PEERAGE
Last updated 08/10/2014
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
ALCESTER
24 Nov 1882 B 1 Sir Frederick Beauchamp Paget Seymour 12 Apr 1821 30 Mar 1895 73
to     Created Baron Alcester 24 Nov 1882
30 Mar 1895 Peerage extinct on his death
ALDBOROUGH
7 Apr 1722 B[L] 1 Melusina von der Schulenberg c 1693 16 Sep 1778
to     Created Baroness of Aldborough and 
16 Sep 1778 Countess of Walsingham for life 7 Apr 1722
Peerages extinct on her death
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9 Feb 1777 E[I] 1 John Stratford 10 Aug 1697 29 May 1777
Created Baron of Baltinglass 21 May
1763,Viscount Aldborough 22 Jul 1776 
Viscount Amiens and Earl of Aldborough
9 Feb 1777
for further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
29 May 1777 2 Edward Augustus Stratford 1734 2 Jan 1801 66
Lord Lieutenant Wicklow
for further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
2 Jan 1801 3 John Stratford c 1740 7 Mar 1823
for further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
7 Mar 1823 4 Benjamin O'Neale Stratford 1746 11 Jul 1833 87
11 Jul 1833 5 Mason Gerard Stratford 8 Jul 1784 8 Oct 1849 65
8 Oct 1849 6 Benjamin O'Neale Stratford 10 Jun 1808 19 Dec 1875 67
to     Peerages extinct on his death
19 Dec 1875 for further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
ALDEBURGH
8 Jan 1371 B 1 William de Aldeburgh 1388
Summoned to Parliament as Baron
Aldeburgh 8 Jan 1371
1388 2 William de Aldeburgh 30 Aug 1391
to     Peerage presumed to have fallen into
30 Aug 1391 abeyance on his death
ALDENHAM
31 Jan 1896 B 1 Henry Hucks Gibbs 31 Aug 1819 13 Sep 1907 88
Created Baron Aldenham 31 Jan 1896
MP for London 1891-1892. Governor of the Bank
of England 1875-1877
13 Sep 1907 2 Alban George Henry Gibbs 23 Apr 1846  9 May 1936 90
MP for London 1892-1906
 9 May 1936 3 George Henry Beresford Gibbs  9 Jan 1879 21 Mar 1939 60
21 Mar 1939 4 Walter Durant Gibbs 11 Aug 1888 30 May 1969 80
He had previously [1935] succeeded as 2nd
Baron Hunsdon of Hunsdon. The peerages
remain merged
30 May 1969 5 Antony Durant Gibbs  (also 3rd Baron Hunsdon
of Hunsdon) 18 May 1922 25 Jan 1986 63
25 Jan 1986 6 Vicary Tyser Gibbs  (also 4th Baron Hunsdon
of Hunsdon) 9 Jun 1948
ALDERDICE
8 Oct 1996 B[L] 1 John Thomas Alderdice 28 Mar 1955
Created Baron Alderdice for life 8 Oct 1996
ALDERNEY
27 Jul 1726 B 1 William Augustus 15 Apr 1721 31 Oct 1765 44
to     Created Baron of Alderney,Viscount
31 Oct 1765 Trematon,Earl of Kennington,Marquess
of Berkhampstead and Duke of
Cumberland 27 Jul 1726
See "Cumberland"
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17 Jul 1917 M 1 Louis Alexander Mountbatten 14 May 1854 11 Sep 1921 67
Created Viscount Alderney,Earl of
Medina and Marquess of Milford Haven
17 Jul 1917
See "Milford Haven"
ALDINGTON
29 Jan 1962 B 1 Toby Austin Richard William Low 25 May 1914 7 Dec 2000 86
Created Baron Aldington 29 Jan 1962
MP for Blackpool North 1945-1962. PC 1954
Minister of State,Board of Trade 1954-1957
Created Baron Low for life 16 Nov 1999 (qv)
7 Dec 2000 2 Charles Harold Stuart Low 22 Jun 1948
ALEXANDER OF HILLSBOROUGH
30 Jan 1963 E 1 Albert Victor Alexander  1 May 1885 11 Jan 1965 79
to     Created Viscount Alexander of 
11 Jan 1965 Hillsborough 27 Jan 1950,and Baron
Weston-super-Mare and Earl Alexander
of Hillsborough 30 Jan 1963
MP for Hillsborough 1922-1931 and 
1935-1950. First Lord of the Admiralty 
1929-1931, 1940-1945 and 1945-1946.
Minister of Defence 1947-1950. Chancellor
of the Duchy of Lancaster 1950-1951.
