gulf Stream, when the wind died away into a light air from the northward, leaving a tremendous
swell. Tremendous rollers sent the vessel almost rails under, and as the sails were being taken 
in, the gaff flew from side to side with every roll, and the mate, becoming entangled by the
downhaul (a rope rove through a block at the peakend with both parts fast to the boom), was
thrown from the deck and jerked overboard. Captain Kent immediately saw him, and with his
own hands threw him a rope, while the men hove planks towards him at the same time. He rose
upon the crest of a huge wave, but raised no cry for help; and, as the vessel had little or no
way through the water, there seemed a chance of saving him. There was just moonlight enough
to make the scene visible. A boat was cleared; Captain Kent kept his eye on him and saw him
still float [for] a full two minutes, but he was beyond the reach of the rope and the planks, and
soon disappeared amid the waves. The sea was too rough to attempt to launch the boat, and 
he was left to perish. There was no help for it. This was at 4 a.m. on the 27th of January 1870.
It is supposed that he was stunned by striking something when he was jerked from the deck;
otherwise, being an expert swimmer, he could have easily kept himself afloat, thrown off his
heavy clothing, struck out for the vessel, and been saved. Captain Kent had no idea that his
mate was other than he represented himself. He attended to his duties promptly, and was 
master of all he undertook. The logbook, always kept by the mate, was written up to the noon
preceding his death, and was his last record. What could have induced a man of such personal
ability and high social rank to sink all and play the part of a sailor is unknown. If he refused to
hear from his friends, he kept them informed of his own principal movements, and it was only
when they ceased to hear from him that they became anxious for his safety. The family sent
his tutor, the Rev. Mr. Alexander, to this country, who traced him to the Hera, and then heard
of his death. His youngest brother, John Campbell Gordon, then became his successor, and took
legal measures to ascertain the truth of his death. A commission, composed of Mr. Henry Smith,
of Edinburgh, Commissioner of the Court of Chancery in Scotland, and Mr. Samuel Gilfillan 
McLaren, representing Messrs Tods, Murray and Jamieson, writers to the Signet, came to this
country, and, after a careful collection of testimony, have established the fact that George H.
Osborne and the Earl of Aberdeen were identical. The last link in the chain of testimony has 
been furnished them by Captain Kent, of the schooner Hera, who saw him perish. But among his 
effects there was not a single scrap of writing to show that he was the Earl of Aberdeen. 
Captain Kent, however, had a small picture of him, which fully confirmed all the other testimony.
It is now proved beyond a doubt that George H. Osborne and the late Earl of Aberdeen were 
the same person. The expense of collecting the evidence to establish this important fact will
probably exceed $100,000 in gold. He was 27 [sic] years of age at the time of his death. In
life he had imbibed the sailor's idea that a man does not die before his time comes - that he
was just as safe at sea as he is on land."
From 'The Times,' 17th June 1871:-
'In the Scottish Court of Chancery, Edinburgh, this week, before Sheriff McLaren, Mr. Jamieson
(of Messrs Tods, Murray and Jamieson W.S.) was heard in support of a petition by the Right
Hon. John Campbell Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, to have himself served as heir to his brother, the
deceased Right Hon. George Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen, in the lands and barony of Haddo and
others, in the county of Aberdeen and likewise as nearest and lawful heir-male in tailzie and
provision in general. Last year the Sheriff of Chancery appointed Mr. Harry Smith, advocate, as
a commissioner to take evidence as to the identity and death of the late Earl of Aberdeen. The
commission accordingly proceeded to America, along with Mr. S. G. M'Laren, on behalf of Messrs
Tods, Murray and Jamieson, agents for the petitioner, and took a large amount of evidence, 
both there and elsewhere.
'Mr. Jamieson said that from the peculiar circumstances connected with the case it was difficult
to prove identity, but they had succeeded beyond their expectations in establishing that the
"George H. Osborne" who was drowned on the 27th January, 1870, on board the Hera, was the
real Earl of Aberdeen. As to proof of identity, they had first the photographs of the late Earl
which had been taken from this country, and they had six which had been discovered in 
America, and taken there as portraits of George H. Osborne. The best evidence as to the 
identity of these latter photographs was that of the late Earl's mother, Lady Aberdeen, who
said "she recognised them all as without doubt photographs of her deceased son." There
could not, of course, be any doubt as to the photographs taken in this country. Corroborative
evidence was borne the late Earl's old tutor, the Rev. W. B. Alexander, who was in America
searching for him at the time when the news of his loss on board the Hera arrived. Another
witness who spoke to the photographs was Mr. Henry, gunmaker, [of] Edinburgh. The late Earl
being a crack rifle shot, he had many dealings with Mr. Henry, and the latter therefore knew his 
lordship's appearance well. Other witnesses spoke to the portraits of the late Earl and George
H. Osborne representing one and the same person. Among these were Sewell Small, residing in
the state of Maine, and who was with George H. Osborne when the latter commanded the 
schooner Walton, of Richmond, Maine, James Erastus Green, a carpenter by trade, who knew
George H. Osborn, of the schooner Walton, for about two years, having been mate under him
for about three months in that vessel, and John Palmer Wilbur, sea captain, who took Osborne
as a passenger at New York on board the brig William Mallory in February, 1867, bound for
Galveston, Texas. While on this passage, Osborne volunteered to act as a sailor, and showed
knowledge of navigation, which he said he had studied at Boston. The witnesses had 23 
portraits put into their hands altogether, including the portrait of the late Earl's surviving 
brother, and other persons who were believed to have a resemblance to the deceased; but
all the witnesses, without exception, at once picked out and recognised those of the late Earl.
Again, the identity of Lord Aberdeen with George H. Osborne was proved by the evidence as
to his appearance, manners and tastes. The deceased had a peculiarity in his walking, which
almost all the witnesses spoke to………..' [The article then continues, at some length, to itemise
various corroborative evidence given by witnesses, all of which go to prove that Aberdeen and
Osborne were the same person.]