PC 1929, CH 1941. KG 1964
Peerages extinct on his death
ALEXANDER OF POTTERHILL
2 Sep 1974 B[L] 1 William Picken Alexander 13 Dec 1905 8 Sep 1993 87
to     Created Baron Alexander of
8 Sep 1993 Potterhill for life 2 Sep 1974
Peerage extinct on his death
ALEXANDER OF TULLIBODY
4 Sep 1630 B[S] 1 William Alexander c 1567 Feb 1640
14 Jun 1633 B[S] 1 Created Lord Alexander of Tullibody
4 Sep 1630 and again 14 Jun 1633
He was subsequently created Earl of
Stirling (qv) in 1633 with which title 
these peerages then merged until 1739 when
the peerages became dormant
ALEXANDER OF TUNIS
11 Mar 1952 E 1 Harold Rupert Leofric Alexander 10 Dec 1891 16 Jun 1969 77
Created Viscount Alexander of Tunis 
1 Mar 1946 and Baron Rideau and Earl 
Alexander of Tunis 11 Mar 1952
Field Marshal 1944. Governor-General of
Canada 1946-1952. Minister of Defence
1952-1954. Lord Lieutenant of London
1957-1965 and Greater London 1965-1966
KG 1946  PC 1952  OM 1959
16 Jun 1969 2 Shane William Desmond Alexander 30 Jun 1935
ALEXANDER OF WEEDON
11 Jul 1988 B[L] 1 Robert Scott Alexander 5 Sep 1936 6 Nov 2005 69
to     Created Baron Alexander of
6 Nov 2005 Weedon for life 11 Jul 1988
Peerage extinct on his death
ALFORD
24 Dec 1698 B 1 Henry D'Auverquerque c 1675 5 Dec 1754
Created Baron of Alford,Viscount of
Boston and Earl of Grantham 
24 Dec 1698
Peerages extinct on his death
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27 Nov 1815 V 1 John Cust,2nd Baron Brownlow 19 Aug 1779 15 Sep 1853 74
Created Viscount Alford and Earl
Brownlow 27 Nov 1815
See "Brownlow"
ALINGTON
28 Jul 1642 B[I] 1 William Alington 25 Oct 1648
Created Baron Alington [I] 28 Jul 1642
25 Oct 1648 2 Giles Alington 20 Mar 1659
20 Mar 1659 3 William Alington c 1634 1 Feb 1685
5 Dec 1682 B 1 Created Baron Alington [E] 5 Dec 1682
MP for Cambridge 1664-1685. Lord Lieutenant
Cambridge 1681-1685
1 Feb 1685 4 Giles Alington 4 Oct 1680 18 Sep 1691 10
2 English peerage extinct on his death
18 Sep 1691 5 Hildebrand Alington 3 Aug 1641 Feb 1723 81
to     Irish peerage extinct on his death
Feb 1723
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15 Jan 1876 B 1 Henry Gerard Sturt 16 May 1825 17 Feb 1904 78
Created Baron Alington 15 Jan 1876
MP for Dorchester 1847-1856 and Dorset
1856-1876
For further information on Lord Alington's "White
Farm" see the note at the foot of this page
17 Feb 1904 2 Humphrey Napier Sturt 20 Aug 1859 30 Jul 1919 59
MP for Dorset East 1891-1904
30 Jul 1919 3 Napier George Henry Sturt  4 Nov 1896 17 Sep 1940 43
to     Peerage extinct on his death
17 Sep 1940
ALLAN OF HALLAM
22 Jul 2010 B[L] 1 Richard Beecroft Allan 11 Feb 1966
Created Baron Allan of Hallam for life
22 Jul 2010
MP for Hallam 1997-2005
ALLAN OF KILMAHEW
16 Jul 1973 B[L] 1 Robert Alexander Allan 11 Jul 1914 4 Apr 1979 64
to     Created Baron Allan of Kilmahew for life
 4 Apr 1979 16 Jul 1973
MP for Paddington South 1951-1966
Peerage extinct on his death
ALLANSON
14 Nov 1797 B[I]  1 George Winn 1725 9 Apr 1798 72
Created Lord Headley,Baron Allanson
and Winn 14 Nov 1797
See "Headley"
ALLEN
28 Aug 1717 V[I] 1 John Allen 13 Feb 1661  8 Nov 1726 65
Created Baron Allen and Viscount
Allen 28 Aug 1717
PC [I] 1714
8 Nov 1726 2 Joshua Allen 12 May 1685 5 Dec 1742 57
PC [I] 1727
5 Dec 1742 3 John Allen 11 Jun 1713 25 May 1745 31
25 May 1745 4 John Allen by 1720 10 Nov 1753
10 Nov 1753 5 Joshua Allen 26 Apr 1728 1 Feb 1816 87
MP for Eye 1762-1770
1 Feb 1816 6 Joshua William Allen 21 Sep 1845
to     Peerage extinct on his death
21 Sep 1845
ALLEN OF ABBEYDALE
12 Jul 1976 B[L] 1 Philip Allen 8 Jul 1912 27 Nov 2007 95
to     Created Baron Allen of Abbeydale for life
27 Nov 2007 12 Jul 1976
Peerage extinct on his death
ALLEN OF FALLOWFIELD
10 Jul 1974 B[L] 1 Alfred Walter Henry Allen 7 Jul 1914 14 Jan 1985 70
to     Created Baron Allen of Fallowfield for life
14 Jan 1985 10 Jul 1974
Peerage extinct on his death
ALLEN OF HURTWOOD
18 Jan 1932 B 1 Reginald Clifford Allen  9 May 1889  3 Mar 1939 49
to     Created Baron Allen of Hurtwood
3 Mar 1939 18 Jan 1932
Peerage extinct on his death
ALLEN OF KENSINGTON
2 Oct 2013 B[L] 1 Sir Charles Lamb Allen 4 Jan 1957
Created Baron Allen of Kensington for life
2 Oct 2013
ALLENBY
 7 Oct 1919 V 1 Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby 23 Apr 1861 14 May 1936 75
Created Viscount Allenby 7 Oct 1919
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
Field Marshal 1919
14 May 1936 2 Dudley Jaffray Hynman Allenby  8 Jan 1903 17 Jul 1984 81
17 Jul 1984 3 Michael Jaffray Hynman Allenby 20 Apr 1931 3 Oct 2014 83
3 Oct 2014 4 Henry Jaffray Hynman Allenby 29 Jul 1968
ALLENDALE
20 Jul 1906 B 1 Wentworth Blackett Beaumont 11 Apr 1829 13 Feb 1907 77
Created Baron Allendale 20 Jul 1906
MP for Northumberland South 1852-1885
and Tyneside 1886-1892
13 Feb 1907 2 Wentworth Canning Beaumont  2 Dec 1860 12 Dec 1923 63
 5 Jul 1911 V 1 Created Viscount Allendale 5 Jul 1911
MP for Hexham 1895-1907. PC 1907
12 Dec 1923 2 Wentworth Henry Canning Beaumont  6 Aug 1890 16 Dec 1956 66
Lord Lieutenant Northumberland 1949-1956
KG 1951
16 Dec 1956 3 Wentworth Hubert Charles Beaumont 12 Sep 1922 27 Dec 2002 80
27 Dec 2002 4 Wentworth Peter Ismay Beaumont 13 Nov 1948
ALLERTON
17 Jul 1902 B 1 William Lawies Jackson 16 Feb 1840  4 Apr 1917 77
Created Baron Allerton 17 Jul 1902
MP for Leeds 1880-1885 and Leeds North
1885-1902. Financial Secretary to the
Treasury 1885-1886 and 1886-1891. Chief
Secretary for Ireland 1891-1892. PC 1890
PC [I] 1891
 4 Apr 1917 2 George Herbert Jackson 20 Jan 1867 29 Jan 1925 58
29 Jan 1925 3 George William Lawies Jackson 23 Jul 1903 1 Jul 1991 87
to     Peerage extinct on his death
1 Jul 1991
ALLI
18 Jul 1998 B[L] 1 Waheed Alli 16 Nov 1964
Created Baron Alli for life 18 Jul 1998
ALLIANCE
1 Jul 2004 B[L] 1 David Alliance 15 Jun 1932
Created Baron Alliance for life 1 Jul 2004
ALNESS
27 Jun 1934 B 1 Robert Munro 28 May 1868  6 Oct 1955 87
to     Created Baron Alness 27 Jun 1934
6 Oct 1955 MP for Wick District 1910-1918 and Roxburgh &
Selkirk 1918-1922. Lord Advocate 
1913-1916, Secretary of State for Scotland
1916-1922. PC 1913
Peerage extinct on his death
ALPORT
16 Feb 1961 B[L] 1 Cuthbert James McCall Alport 22 Mar 1912 28 Oct 1998 86
to     Created Baron Alport for life 16 Feb 1961
28 Oct 1998 MP for Colchester 1950-1961. Minister
of State for Commonwealth Relations
1959-1961. PC 1960
Peerage extinct on his death
ALTAMONT
4 Dec 1771 E[I] 1 John Browne 1709 4 Jul 1776 67
Created Baron Monteagle 10 Sep 1760,
Viscount Westport 24 Aug 1768 and
Earl of Altamont 4 Dec 1771
4 Jul 1776 2 Peter Browne 1731 28 Dec 1780 49
28 Dec 1780 3 John Dennis Browne 11 Jun 1756 2 Jan 1809 52
He was created Marquess of Sligo
24 Dec 1800 (qv)
ALTHAM
14 Feb 1681 B[I] 1 Altham Annesley 26 Apr 1699
Created Baron Altham 14 Feb 1681
26 Apr 1699 2 James George Annesley 1700
1700 3 Richard Annesley 1655 19 Nov 1701 46
19 Nov 1701 4 Arthur Annesley 1689 14 Nov 1727 38
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
14 Nov 1727 5 Richard Annesley c 1691 14 Feb 1761
He succeeded to the Earldom of Anglesey
in 1737. On his death the Earldom (qv)
became extinct
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
14 Feb 1761 6 Arthur Annesley 7 Aug 1744 4 Jul 1816 71
He was created Earl of Mountnorris (qv)
3 Dec 1793
4 Jul 1816 7 George Annesley,2nd Earl of Mountnorris 2 Nov 1769 23 Jul 1844 75
to     Peerages extinct on his death
23 Jul 1844
ALTHORP
1 Nov 1765 V 1 John Spencer 19 Dec 1734 31 Oct 1783 48
Created Baron and Viscount Spencer
3 Apr 1761 and Viscount Althorp and
Earl Spencer 1 Nov 1765
See "Spencer"
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19 Dec 1905 V 1 Charles Robert Spencer 30 Oct 1857 16 Sep 1922 64
Created Viscount Althorp 19 Dec 1905
He succeeded to the Earldom of Spencer (qv)
in 1910 with which title this peerage then
merged
ALTON
30 Apr 1694 M 1 Charles Talbot,12th Earl of Shrewsbury 24 Jul 1660 1 Feb 1718 57
to     Created Marquess of Alton and Duke
1 Feb 1718 of Shrewsbury 30 Apr 1694
Dukedom and Marquessate extinct on 
his death
ALTON OF LIVERPOOL
12 Jun 1997 B[L] 1 David Patrick Paul Alton 15 Mar 1951
Created Baron Alton of Liverpool for life
12 Jun 1997
MP for Edgehill 1979-1983 and Mossley
Hill 1983-1997
ALTRIE
29 Jul 1587 B[S] 1 Robert Keith c 1593
Created Lord Altrie 29 Jul 1587
c 1593 2 George Keith,5th Earl Marischal 1554 2 Apr 1623 68
He had previously succeeded as 5th Earl 
Marischal (qv) with which title this peerage then
merged until its forfeiture in 1716
ALTRINCHAM
1 Aug 1945 B 1 Edward William Macleay Grigg 8 Sep 1879 1 Dec 1955 76
Created Baron Altrincham 1 Aug 1945
MP for Oldham 1922-1925 and Altrincham
1933-1945. Governor of Kenya 1925-1930.
PC 1944
1 Dec 1955 2 John Edward Poynder Grigg 15 Apr 1924 31 Dec 2001 77
to     He disclaimed the peerage for life 
31 Jul 1963 31 Jul 1963
31 Dec 2001 3 Anthony Ulick David Dundas Grigg 12 Jan 1934
ALVANLEY
22 May 1801 B 1 Sir Richard Pepper Arden 20 May 1744 19 Mar 1804 59
Created Baron Alvanley 22 May 1801
MP for Newtown,Isle of Wight 1783-1784,
Aldborough 1784-1790,Hastings 1790-1794 and
Bath 1794-1801. Solicitor General 1782-1783.