 
On 3 July 1871, the Sheriff of Chancery in Edinburgh responded to the petition made by the
late Earl's younger brother, in which petition the younger brother sought to become Earl of
Aberdeen in succession to his older brother. The Sheriff found that the facts stated in the
petition had been proved. The matter was then transferred to the House of Lords, where it
was heard by the Committee of Privileges on 22 March 1872 and 3 May 1872, at which latter
date it was decided that the younger brother's claim to the peerage had been established
and the claim was allowed accordingly.
 
James Henry Hamilton-Gordon, son of the 5th Earl of Aberdeen (11 Oct 1845-
12 Feb 1868)
Between March 1864, when his older brother succeeded to the earldom, and his death in 
February 1868, James was heir presumptive to the Earldom of Aberdeen. After his death, the
heir presumptive became his next younger brother, John, who became the 7th Earl when his
eldest brother, the 6th Earl, drowned in 1870 as described in the preceding note. The following
report is taken from "Bell's Life in London and Sporting Chronicle" for 15 February 1868:-
'We regret to learn that the Hon. James Henry Hamilton Gordon, second son of the late Earl of
Aberdeen, was accidentally shot on Wednesday evening. The deceased, who was in his 23rd
year, was an undergraduate of Trinity College, Cambridge, and lodged in Trinity-street. About
six o'clock on Wednesday evening a report of firearms was heard, and on Mr. Gordon's room 
being entered his body was discovered at the foot of the bed attired as usual. To the right of
the corpse there lay a rifle, which had evidently been recently discharged. The skull of Mr. 
Gordon had been blown away, and the fatal bullet had also passed upwards through the ceiling
into the room above. The deceased was a member of the University Rifle Corps, and was in the
habit of experimenting on the charging and loading of rifles. He was also a member of the 
University [rowing] crew, and perhaps the best oarsman in Cambridge. The deceased was heir
presumptive to the earldom of Aberdeen, his elder brother being unmarried. The inquest on the
body was held on Thursday evening at the Blue Boar Inn, before Mr. Henry Gotobed, coroner.
The evidence went to show that the deceased was found in his bed room at six o'clock on
Wednesday evening, lying upon the floor with a wound in the head, on the left side, where a
rifle bullet had entered. Death occurred very shortly after. The bullet had passed through the
ceiling of the room into the floor above, and all the circumstances of the case bore out the
opinion of the medical gentleman who was examined, that the occurrence was purely accidental.
The jury returned a verdict accordingly.'
The date of creation, and the original title, of the Marquessate of Aberdeen and Temair
The standard works of reference on the peerage all state that the Marquessate of Aberdeen and
Temair was created on 4 January 1916. This date seems to me to be very unlikely, based on the 
following evidence:-
On 1 January 1915, "The Times" published a list of those who were to receive recognition in the
New Year Honours. Included in this list is the statement that "The King has been pleased to 
confer the dignity of a Marquessate upon The Earl of Aberdeen, K.T."
On 4 January 1916 (a whole year later) the following notice was published in the "London 
Gazette" (issue 29427, page 179):-
"Whitehall, January 4, 1916.
LETTERS PATENT have passed the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
containing the grant of the dignities of Earl and Marquess of the said United Kingdom unto the
Right Honourable John Campbell, Earl of Aberdeen, K.T., G.C.M.G., G.C.V.O., and the heirs male
of his body lawfully begotten, by the names, styles and titles of Earl of Haddo in the County of
Aberdeen, and Marquess of Aberdeen and Ternair in the said County of Aberdeen and in the
County of Meath, and in the County of Argyll."
Note that, unlike most of the notices of this type published in the "London Gazette," no 
information is given as to the date of the Letters Patent. Notwithstanding, the peerage reference
works show that the date of the creation of these peerages is 4 January 1916, being the date of
the entry in the "London Gazette."
Before that date, a number of entries are to be found in the "London Gazette" and the "Court
Circular" which refer to "the Marquess of Aberdeen and Temair" in such a fashion as to lead me
to believe that he had already been created Marquess at the times of their publication. For 
example, the "London Gazette" of 28 May 1915 includes a reference to the "Marquess of 
Aberdeen and Temair." A similar reference to the "Marquess of Aberdeen" can be found in the
"Court Circular" published in 'The Times' on 1 June 1915.
The "London Gazette" and the "Court Circular" are two of the official records of the British 
Government. As such, I believe it to be extremely unlikely that they would use the words 
"Marquess of Aberdeen" if that title had not yet been formally created.
Another website devoted to the peerage is that maintained by David Beamish. David's excellent
page can be found at http://www.peerages.info/   I noted that his page shows
a date of creation of the Marquessate of 15 May 1915. I therefore wrote to David, and he very
kindly provided me with additional information in support of that date. 
1. The 1st Marquess was introduced into the House of Lords on 2 July 1918, and the Journal of 
the House of Lords on that occasion gives a date of creation of 15 May 1915, and
2. That date (15 May 1915) is confirmed by records in The National Archives as follows: 
C66/5620, and C231/20 page 158. Also, HO116/6 page 476 shows that the letter to the Clerk of
the Crown authorising the sealing of the letters patent was dated 14 May 1915.
As a result, I have shown the date of this creation as 15 May 1915. While it differs from the
standard works of reference, I believe it can be supported by the evidence outlined above.
 
It is also interesting to note that Lord Aberdeen apparently wished to adopt the title of Marquess
of Aberdeen and Tara, in order to commemorate his long association with Ireland where he had
long been the Lord Lieutenant. However, the Irish were less than impressed by this choice, as is
shown by the following article, which is illustrative of a number of similar articles which appeared
in the Irish press following the announcement of his promotion in the peerage:-
"The Irish Times" of 19 January 1915 - ANOTHER INJUSTICE TO IRELAND - Under the above 
heading the Daily Mail, in a leading article, says:- If it is difficult for an Englishman to do the right
thing in Ireland it is, possibly - we make the suggestion with great diffidence - even more
difficult for a Scotsman. Lord Aberdeen has served in Dublin for nearly ten long if not particularly
happy years. Yet they have not been long enough to initiate him into the elements of Irish 
thought and feeling. Honoured by the King on his resignation with a marquisate, he has chosen
as his title "Aberdeen and Tara." So far from being gratified, Irishmen are resentful when they see
"The throne of song, the hallowed shrine," used as gilding for a Scotch coronet. Great as Lord
Aberdeen's services to Ireland may have been, the general opinion is that they have not been
quite so great as all that, and that they scarcely warrant his presumption in laying hands on a
national possession. Perhaps when he is back in Scotland Lord Aberdeen himself may become
conscious of a certain historical incongruity. Perhaps he may even be induced to choose some
other title." [The Hill of Tara is the traditional seat of the ancient High Kings of Ireland, so it can
be understood why the Irish were so hostile towards the appropriation of this title, notwithstand-
ing that it had been used as a peerage title previously].