Master of the Rolls 1788. Lord Chief
Justice of the Common Pleas 1801. PC 1788
19 Mar 1804 2 William Arden 8 Jan 1789 16 Nov 1849 60
16 Nov 1849 3 Richard Pepper Arden  8 Dec 1792 24 Jun 1857 64
to     Peerage extinct on his death
24 Jun 1857
ALVERSTONE
24 Nov 1913 V 1 Sir Richard Everard Webster,1st baronet 22 Dec 1842 15 Dec 1915 72
to     Created Baron Alverstone 18 Jun 1900
15 Dec 1915 and Viscount Alverstone 24 Nov 1913
MP for Launceston 1885 and Isle of
Wight 1885-1900. Attorney General
1885, 1886-1892 and 1895-1900. Master
of the Rolls 1900. Lord Chief Justice
1900-1913. PC 1900
Peerages extinct on his death
ALVINGHAM
10 Jul 1929 B 1 Robert Daniel Thwaites Yerburgh 10 Dec 1889 27 Nov 1955 65
Created Baron Alvingham 10 Jul 1929
MP for Dorset South 1922-1929
27 Nov 1955 2 Robert Guy Eardley Yerburgh 16 Dec 1926
AMBERLEY
30 Jul 1861 V 1 Lord John Russell 18 Aug 1792 28 May 1878 85
Created Viscount Amberley and Earl
Russell 30 Jul 1861
See "Russell"
AMERY OF LUSTLEIGH
8 Jul 1992 B[L] 1 Harold Julian Amery 27 Mar 1919 3 Sep 1996 77
to     Created Baron Amery of Lustleigh for life
3 Sep 1996 8 Jul 1992
MP for Preston North 1950-1966 and
Brighton Pavilion 1969-1992. Minister of
Aviation 1962-1964, Minister of Public
Building and Works 1970, Minister for
Housing and Construction 1970-1972,
Minister of State,Foreign & Commonwealth
Office 1972-1974. PC 1960
Peerage extinct on his death
AMESBURY
16 May 1832 B 1 Charles Dundas 5 Aug 1751 7 Jul 1832 80
to     Created Baron Amesbury 16 May 1832
7 Jul 1832 MP for Richmond 1775-1780 and 1784-1786,
Orkney & Shetland 1781-1784 and Berkshire
1794-1832
Peerage extinct on his death
AMHERST
20 May 1776 B 1 Sir Jeffrey Amherst 29 Jan 1717  3 Aug 1797 80
to     Created Baron Amherst 20 May 1776 and
 3 Aug 1797 6 Sep 1788
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Barony of 1788,see the note at the 
foot of this page
 6 Sep 1788 B 1 PC 1772, Field Marshal 1796
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
On his death in 1797, the creation of 1776
became extinct, but the creation of 1788
passed to -
 3 Aug 1797 2 William Pitt Amherst 14 Jan 1773 13 Mar 1857 84
19 Dec 1826 E 1 Created Viscount Holmesdale and Earl 
Amherst 19 Dec 1826
Governor General of India 1822-1828, PC 1815
13 Mar 1857 2 William Pitt Amherst  3 Sep 1805 26 Mar 1886 80
MP for East Grinstead 1829-1832
26 Mar 1886 3 William Archer Amherst 26 Mar 1836 14 Aug 1910 74
MP for Kent West 1859-1868, Kent Mid
1868-1880
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Amherst 17 Apr 1880
14 Aug 1910 4 Hugh Amherst 30 Jan 1856  7 Mar 1927 71
 7 Mar 1927 5 Jeffrey John Archer Amherst 13 Dec 1896 4 Mar 1993 96
to     Peerages extinct on his death
4 Mar 1993
AMHERST OF HACKNEY
26 Aug 1892 B 1 William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst 25 Apr 1835 16 Jan 1909 73
Created Baron Amherst of Hackney
26 Aug 1892
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
MP for Norfolk West 1880-1885 and 
Norfolk South West 1885-1892
16 Jan 1909 2 Mary Rothes Margaret Cecil 25 Apr 1857 21 Dec 1919 62
21 Dec 1919 3 William Alexander Evering Cecil 31 May 1912 22 Jul 1980 68
22 Jul 1980 4 William Hugh Amherst Cecil 28 Dec 1940 2 Apr 2009 68
2 Apr 2009 5 Hugh William Amherst Cecil 17 Jul 1968
AMIENS
9 Feb 1777 V[I] 1 John Stratford c 1691 29 May 1777
Created Baron of Baltinglass 21 May
1763,Viscount Aldborough 22 Jul 1776 
Viscount Amiens and Earl of Aldborough
9 Feb 1777
See "Aldborough"
AMMON
31 Jan 1944 B 1 Charles George Ammon 22 Apr 1873  2 Apr 1960 86
to     Created Baron Ammon 31 Jan 1944
2 Apr 1960 MP for Camberwell North 1922-1931 and 
1935-1944. PC 1945
Peerage extinct on his death
AMORY
1 Sep 1960 V 1 Derick Heathcoat-Amory 26 Dec 1899 20 Jan 1981 81
to     Created Viscount Amory 1 Sep 1960
20 Jan 1981 MP for Tiverton 1945-1960. Minister of
Pensions 1951-1953. Minister of State,
Board of Trade 1953-1954. Minister of
Agriculture and Fisheries 1954-1958.