Accordingly, it was announced in "The Scotsman" on 8 February 1915 that "If the statement 
which appears in the Nationalist Evening Telegraph be correct, says the Dublin correspondent of
the Times, the Lord-Lieutenant has yielded to the strong public feeling against his assumption
of the title of Tara. The Evening Telegraph says:- We are enabled to state that the new title
assumed by His Excellency the Lord-Lieutenant on his promotion by the King is the Marquis of
Aberdeen and Temair. Temair is the name anciently associated with the historical hill of Tara."
James Yorke Macgregor Scarlett, 4th Baron Abinger
The 4th Baron died following a fall down a flight of stairs in Paris, as reported by 'The Observer'
of 13 December 1903:-
'Paris, Dec. 12 - Lord Abinger fell down stairs at a restaurant last evening, sustaining severe
injuries. He was taken to a hospital, where he expired shortly afterwards.
'Lord Abinger had been staying for two days at an hotel in the Avenue des Champs-Élysées.
The doctors state that he succumbed to embolism of the heart.
'The Commissioner of Police of the quarter of St. George's has furnished the following details
regarding the death of his lordship:-
"Last night a young man of thirty [sic], Lord Abinger, staying at a hotel in the Avenue de
Champs-Élysées was having supper with a friend in a restaurant in the Pigalle. Feeling suddenly
unwell he attempted to go out, but was seized with vertigo and fell on the staircase. He was
conveyed to the hospital, but died on the way. His body was then taken to the station in the
Rue St. Georges. Medical examination showed that death was due to natural causes, and was
brought about by congestion. The British Embassy has been informed of the affair. After a
consultation the Embassy requested that the body should be taken to the mortuary at the
Montmartre Cemetery."
Robert Brooke Campbell Scarlett, 6th Baron Abinger and his wife, Marguerite Jeanne 
Steinheil (16 April 1869-17 July 1954)
The 6th Baron Abinger succeeded to the title on the death of his brother in May 1917. A month
later, on 26 June 1917, Abinger married Marguerite Jeanne Steinheil, a French woman who was
famous for her involvement in the deaths of French President Félix Faure, and later, her husband
and stepmother. 
Marguerite was the mistress of Félix Faure, and was rumoured to be present at his death on 16 
February 1899. According to legend Faure died while Marguerite was performing oral sex upon
him. She subsequently became the mistress of a number of powerful men in France.
She was the central player in a cause célèbre in 1908-1909 when her husband and stepmother
were murdered. The following [edited] article appeared in 'The Washington Post' on 5 August
1917:-
'The Steinheil murders and the subsequent trial of Mme. Steinheil were the most dramatic events
of their kind that have occurred in Paris within a century.
'The Steinheils occupied a charming little house, with a studio, in the Impasse Ronsin, off the Rue
de Vaugirard, Paris. An "impasse" is a short street, with thoroughfare, usually having a gateway
on the main street from which it leads.
'The Steinheils had an equally charming country house called the Logis Vert at Bellevue. They 
lived handsomely, with a large train of servants. M. Steinheil was the son and grandson of well-
known artists.....Although he was certainly a poor artist himself, he received a remarkable 
number of profitable commissions, owing to his wife's friends in high society. Every rich man who
joined Mme. Steinheil's circle, it would seem, gave her husband an order for his picture.
Thus it happened that President Faure had his portrait painted by M. Steinheil at an exorbitant
cost, and also gave him the Legion of Honor, a distinction accorded only to the most successful
artists.
'On the fateful night of 31 May, 1908, Mme. Steinheil and her husband, her stepmother, Mme.
Japy, and a valet named Remy Couillard were the only occupants of the house. Mme. Steinheil
had sent her 17-year-old daughter Marthe and the rest of the servants to the country house
at Bellevue.
'At 6 o'clock in the morning the valet, Couillard, came downstairs to do his work, when his 
attention was attracted by a terrible groaning from Mme. Steinheil's room.
'He entered and saw her lying on the bed with her hands bound to her body and a large gag of
cotton wool in her mouth and an expression of unspeakable terror in her face. She pointed with
her head to the next room. Couillard went in there and found Mme. Japy lying dead across the
bed. He went on to another room, and there found M. Steinheil lying dead on the floor, strangled
with a rope around his neck.
'There were signs of a violent disturbance in the sitting room. M. Steinheil's desk was broken 
open, chairs were overturned. The tall clock had been disturbed and stopped at exactly 12:10,
a circumstance which afterward came to have considerable significance, because it was 
suggested that Mme. Steinheil had stopped it herself.
'It was known that M. Steinheil had recently held a sale of pictures and had received $2,500
for them. It was assumed that the amount was in his desk and had been stolen by the murderers.
All the circumstances pointed clearly to robbery as the motive of the crimes.
'As soon as the valet, Couillard, had unbound Mme. Steinheil he hurried for the police and left
her lying prostrate on the bed and apparently seriously ill. 
"I was awakened shortly after midnight," she said to the police, "by the sound of voices in my
room. I looked up and I saw three men and a woman. The three men wore long black cloaks 
like those worn by Hebrew priests and had long red beards. The woman was red-headed. The
three of them sprang upon me, and although I made superhuman exertions, they bound and
gagged me. They were going to kill me, but one of the men said: "Don't kill the girl. Look after
the old people." Evidently they mistook me for my daughter, for I was sleeping in her room, and
I think they had, somehow, learned from her that the money was in the house. There I lay,
helpless, suffering unspeakable agony, while they killed my husband and mother and robbed the
house. I heard their dying shrieks."
'Immediately there were mysterious conferences in police circles. After consultation with the
prefect and the government they held Mme. Steinheil for a long time under surveillance and kept
reporters away from her. They announced that they could not find the murderers, but evidently
were not trying to.
'The government apparently sought to stop investigation of the mystery because of the 
prominent persons involved. Consequently reforming politicians and newspapers persisted, until
Mme. Steinheil was put on trial after a year's delay. The prosecution, after treating her with
great severity, failed to prove a case against her, and she was acquitted, but even after that
she was so unpopular that the mob threatened her with violence, and the police were forced
to protect her house.'
To escape her notoriety she moved to London, where she was known as Mme. de Serignac
until she married Abinger, who was seven years her junior, in 1917. 
Abinger died in June 1927 from a heart attack while sitting on a seat in his garden.
George William Thomas Brudenell-Bruce, 4th Marquess of Ailesbury
Ailesbury was a central figure in a major turf scandal in 1887 which resulted in him being "warned
off" for life from all racetracks under the control of the Jockey Club. The following article from
'The South Australian Advertiser' of 17 November 1887 purports to reveal the "facts of the 
case":-
'As the Marquis of Ailesbury is about to betake himself to the antipodes and, according to report,
means to remain in Australia until "the clouds roll by" and his latest escapade is forgotten and
forgiven, [the newspaper's] readers may perhaps like to know the true story of the "rorty" peer's
misdoings. Various versions are afloat, but I think I can promise you that the following is the 
correct one:-
'Lord Ailesbury being neither a fool nor in want of money, it at first sight seems incredible that
he should have consented to one of his horses being "roped." The fact, however, was that, in 
common with other owners, his lordship had suffered seriously from the plunging propensities of
Mr. Ernest Benzon, and constant association with some of the lowest blackguards  on the turf
having sapped his sense of honour and weakened his judgment, he joined too readily in a plot
to "let down" that young gentleman [i.e. Benzon]. The race chosen for the "plant" was the 
Harewood Plate at York on the last day of the meeting. Benzon, besides losing over £10,000 at
baccarat the previous evening, had been very unlucky in his plunges on Tuesday and Wednesday, 
and it was rightly conjectured he would make a desperate effort to recoup his losses on the 
winding up afternoon. For the Harewood Plate Lord Ailesbury's Everett looked a real "good thing." 
The ring, however, were for once generously disposed, and instead of even money, which would 
have been a fair price under the circumstances, freely laid 4 to 1. To inspire Benzon with 
confidence, it is alleged Lord Ailesbury asked the plunger to get on £300 for him, and it was this 
fact that told more against him with the Jockey Club that anything else. Benzon fell into the trap 
like a lamb. Certain bookmakers laid him leviathan bets, and in an incredibly short time he stood to
win about £30,000 and to lose £10,000. The more money, however, he put on the worse favorite 
the horse became.
'The public by this time were on the qui vive, and long before Martin left the paddock on Everett
his mind misgave him as to the possibility of stopping the horse. The reality proved even worse
that he had thought. Half way up the straight Lord Ailesbury's colt had everything beaten, and
nothing short of the most flagrant "roping" could prevent its winning. In this quandary Martin lost 
his head. First he decided to win and secondly he resolved to lose, the result being that to the
horror of all concerned he did neither, but made a dead heat of it. But for John Mace, Martin
would certainly have been lynched, and Lord Ailesbury have fared badly. The bookmakers were
furious. Here was a case of the "biters bit" with a vengeance. The whole "plant" had been
exposed and would probably lead to half a dozen of them being warned off the turf, and yet the
race had not been lost. The ringleaders, on the "in for a penny, in for a pound" principle, would
have had Everett roped again in the run-off, but here little Martin (frightened into fits by the
execrations of the crowd) "struck," and another complaisant jockey could not for the moment be
found. Everett won the run-off by many lengths, odds of 6 to 1 being offered in vain on him
before the start. So the "plant" on Mr. Benzon failed, and instead of losing £10,000 he won 
£30,000. Since then he has, however, left other people's horses alone.
'The Jockey Club enquiry into the affair was long and exhaustive, almost every person of note in
the paddock at York being examined. At length Martin, seeing the truth must out, turned Queen's
evidence to save his own skin. Worse than this, he confessed to having "pulled horses on other
occasions for Lord Ailesbury." To most men in Lord Ailesbury's position the disgrace of being
warned off the turf would be worse than death. To him it may not mean much. The ruffians he
consorts with, and who have landed him in this terrible scrape, are not likely to desert him whilst
"the corn" lasts. Lady Ailesbury (nee Dolly Tester) accompanies her liege lord to the antipodes.
Coming out of the Criterion recently Lord Ailesbury was overheard to remark to one of his 
"bleeding pals," as he gracefully styles them - "Ain't it rum, old geezer, that such a fool as I 
should be a lord?" - a query that some of us re-echo.'
Benzon was only about 22 years old at the time of the scandal. He had inherited £250,000 and,
in the space of two years, lost the whole amount in gambling. Since 1887 was Queen Victoria's 
Golden Jubilee, Benzon was known as the "Jubilee Plunger." After losing his fortune, Benzon
wrote his autobiography entitled "How I Lost £250,000 in Two Years" [Trischler & Co., London
1889]. After being bankrupted a number of times, he was arrested at Nice in France and charged
with forging a cheque of 25,000 francs (£1,000) and imprisoned for three months. He died in
1911, aged 46.
The Earldom of Airlie and the "Airlie Drummer"
The Ogilvy family, in a similar fashion to that of the Viscounts Gormanston, is said to receive
warnings of an impending death in the family. The form in which they become aware of such an
impending death is the sound of drumming. According to the legend, at some point during 
medieval times, a drummer was thrown from the top of a tower at Cortachy Castle, in Kirriemuir,
Angus. A number of different reasons are given in legend as to the reason why the drummer was
killed, ranging from the discovery of the drummer's affair with the Countess, his failure to sound
the alarm of approaching attackers or of assisting such attackers, or, in a classic case of "killing
the messenger," his arrival with a message from a hated rival chieftain. Some versions say that
the drummer, together with his drum, was thrown from the battlements, whereas in other
versions the drummer was stuffed inside his drum and then thrown over. In any event, all the
traditions agree that, as the drummer lay dying on the rocks below, he vowed to haunt the 
Ogilvy family for ever.