Chancellor of the Exchequer 1958-1960
PC 1953  KG 1968
Peerage extinct on his death
AMOS
24 Sep 1997 B[L] 1 Valerie Ann Amos 13 Mar 1954
Created Baroness Amos for life 24 Sep 1997
PC 2003
AMPTHILL
11 Mar 1881 B 1 Sir Odo William Leopold Russell 20 Feb 1829 25 Aug 1884 55
Created Baron Ampthill 11 Mar 1881
PC 1872
25 Aug 1884 2 Arthur Oliver Villiers Russell 19 Feb 1869  7 Jul 1935 66
Governor of Madras 1900-1906
 7 Jul 1935 3 John Hugo Russell  4 Oct 1896  3 Jun 1973 76
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
 3 Jun 1973 4 Geoffrey Denis Erskine Russell 15 Oct 1921 23 Apr 2011 89
PC 1995
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
23 Apr 2011 5 David Whitney Erskine Russell 27 May 1947
AMULREE
22 Jul 1929 B 1 William Warrender Mackenzie 19 Aug 1860 5 May 1942 81
Created Baron Amulree 22 Jul 1929
Secretary of State for Air 1930-1931
PC 1930
5 May 1942 2 Basil William Sholto Mackenzie 25 Jul 1900 15 Dec 1983 83
to     Peerage extinct on his death
15 Dec 1983
AMWELL
16 Jul 1947 B 1 Frederick Montague  8 Oct 1876 15 Oct 1966 90
Created Baron Amwell 16 Jul 1947
MP for Islington West 1923-1931 and
1935-1947
15 Oct 1966 2 Frederick Norman Montague  6 Nov 1912 12 Oct 1990 77
12 Oct 1990 3 Keith Norman Montague 1 Apr 1943
ANCASTER
26 Jul 1715 D 1 Robert Bertie,1st Marquess of Lindsey 20 Oct 1660 26 Jul 1723 62
Created Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
26 Jul 1715
MP for Boston 1685-1687 and 1689-1690
and Preston 1690. Lord Lieutenant
Lincoln 1700-1723. PC 1701
26 Jul 1723 2 Peregrine Bertie 29 Apr 1686 1 Jan 1742 55
MP for Lincolnshire 1708-1715. Lord
Lieutenant Lincoln 1724-1742. PC 1724
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Lord Willoughby de Eresby
16 Mar 1715
1 Jan 1742 3 Peregrine Bertie 1714 12 Aug 1778 64
Lord Lieutenant Lincoln 1742-1778. PC 1742
12 Aug 1778 4 Robert Bertie 17 Oct 1736  8 Jul 1779 42
Lord Lieutenant Lincoln Jan-Jul 1779. PC 1779
8 Jul 1779 5 Brownlow Bertie 1 May 1729 8 Feb 1809 79
to     MP for Lincolnshire 1761-1779. Lord Lieutenant
8 Feb 1809 Lincoln 1779-1809
Peerage extinct on his death
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23 Aug 1892 E 1 Gilbert Henry Heathcote-Drummond-
Willoughby,2nd Baron Aveland 1 Oct 1830 24 Dec 1910 80
Created Earl of Ancaster 23 Aug 1892
MP for Boston 1852-1856 and Rutland
1856-1867. PC 1880
24 Dec 1910 2 Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby 29 Jul 1867 19 Sep 1951 84
MP for Horncastle 1894-1910. Lord
Lieutenant Rutland 1921-1951
19 Sep 1951 3 Gilbert James Heathcote-Drummond-
to     Willoughby 8 Dec 1907 29 Mar 1983 75
29 Mar 1983 MP for Rutland 1933-1950. Lord 
Lieutenant Lincolnshire 1950-1975
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Lord Willoughby de Eresby
16 Jan 1951
Peerage extinct on his death
ANCRAM
24 Jun 1633 E[S] 1 Robert Carr 1578 1654 76
Created Lord Kerr of Nisbet,
Langnewtoun and Dolphinstoun and
Earl of Ancram 24 Jun 1633
1654 2 Charles Kerr 6 Aug 1624 10 Sep 1690 66
MP for Wigan 1661-1689
Sep 1690 3 Robert Kerr 8 Mar 1636 15 Feb 1703 66
He was subsequently [1701] created Marquess
of Lothian with which title this peerage then
merged and so remains
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23 Jun 1701 E[S] 1 Robert Kerr,2nd Earl of Lothian 8 Mar 1636 15 Feb 1703 66
Created Lord Ker,Viscount of Briene,
Earl of Ancram and Marquess of 
Lothian 23 Jun 1701
See "Lothian" - this peerage remains merged in
the Marquessate of Lothian
ANDERSON OF SWANSEA
28 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Donald Anderson 17 Jun 1939
Created Baron Anderson of Swansea for life
28 Jun 2005
MP for Monmouth 1966-1970 and Swansea East
1974-2005. PC 2000
ANDOVER
23 Jan 1622 V 1 Thomas Howard c 1590 16 Jul 1669
Created Baron Howard of Charleton
and Viscount Andover 23 Jan 1622
He was subsequently created Earl of
Berkshire in 1626 (qv)
ANDREWS
9 May 2000 B[L] 1 Elizabeth Kay Andrews 16 May 1943
Created Baroness Andrews for life
9 May 2000
ANELAY OF ST.JOHNS
14 Oct 1996 B[L] 1 Joyce Anne Anelay 17 Jul 1947
Created Baroness Anelay of St.Johns for
life 14 Oct 1996
PC 2009
ANGLESEY
18 Apr 1623 E 1 Christopher Villiers 3 Apr 1630
Created Baron Villiers and Earl of 
Anglesey 18 Apr 1623
3 Apr 1630 2 Charles Villiers 4 Feb 1661
to     Peerage extinct on his death
4 Feb 1661
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20 Apr 1661 E 1 Arthur Annesley,2nd Viscount Valentia 10 Jul 1614 6 Apr 1686 71
Created Baron Annesley and Earl of
Anglesey 20 Apr 1661
MP for Carmarthen 1660-1661. Lord Privy Seal
1673-1682. PC [I] 1660  PC 1679
6 Apr 1686 2 James Annesley c 1645 1 Apr 1690
MP for Winchester 1679-1685
1 Apr 1690 3 James Annesley c 1670 21 Jan 1702
21 Jan 1702 4 John Annesley 15 Jan 1676 18 Sep 1710 34
PC 1710
18 Sep 1710 5 Arthur Annesley c 1678 31 Mar 1737
MP for Cambridge University 1702-1710
Lord Lieutenant Wexford 1727.  PC 1710
PC [I] 1711
31 Mar 1737 6 Richard Annesley c 1691 14 Feb 1761
    to     He had previously succeeded as Baron Altham
14 Feb 1761 (qv) in 1727. The Earldom of Anglesey and
the Barony of Annesley became extinct on
his death
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