The article below was published in the Dundee 'Courier and Argus' of 14 June 1900. The impetus
for the article was the death of the 6th Earl of Airlie, who had been killed during the Second Boer
War a few days previously.
'The Airlies are a very ancient family, but Ogilvy was not their original name. According to the old
traditions, they were descended from Gilchrist, the [third] Earl of Angus, who married as his 
second wife [Marjorie of Huntingdon], a sister of King William the Lion [King of Scotland 1165-
1214]. In a fit of jealousy the Earl murdered his young Countess. Mains Castle, or the Tower of
Strath Dichty, as it was originally named, was said to have been the scene of the murder. Like
Othello, the Moor of Venice, Gilchrist smothered his lady in her bed-chamber. His three sons had
either assisted in or connived at the murder, for they were involved in the sentence of outlawry
pronounced on Gilchrist by his Royal brother-in-law. The Gilchrists fled to the north, and skulked
among the hills and glens of the Sidlaws and Grampians. Time passed on. King William had come 
to Glamis to enjoy the pleasures of the chase, a pastime all the old Scottish kings were fond of.
One day, he, while eagerly pursuing the deer, lost himself in the forest of Glen Ogilvy. There he
was set upon by a band of robbers, and was hard pressed for his life. The three Gilchrists, who 
were skulking in the neighbourhood, boldly came to his rescue, and slew several of the band, 
while the rest fled. The King was so gratified for his safety that he pardoned the Gilchrists, and 
restored them to their possessions and titles. On one of the three he conferred the Glen of Ogilvy 
and other lands, and from that time he assumed the name of Ogilvy.
'In course of time other lands and titles were conferred by the various monarchs, and the family
split up into several branches. The Ogilvys of Airlie played a prominent part in all the political
events of the times. They were a fighting race, and distinguished themselves in the field. During
the Civil War Lord Ogilvy of Airlie espoused the cause of Charles I. While out serving with the
Royalists, The Earl of Argyll carried out an expedition against Airlie, when he came down by the
back of Dunkeld, harried the lands and burnt the Castle or "Bonnie House o' Airlie." It was on that
event that the old ballad was founded.
"It fell on a day, on a bonnie summer day,
When the clans were a' wi' Charlie,
That there fell out a great dispute,
Between Argyll and Airlie."
'The Airlies were staunch Royalists. Whether it was the one who "fell out" with Argyll or his son
is not quite certain, but a Lord Airlie held the command of Sanquhar Castle during the 
Coventanting prosecutions, and was a compatriot of Graham of Claverhouse [John Graham, 1st
Viscount of Dundee] in the "killing times."
'In common with all ancient families, the Ogilvys of Airlie have their ghost or familiar spirit that
gives warning when trouble is at hand. The tradition of the drummer of Airlie is pretty generally
known, but whether on the present melancholy occasion [i.e. the death of the 6th Earl] the
warning drum has been heard at Cortachy Castle has not been stated. The tradition is somewhat
as follows: - A former Lord Airlie took a mortal offence at a drummer. He forced the man inside his
own drum, and threw him out from the window of a high tower and killed him. While pleading for
his life, which was of course denied, the despairing wretch threatened that his ghost would haunt
the family for ever. The drum is heard when a death is about to happen in the family. Many 
stories have been circulated concerning the visitations of the ghostly drummer.
'About the year 1844 [generally agreed to have been at Christmas 1844] a lady [usually named 
as a Miss Dalrymple] who had been invited to spend a few days at Cortachy Castle, while 
dressing for dinner on the first evening of her visit, was surprised to hear the musical performance 
of a drummer, and that somewhere about the grounds. At the table the lady asked Lord Airlie
who was the drummer. His Lordship turned pale, and the Countess appeared greatly distressed.
Perceiving that she had touched on some unpleasant subject, though in utter ignorance of the 
nature, she forebore to press the question. After retiring to the drawing-room, she asked an 
explanation from one of the ladies, and she was informed that the drummer was the dreaded 
family ghost. The lady did not prolong her stay at the Castle. Six months afterwards the 
Countess of Airlie died [on 17 June 1845 in confinement following the birth of twins].
'Another story is to the effect that a young English gentleman had been invited to visit his
friend, Lord Ogilvy, at the Tulchan, the Earl's shooting lodge at the head of Glenshee. It was
dark when the gentleman caught sight of the welcome lights in the windows of the hospitable
mansion. Urging his jaded horse towards the house, suddenly there burst on his ear the sound
of distant music resembling the strains of a band accompanied by the beating of a drum. He 
asked his Highland guide where that band could be playing on such a wild and lonely moorland,
where, with the exception of the shooting lodge, there was not another house for miles. The
guide declared that he did not hear any music, and muttered something to the effect that "thae
sounds are no' canny." On the traveller alighting from his horse at the door of the lodge, he was
informed that Lord Ogilvy had been summoned to London, as his father was dangerously ill. Next
day the news was received that the Earl of Airlie had died at his residence in Regent Square.'
Margaret Ogilvy, wife of David Ogilvy, who (but for the attainder)
would have been 4th Earl of Airlie
Employing a strategy similar to that used by the Countess of Nithsdale (qv), Margaret Ogilvy
escaped her impending execution by switching clothes with a visitor. The story of her escape is 
taken from ''Chapters from Family Chests" by Edward Walford [2 vols, Hurst and Blackett, 
London 1886]:-
'Few Scottish families have shown greater loyalty and fidelity to a lost cause, and few have
suffered more severely for that loyalty, than the Ogilvies, Lords Ogilvy and Earls of Airlie. It was
only in 1826 that the titles forfeited by his ancestors in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745 were
restored to the present earl's grandfather, whose uncle, David, Lord Ogilvy, joined the standard
of the young Chevalier, Charles Edward, at Edinburgh, at the head of a regiment of six hundred 
men, mostly of his own clan and name, from Forfarshire and Perthshire. For this he was 
attainted by Act of Parliament, as had been his uncle, John, the fourth earl, just thirty years 
before. After the battle of Culloden, he effected his escape to France, where he rose to the 
rank of lieutenant-general, and had the command of a regiment called 'Ogilvy's own.' It is the 
story of the escape of this lord's wife, a fair daughter of the noble house of Johnston of 
Westerhall, that I am about to relate. It will be seen that Margaret, Lady Ogilvy, was no bad 
counterpart of another Scottish woman, Lady Nithsdale [qv], whose clever contrivance of her 
husband's escape from the scaffold and the axe I have already related in a previous work [in 
'Tales of Our Great Families'  Hurst and Blackett, London 1880].