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 4 Jul 1815 M 1 Henry William Paget,2nd Earl of Uxbridge 17 May 1768 29 Apr 1854 85
Created Marquess of Anglesey 
4 Jul 1815
MP for Carnarvon 1790-1796 and Milborne
Port 1796-1804 and 1806-1812. KG 1818
PC 1827. Field Marshal 1846, Lord
Lieutenant of Ireland 1828-1829 and 
1830-1833.  Lord Lieutenant Anglesey 1812-
1854 and Stafford 1849-1854
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
29 Apr 1854 2 Henry Paget  6 Jul 1797  7 Feb 1869 71
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Paget of Beaudesert 
15 Jan 1833
MP for Anglesey 1820-1832. PC 1839. Lord
Lieutenant Anglesey 1854-1869
 7 Feb 1869 3 Henry William George Paget  9 Dec 1821 30 Jan 1880 58
MP for Staffordshire South 1854-1857
30 Jan 1880 4 Henry Paget 25 Dec 1835 13 Oct 1898 62
13 Oct 1898 5 Henry Cyril Paget 16 Jun 1875 14 Mar 1905 29
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
14 Mar 1905 6 Charles Henry Alexander Paget 14 Apr 1885 21 Feb 1947 61
Lord Lieutenant Anglesey 1942-1947
21 Feb 1947 7 George Charles Henry Victor Paget  8 Oct 1922 13 Jul 2013 90
Lord Lieutenant Gwynedd 1983-1990
13 Jul 2013 8 Charles Alexander Vaughan Paget 13 Nov 1950
ANGUS
c 1115 E[S] 1 Dufugan 1135
Styled Earl of Angus c 1115
1135 2 Gillebride c 1197
c 1197 3 Gilchrist c 1210
For details of a legend associated with this Earl 
and his sons,see the note at the foot of the page
containing details of the Earldom of Airlie
c 1210 4 Duncan by 1214
by 1214 5 Malcolm c 1240
c 1240 6 Matilda c 1260
c 1260 7 Gilbert de Umfravill c 1244 1307
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Umfravill 23 Jun 1295
1307 8 Robert de Umfravill by 1277 2 Apr 1325
2 Apr 1325 9 Gilbert de Umfravill 7 Jan 1381
to     Peerages extinct on his death
7 Jan 1381
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15 Jun 1329 E[S] 1 John Stewart 9 Dec 1331
Styled Earl of Angus in a charter
dated 15 Jun 1329
9 Dec 1331 2 Thomas Stewart 1361
1361 3 Thomas Stewart 1377
1377 4 Margaret Stewart after 1417
to          She resigned the Earldom in favour of
1389 George Douglas (see below)
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9 Apr 1389 E[S] 1 George Douglas by 1378 1402
Created Earl of Angus 9 Apr 1389
1402 2 William Douglas 1437
1437 3 James Douglas 1446
1446 4 George Douglas 14 Nov 1462
14 Nov 1462 5 Archibald Douglas 1453 1514 61
1514 6 Archibald Douglas c 1490 1556
1556 7 David Douglas 1558
1558 8 Archibald Douglas 1556 4 Aug 1588 32
1588 9 William Douglas 1533 Jul 1591 58
Jul 1591 10 William Douglas c 1555 3 Mar 1611
3 Mar 1611 11 William Douglas 1590 19 Feb 1660 69
He was created Marquess of Douglas
in 1633 into which this peerage then merged
ANGUS AND ABERNETHY
10 Apr 1703 M[S] 1 Archibald Douglas,3rd Marquess of Douglas 13 Oct 1694 21 Jul 1761 66
to     Created Lord Douglas of Bonkill.
21 Jul 1761 Prestoun and Robertoun,Viscount of
Jedburgh Forest,Marquess of Angus
and Abernethy and Duke of Douglas
10 Apr 1703
Creations extinct on his death
ANNALY
17 Jan 1766 B[I] 1 John Gore 2 Mar 1718 3 Apr 1784 66
to     Created Baron Annaly 17 Jan 1766
3 Apr 1784 Solicitor General for Ireland. PC [I] 1764
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
23 Sep 1789 B[I] 1 Henry Gore 8 Mar 1728 5 Jun 1793 65
to     Created Baron Annaly 23 Sep 1789
5 Jun 1793 Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
19 Aug 1863 B 1 Henry White        1791  3 Sep 1873 82
Created Baron Annaly 19 Aug 1863
MP for Dublin 1823-1832,Longford 
1837-1847 & 1857-1861. Lord Lieutenant
Longford 1841-1873
 3 Sep 1873 2 Luke White 26 Sep 1829 17 Mar 1888 58
MP for Clare 1859-1860, Longford 
1861-1862 and Kidderminster 1862-1865.
Lord Lieutenant Longford 1873-1874.
KP 1885
17 Mar 1888 3 Luke White 25 Feb 1857 15 Dec 1922 65
15 Dec 1922 4 Luke Henry White  7 Aug 1885  4 May 1970 84
 4 May 1970 5 Luke Albert White 15 Mar 1927 30 Sep 1990 63
30 Sep 1990 6 Luke Richard White 29 Jun 1954
ANNAN
16 Jul 1965 B[L] 1 Noel Gilroy Annan 25 Dec 1916 21 Feb 2000 83
to     Created Baron Annan for life 16 Jul 1965
21 Feb 2000 Peerage extinct on his death
ANNAND
c 1622 V[S] 1 Sir John Murray 13 Oct 1640
Created Lord Murray of Lochmaben
and Viscount of Annand c 1622
He was subsequently created Earl of 
Annandale (qv). The viscountcy of Annand
became extinct on the death of the second
Earl of Annandale in 1658
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
13 Feb 1661 V[S] 1 James Johnstone,2nd Earl of Hartfell 17 Jul 1672
Created Lord Johnston of Lochwood,
Lochmaben,Moffatdale and Evandale,
Viscount of Annand and Earl of
Annandale and Hartfell 13 Feb 1661
The peerages became dormant in 1792
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
24 Jun 1701 V[S] 1 William Johnston 17 Feb 1664 14 Jan 1721 56
Created Lord Johnston of Lochwood,
Lochmaben,Moffatdale and Evandale,
Viscount of Annand,Earl of Hartfell
and Marquess of Annandale 24 Jun 1701
The peerages became dormant in 1792
ANNANDALE 
13 Mar 1625 E[S] 1 John Murray,1st Viscount of Annand 13 Oct 1640
Created Earl of Annandale 13 Mar 1625
13 Oct 1640 2 James Murray 28 Dec 1658
to     He succeeded as 3rd Viscount Stormont (qv)
28 Dec 1658 in 1642. On his death the viscountcy descended
to David Murray,3rd Lord Balvaird,while the
earldom of Annandale,the viscountcy of Annand
and the barony of Murray of Lochmaben became 
extinct
ANNANDALE & HARTFELL
13 Feb 1661 E[S] 1 James Johnstone 17 Jul 1672
Created Lord Johnston of Lochwood,
Lochmaben,Moffatdale and Evandale,
Viscount of Annand and Earl of
Annandale and Hartfell 13 Feb 1661
17 Jul 1672 2 William Johnston 17 Feb 1664 14 Jan 1721 56
24 Jun 1701 M[S] 1 Created Lord Johnston of Lochwood,
Lochmaben,Moffatdale and Evandale,
Viscount of Annand,Earl of Hartfell
and Marquess of Annandale 24 Jun 1701
Lord Privy Seal 1702, Secretary of State 1705
Lord Lieutenant of Dumfries,Kirkcudbright and
Peebles. KT 1704  PC 1711
14 Jan 1721 3 James Johnston c 1687 10 Feb 1730  
2 MP for Dumfries 1708-1709 and Linlithgowshire
1708
10 Feb 1730 4 George Vanden-Bempde 29 May 1720 29 Apr 1792 71
3 On his death,the peerages became dormant.
The descent of the Earldom was as follows:-
29 Apr 1792 5 [James Hope-Johnstone,3rd Earl of Hopetoun] 23 Aug 1741 29 May 1816 74
  [29 May 1816] 6 [Anne Hope-Johnstone] 13 Jan 1768 28 Aug 1818 50
 
[28 Aug 1818] 7 [John James Hope-Johnstone] 29 Nov 1796 11 Jul 1876 79
MP for Dumfriesshire 1857-1865
 
[11 Jul 1876] 8 [John James Hope-Johnstone] 5 Oct 1842 26 Dec 1912 70
MP for Dumfriesshire 1874-1880
[26 Dec 1912] 9 [Evelyn Wentworth Hope-Johnstone] 9 May 1879 26 Oct 1964 85
[26 Oct 1964] 10 [Percy Wentworth Hope-Johnstone] 2 Jan 1909 5 Apr 1983 74
[5 Apr 1983] 11 Patrick Andrew Wentworth Hope-Johnstone 19 Apr 1941
23 Jul 1985 Established his claim to the peerage
23 Jul 1985
For further information on this successful claim,
see the note at the foot of this page
The Earls of Aldborough
A family of magnificent eccentrics…….
The following are extracts from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
John Stratford, first Earl of Aldborough - on receiving his title, he styled himself "the Earl of
Aldborough in the Palatine of Upper Ormonde". This place was as fictitious as the pedigree
he then commissioned tracing his family back to William the Conqueror's lord great chamberlain.
Edward Augustus Stratford, second Earl of Aldborough - this Earl had a building mania. He
built Aldborough House in Dublin; a seaside home just outside the Irish capital; a model town
called Stratford-on-Slaney in County Wicklow; Stratford Place and Stratford House in London,
as well as making extensive improvements to Belan, the great house built by his father in
County Kildare. His death in 1801 interrupted a strange house party at Belan to which he had
invited most of the young people he knew with the intention of marrying them off to one
another. He left 54 wills.
John Stratford, third Earl of Aldborough - he had a very sociable wife and daughter, but he
hated company. The first, and usually the only, remark guests to his house heard from their
host was "When do you leave? The coach passes Belan every morning and I can send you 
there tomorrow". He rose early to pick the ripe fruit from the garden and hide it from his
despised visitors.
Benjamin O'Neale Stratford, sixth and last Earl of Aldborough - he distinguished himself by the
strength of his devotion to a hot-air balloon. For twenty years he lived only to complete what
was going to be the largest balloon in the world - close to 50 feet high when inflated. He shut
himself away in Stratford Lodge, 40 miles from Dublin, with only one trustworthy manservant;
all his meals were cooked in Dublin and sent up daily in the Mail Coach.
The Earl's plan was to fly from Ireland to England and on across the Channel to France, where
he had purchased a plot of land on the banks of the Seine as a landing ground. When the
Crimean War broke out Lord Aldborough decided to extend his voyage and contribute to the
British war effort by flying on across Europe, sniping at Russian officers. Unfortunately for his
patriotic dreams, the war came to an end before the balloon was ready. Even more tragically,
the balloon hangar caught fire in 1856 and, in spite of frantic efforts to save it, the silk 
balloon was damaged beyond repair.
The Earl lived for a time in the burnt-out hangar but eventually he moved to Alicante, Spain,
where he became a recluse in a hotel. He had his meals sent up to him, but refused to allow
anyone to come and collect the dirty dishes. When one room filled up with used plates and
glasses, he checked out of that room and into a new one. On his death in 1875, the Earldom
of Aldborough became extinct.
Henry Gerard Sturt. 1st Baron Alington
Henry Sturt, before being created Baron Alington in 1876, was MP for Dorchester 1847-1856
and Dorset 1856-1876. He was a well-known figure in the late Victorian era due to his success
as a racehorse owner, but was also known as the owner of an unusual farm - the White Farm -
located at the family seat of Crichel, near Wimborne, in Dorset. The following article, which 
appeared in the "Chicago Daily Tribune" of 4 March 1904 describes this farm:-
'Everything connected with this White Farm is absolutely white, including the white sacred 
bull, the white cattle, the white cart horses, the white poultry, pigeons, and, last but not
least, an immense white turkey cock, whose ferocious disposition often forces the other 
denizens of the farmyard to show the white feather in more ways than one. All the flowers
about this farm are white and the cats, the dogs, the pigs, the rabbits, the donkeys, and even
the deer which graze on the lawn, as well as pheasants, geese, owls, and swans, are of the
same hue. No animal and no flower is permitted on the premises which is not absolutely snow
white.'
The farm was the subject of an illustrated article which appeared in "Harmsworth's Magazine"
in August 1898, under the heading "The Only White Zoo in Existence."  Photographs are 
included of 'The White Peacock - the King of the White Farm' and a white mule, a gift from
the Sultan of Turkey. Unfortunately, the white guinea pigs proved too difficult to photograph -
"Over and over again, by frequent offerings of the most tempting dainties, were the shaggy
bright-eyed little creatures lured from their haunts. But no matter how stealthily stalked by
the camera fiend, they were off like greased lightning long before he was near enough."