'In August, 1746, Margaret Lady Ogilvy was lying a prisoner, under sentence of death, in the
castle of Edinburgh, on the charge of having levied open war upon his Majesty King George II, 
and she was almost daily expecting her execution.  But she was a brave and ready witted
woman, too, and she was resolved that, in all events, she would try how she could defeat the
law of its victim. It is needless to add that she was as enthusiastic a partisan of the Stuart
cause, and as willing as her lord himself to risk and to sacrifice fortune and life, and everything
save honour, if only she could secure the triumph of the Stuart tartan; for had she not urged
and persuaded her husband to take the field in aid of the 'bonny Prince Charlie'? And had she
not ridden by his side at the head of his clan to the fatal field of Culloden" and, if she did not
actually join in the battle fray, had she not remained a spectator of the battle? And, when the
rout came, had she not held a spare horse, fleet of foot, all ready for her husband to mount,
and so to find his way to the sea-coast, and escape to France? Yes, she had done all this, and
more besides; and when he had made good his flight, she was arrested and thrown into gaol, 
and tried and condemned to suffer death as a traitor. The Government of the Duke of 
Cumberland, however, were determined to make her an example and a warning to the rest of
her sex, whose influence, it must be owned, had been very powerfully exerted by the Gordons,
Erskines, Drummonds, and others in the lost cause. She was therefore sentenced to be 
beheaded at the Edinburgh Toll-booth six weeks after her trial. Her friends spared no efforts 
to procure a remission of her sentence; but her wit and her talents were such that the King and 
his ministers turned a deaf ear to all appeals for mercy, and there appeared to be no chance 
of her escape from a death of public disgrace in the very flower of her youth and beauty.
'But there is many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip,' and Lady Ogilvy was well aware of the 
proverb. Fortunately she was not so strictly and closely confined in her prison cell, but that
many of her friends and acquaintances were allowed to visit her in prison, and they used their
privilege of access to surround her with comforts, and to lighten by various artifices the burden
of her captivity. Although her friends were making such efforts as they could on her behalf at
Kensington Palace and St.James's, she knew that she had no sisterly 'Jeanie Deans' to gain 
access to the Queen and to extort from her a promise that she would try and soften the King's
heart; so she resolved to help herself, and to be the author of her own deliverance. [Jeanie
Deans is the heroine of Sir Walter Scott's 'The Heart of Midlothian'].
'And an agent ready to help her would be found in a poor, ugly, deformed old woman, with an
ungainly hitch in her walk, who brought to the prison her clean linen once or twice a week. As
she was about to leave the cell after one of her regular visits, the captive detained her, saying
that she was anxious to learn how she managed the hobbling gait. Would the old lady mind
telling her how it was done? Though much surprised at such a bonnie lady taking such a whim
into her head, and especially at such a time, when death was almost staring her in the face, 
yet the old crone willingly gave her the required lesson, and then took her departure. Lady
Ogilvy kept practicing the step, though by no means a graceful one, until she became quite
proficient in it. She then communicated to her friends her design of using it and the poor old
woman's clothes to effect her escape; and her friends, male and female, we may be sure, did
their best to have everything in readiness, including a relay of horses, to aid her flight on the
evening which she fixed for the attempt.
'When the old woman made her appearance, as usual, at sundown on the Saturday before the
day fixed for the execution, Lady Ogilvy persuaded her to change clothes with her. 'Give me 
your dress and you take mine in its place.' The old crone was not unwilling to play the part of 
Glaucus to her Diomedes, and the exchange was promptly made. [Glaucus and Diomedes were 
soldiers on opposing sides during the Trojan War, but because their respective grandfathers
were close friends, they refused to fight each other and each exchanged his armour with the 
other]
'Now,' added the fair prisoner, 'do you remain here; nobody will harm you, you will save my life,
and I shall not forget the kindness.' Then, taking up the basket, she assumed the old 
washerwoman's limping gait, left the room, walked coolly and calmly past the sentinel on guard,
and joined the girl who had been waiting outside the castle gate while her mistress went inside.
Fortunately, as they passed out, they were not challenged; and once well away from the castle
precinct, they turned into some of the back streets, or wynds, and were soon out of sight. The
girl was surprised at her mistress's silence, but said not a word, doubtless ascribing it to the 
pain and grief of parting with the dear young lady who was so soon to die. But what was the
girl's surprise when she saw the crooked little creature suddenly throw aside her basket and
reveal herself in her real character and person! Off ran the lady - not, however, till she slipped
a piece of silver into the girl's hands, adding a request that she would go quietly home and say
not a word about what she had seen.
'Lady Ogilvy made her way to the Abbey Hill, where she found her friends, according to their
promise, most anxiously awaiting her with a change of dress and a pair of saddle-bosses.
Hurrying over her 'farewell,' she was soon far away on one of the southern roads; not, however,
on the main road to London, for fear of being recognized and her flight being intercepted, in
which case, it may be presumed, she would have figured on Tower Hill or on Kensington Common
instead of the Toll-booth at Edinburgh.
'Though at every town through which she passed she found that the news of her flight was
known, and was the talk of the common people, yet she contrived to stave off inquiries, and to
make her way unmolested to the sea coast, crossing over the bridge at Kingston-on-Thames
because she knew London Bridge to be guarded. It is not said from what port she effected her
escape from England; but, as a matter of fact, wearied from her long and perilous journey, she
contrived to get a place on board a vessel bound for France.
'Lady Ogilvy lived little more than ten years after effecting this gallant escape from the block,
and she never returned to the land that she had quitted; she died in exile in 1757. In all
probability she lies buried at St. Germains.'
Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and his son, Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany
The following biographies of the two Dukes of Albany appeared in the January 1953 issue
of the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'The morning mists rose slowly over Falkland Castle, nestling at the foot of the East Lomond
hills. The great gates of the gloomy fortress opened and a small party of heavily armed men
threaded through and made their way along the highway. There was nothing about them to
to excite more than a passing interest, certainly nothing to suggest that in the plain coffin
they guarded lay the heir to the throne of Scotland. Next day word was given out, almost 
casually, that David, Duke of Rothesay, eldest son of the King, had died of dysentery and had 
been privately interred. 
'The news sped from lip to lip, from town to town, from borough to borough. And with it sped 
ugly, disturbing rumours. There was something amiss. Even in the turbulent Scotland of 1402 a 
son of a reigning king was not laid to rest without some show of Royal pomp. There were 
  whispers of torture, of murder, of starvation in a lonely dungeon. The finger of suspicion pointed 
at Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany.
'Robert Stewart was the third son of Robert, the first Stewart King, and was born in 1340, seven
years before his parents wed. In 1360 the Countess of Fife acknowledged him her heir by deed
and he became the Earl of Fife. The following year he married Margaret, Countess of Menteith,
and acquired through her the additional title Earl of Menteith. The same year, he was appointed
hereditary Governor of Stirling. 
'One of his elder brothers had died in his youth and the other, John, Earl of Carrick, had been 
lamed when young and was a kindly-disposed but chronic invalid, totally unsuited to the task of
of keeping in check the restless and arrogant nobles. The ageing and incompetent King had long
long realised that in an age of craft and violence only a man of cunning and physical stamina 
could hope to rule effectively, so, in 1388, Fife was appointed Governor. Two years later the
King died and John succeeded him, adopting the more popular name of Robert III. He was as
ineffectual as his father, who had foreseen such a state of affairs and willed that Fife should
continue as Governor. 
'The King's son, David, Earl of Carrick, was then only 12 years old. But a few years later the boy
began to resent his uncle's political superiority and demanded for himself the major post under 
his father. In 1398 Fife, finding himself at a disadvantage in bargaining with the English because
his status was below that of the English envoys, persuaded the King to create a dukedom for 
him. Robert gave him the title Duke of Albany, the old name for all of Scotland above the Forth. 
At the same time, to placate David's supporters, he created his son Duke of Rothesay.
'This was the first time the title of duke had been used in Scotland. But the new honour did 
nothing to pacify the rivals and the hostility of their respective factions presaged major disorder.
In 1399 the Estates acted with a drastic measure. The King was virtually deposed although left
on the throne, and Rothesay appointed Governor with a council, on which Albany had a seat, to
advise him. For Albany it was a setback. But Rothesay, through youthful indiscretion, put a 
strong weapon in his uncle's hands. Gay and handsome, Rothesay also was reckless and 
dissolute. When the Queen [Annabella Drummond] suggested that marriage might improve
Rothesay, Albany seized on the opportunity to arrange a profitable match with the daughter
[Marjorie] of the highest bidder, the Earl of Douglas. Marriage had no salutary effect on the
prince, to the disappointment of the Queen and the satisfaction of Albany, who saw that the
young man's excesses also were brought to the notice of his father-in-law as well.
 
'When the Queen's death in 1401 removed the last restraining influence on her son, Albany and
Douglas prevailed on the King to place the prince under their control. This was Albany's supreme
chance. On a warrant which they had influenced the unhappy King to sign, he and Douglas 
arrested Rothesay and confined him in the former's castle at Falkland. After a fortnight he died
and was buried quietly in the nearby monastery of Lindores. Chroniclers record that Rothesay
was left to die in a solitary dungeon and that his only nourishment was some thin cakes brought
to him by two women, one of whom also fed him with the milk from her breasts. Both women
were caught and beheaded for their charity towards the prince who, before he died, had torn 
and gnawed at his own flesh. 
'Albany was now near the throne, with only James, the dead prince's seven-years-old brother in
his way. Albany slipped quietly back into the governorship; his position was secure. With Albany's
return to power, however, fresh troubles arose. The forays of the uncontrollable Border nobles
stirred up an English hornet's nest and Scotland suffered one of the most outstanding defeats in
her history at Homildon Hill [14 September 1402]. Among the many prisoners who fell into English
hands was Albany's eldest son Murdoch.
'With no doubts about his brother's ambitions, the King was concerned for the welfare of his other
son, James. Despondent at the thought of his own approaching senility, he was convinced James
could not be brought up safely in Scotland, so under the pretext that it was necessary for his
education, he arranged for him to go to France.  The boy embarked in March, 1406, but in spite
of elaborate precautions for secrecy an English privateer overtook the vessel, captured the 
young prince and handed him over to Henry IV [of England]. Henry stated that he spoke French
himself and that the boy would be educated just as well at his court as in France. 
'The second blow was too much for Robert and he died broken-hearted in April. In June, 
Parliament met, recognised the absent James as the lawful King, but appointed Albany regent 
until his release. Albany virtually was King. He issued charters in his own name, dated with the 
year of his regency, and had his own Great Seal and canopied chair of state. 
'Although he was in no hurry to have James released, Albany spared no effort to have Murdoch
freed and, to placate opinion, he laid equal stress in despatches made public on demands for the
release of both. However, each time negotiations appeared likely to succeed in James' case
Albany contrived to have them broken down. This was not difficult as a Scottish king was a
valuable hostage. Eventually, Murdoch's freedom was purchased in 1416 at a heavy ransom and
in exchange for that of one of the Percys whom Albany had been holding for 11 years. But James
was left to fret in England.
 
'On Murdoch's return Albany began to allow him to assume duties more suitable to the son of a
a king than that of a governor. Obviously his plan was for Murdoch to succeed to the regency.
His strategy was successful. When he died in 1420, in his 80th year, Murdoch was able to step
into the position without opposition. As the second Duke of Albany, Murdoch displayed none of
his father's qualities. The elder Albany had been crafty and unscrupulous, but only a shrewd and
competent administrator could have kept the reins of government in his hands for more than 30
years. Murdoch was indolent and inefficient. He was not able to control even his own family.
The excesses of his sons, who were not slow to take advantage of their father's position, soon
made the family unpopular. Murdoch was powerless to restrain them and more than once was 
tempted to put an end to their arrogance and at the same time rid himself of the cares of
government. 
'At length. his eldest son, Walter, drove him to a decision. On a hunting trip, when rebuked by his
father, he retaliated by wringing the neck of Murdoch's favourite falcon. In a fit of rage, his 
father threatened: "Since thou wilt give me neither reverence nor obedience, I will bring home 
one whom we must all obey." He kept his word. Negotiations for James' release were re-opened. 
The move was popular, as for some time young nobles who had visited the court of England had 
been bringing back glowing reports of the young King. Henry had not gone back on his promise to 
educate him and had had him schooled in military science, statecraft, arts and literature. But a
hard bargain was driven. A ransom of £40,000 was demanded, for the payment of which a 
number of Scottish towns was to give surety and several Scottish nobles to become hostages.
'Murdoch agreed and, in April, 1424, James, with his newly-wed queen [Joan Beaufort c 1404-
1445], crossed the border with great pomp to receive a tumultuous welcome. Murdoch had
assumed that the return of the King would allow him to slide gracefully into peaceful retirement.
But he had not reckoned on the impatient ambition of James to restore the Crown to the position
it had not known since the death of the great Robert Bruce, a century before. James' immediate
objective was to leave no doubts in the minds of the unruly nobles about his purpose and his 
ability. His first move was a ruthless show of force that could not be misinterpreted - he had not
forgotten that but for the Albany family his years in exile might have been shortened.
 
'He was crowned at Scone in May. Murdoch, as Earl of Fife, exercised the hereditary right of
placing the crown on his head. But almost immediately the new King had Murdoch and his family
arrested. All were captured except one son, who escaped. Murdoch was taken to Carlaverlock
to await his trial, and his castles of Doune and Falkland, strongholds of his earldoms of Menteith 
and Fife, seized. His duchess, Isabella, the daughter of the aged Earl of Lennox, who had also
been arrested, was taken from Doune and placed in custody. 
'The King assembled a Parliament at Stirling for the trial and 21 nobles, including all but two of
the earls of Scotland, were sworn in. Shortly before the trial was to begin, however, startling
news reached Stirling. James, the only son of Murdoch who had evaded arrest, had, with the
assistance of Bishop Finlay of Argyll, attacked and burned the borough of Dundonald. The 
King's uncle and 32 of the garrison had been killed. But King James acted quickly and the revolt
was quashed within a few days. Murdoch's son and Bishop Finlay fled and, although the King
ordered a pursuit, both escaped to Ireland.
'The hunt for the rebels did not interfere with the trial of Murdoch and his supporters. No records
remain of the exact offences with which they were charged, but any chance they might have 
had of acquittal disappeared with the attack on Dundonald and the defiance at Inchmurrin. After
a lengthy hearing all were convicted. With the King present in full regalia, sentence of death
was pronounced on Walter [Murdoch's son] on May 24, 1425, and he was beheaded under the 
castle the same day. The following day [some sources say the same day] Murdoch and [Duncan,
Earl of] Lennox were sentenced and executed together [as well as Murdoch's other son, 
Alexander] at a place which has ever since been known as Heading Hill.'
 
 
 
Augustus Frederick Keppel, 5th Earl of Albemarle
Within weeks of succeeding his father in October 1849, the 5th Earl of Albemarle was the subject
of an inquiry into his sanity. At the hearing before a Commission of Lunacy, evidence was given
by a number of Albemarle's servants and attending doctors as to the Earl's state of mind. The
evidence heard by the Commission makes fascinating reading, especially the evidence given as
to the nature of a number of claims made by the Earl, as follows:-
* one of the doctors attending Albemarle met him in the garden, and Albemarle was crying.
When the doctor asked him what was the matter, Albemarle said that he had been up to Heaven,
where he found that there were a million unrepentant people in the world. Albemarle was then
commanded to erect a guillotine in the garden for their execution.
* on another occasion, Albemarle told his doctor that he just returned from Austria, and that he
had sailed hundreds of times around the world.
* Albemarle claimed that he could place hot coals in his hands without injuring himself; that he
could make watches out of dirt; and valuable jewels out of pieces of paper.
* Albemarle believed that he and a Mr. Hope were the wealthiest men in England, probably
because they owned all of Norfolk, Suffolk, Wales and Ireland.
* when told of his father's death, Albemarle replied that he must now be proclaimed king under
the title of Charles I; a few days later he accused the doctor of being mistaken, since his
tailor had brought him back to life.
* Albemarle insisted that he was only 25 years old. At the same time, he claimed to have been
present at the Battle of Copenhagen  [in 1801]. When asked how this was possible, if he was
only 25 now, he responded that he died and risen again. He said he had died three times, that he
had been crucified and that he had lived in the time of the twelve Apostles. On another occasion
he had fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill in 1775, where a Captain Brown had cut off his head
with his sword. Brown then picked up his head and stuck it back on his shoulders. The next
morning his head was as firm on his shoulders as ever it was, although, to be fair to the Earl, 
his head was a little bit shaky.
* He had ascended up to Heaven, and had baptised 50,000, each of whom he had thrown into 
the sea.
* Near to the Earl's house there lived a lady with whom he was on friendly terms, until one day 
he dug up some of her fruit trees. This upset the lady so much that she fled to London. The next 
day, the Earl bought a large quantity of inkstands, which he took home and then smashed them 
all to pieces. He then went to the lady's house, where he sacked the house, smashing all the 
furniture into pieces. He then instructed his manservant to hunt out the lady's four dogs and kill 
them. Only one of the dogs was killed and was then buried in the grounds. The Earl then planted 
a rose tree over the dog's grave.
* He had once become involved in a stand-up fight with 150 men and had killed them all
* He had been three times around the world with Captain Cook, and that he used to be with a 
gang of wild Indians, who robbed and scalped people. In one such engagement, somebody cut
off his head, which rolled down a hill. His companions all laughed at him when he chased his
runaway head. He seems to have had an obsession with decapitation, since he also insisted
that he had been present during the Peninsular War, during which he said that he often saw
officers who had lost their heads take up those of other people, placing them upon their own
shoulders.
Not surprisingly, the Commission found that the Earl was of unsound mind.
Copyright @ 2003-2013  Leigh Rayment