The special remainder to the Viscountcy of Allenby
 
From the "London Gazette" of 21 October 1919 (issue 31610, page 12890):-
"The King has been pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland, to confer the dignity of a Viscount of the said United Kingdom upon
Field-Marshal Sir Edmund Henry Hynman Allenby, G.C.B., G.C.M.G., and the heirs male of his 
body lawfully begotten, by the name, style and title of Viscount Allenby of Megiddo and of
Felixstowe in the County of Suffolk; with remainder in default of such issue to Captain Frederick
Claude Hynman Allenby, C.B.E., R.N. (Ret.) (brother of the said Sir Edmund Henry Hynman 
Hynman Allenby), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten."
Jeffrey Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst
The following biography of Lord Amherst appeared in the July 1965 issue of the Australian
monthly magazine "Parade":-
'Late in July 1759 a large British armada of rafts, longboats and canoes set sail up Lake George,
North America, bound for the French-held bastion of Ticonderoga. Seated in one of the leading
boats was the British commander-in-chief, Major-General Jeffrey Amherst, now regarded by 
some students of British military history as the nation's greatest soldier after Marlborough and 
Wellington. Amherst was a solitary, deep-thinking man and said little as his flimsy fleet at last
sighted Fort Ticonderoga. Nor did he give vent to his inward feelings when the French later
withdrew from the fort leaving the way open for the conquest of the entire North American
continent. 
 
'Although the general's strategic genius was given full play in warfare against enemies trained
on the same military principles as himself, his later campaigns against Pontiac's Indians lacked
the same brilliance. Amherst never did learn how to handle the Indians militarily or diplomatically.
In the end he was saved from further humiliation by being recalled home while Pontiac's warriors
raged over the countryside. 
Born in Kent, in 1717, to a family sprung from a long line of clergymen and lawyers, Jeffrey
Amherst was raised in the family's country home, Brooks Place, at Sevenoaks. In 1729 young
Amherst travelled to Knole, where he was employed as a page-boy by the seventh Earl [and
1st Duke of Dorset] Lionel Sackville. The earl grew to like the lad and later appointed him his
secretary. Then, when in 1735 Amherst expressed a desire for an army career, the earl used his
influence to win him a commission in the First Regiment of Foot Guards.
'When the War of The Austrian Succession broke out in 1742, the Foot Guards were among the
16,000 troops who embarked for Flanders to join the Austrians in their struggle against the 
French. June 1743 was a memorable month for the young ensign, and British history. Amherst 
saw his first action at Dettingen while for the last time a British monarch appeared on the 
field of battle. But while Amherst savoured the thrill of victory he also tasted the bitterness of
defeat. In 1745 he was serving with the incompetent Duke of Cumberland when the British were
defeated by the French at Fontenoy.
'When the Foot Guards returned to England, Lieutenant-Colonel Amherst was Cumberland's
aide-de-camp and had little to look forward to but the life of a glorified military secretary. But
even within the limited compass of these duties he was to impress others. One who had noticed
the young colonel was Sir John Ligonier, later commander-in-chief of the British forces. 
 
'Then, on March 3, 1758, came the turning point in Amherst's career. On that day he received a
message from William Pitt the Elder telling him that Major-General Amherst had been appointed
commander-in-chief of the siege of Louisbourg. Pitt had been in power a little more than a year,
yet in that time he had given Britain back her backbone. Taking over a "tired, decadent, nation"
he had revitalised it. Believing that Britain's future strength lay in the North American continent
rather than in the battle for power in Europe, he decided his nation's position in North America
must be consolidated. 
 
'The first step of his plan called for the expulsion of the French. And to do that Louisbourg and
Fort Ticonderoga must be taken. Several weeks after the main force sailed for America under
James Wolfe, the Louisbourg commander-in-chief followed. And only then did Pitt announce
Amherst's appointment to Parliament. When the battle was finally joined at Louisbourg the
British had the advantage of numbers but the French fought from behind strong fortifications
protected by the wild rocky shoreline. Amherst solved the problem by surrounding the fort for
seven weeks until the French commander Chevalier de Drucour pulled down his flag and
surrendered. 
'Now Amherst laid plans to march against Quebec. All was ready when he received news that
the force of the North American commander-in­chief, General James Abercrombie, which had
been detailed to reduce Fort Ticonderoga had lost at least 2000 men in a suicidal frontal attack
on the fort. Amherst at once changed his plans. He took the major part of his force and set off
for Boston, where he arrived on September 13, 1758 to receive a hero's welcome. After re-
victualling, Amherst marched on to Albany where he met the demoralised survivors of
Abercrombie's army.
 
'Amherst wasted no time. Somehow he instilled a new spirit of conquest into Abercrombie's
army and sent a message to Wolfe ordering him to make his own plans for the conquest of 
Quebec. Further, Brigadier John Prideaux was to take and rebuild the fort at Oswego which had
been demolished by the French in an earlier campaign, then join Sir William Johnson's force in an
attack on Fort Niagara. 
 
'General Amherst himself took the more difficult task of attacking Fort Ticonderoga and Crown
Point farther north. With a force less than half the strength of Abercrombie's original army,
Amherst set out on July 22, 1759. Sailing across Lake George the expedition entered Lake
Champlain and finally landed at a point about three miles from the fort. When the British came
within cannon shot of the battlements the general rested most of his troops while he spent two
days strategically placing his field pieces. The French commander Chevalier de Bourlamaque, 
knowing the fort could not be defended against the overwhelming cannonade, waited for 
darkness then withdrew most of his men from the fort leaving only a token force of about 400
men to cover his retreat. Two days later when Bourlamaque's force had established itself on the
more easily defended Nut Island, the rear­guard followed after setting time fuses in 
Ticonderoga's powder chambers. Amherst's advance troops were almost up to the walls when
Fort Ticonderoga blew up.
'But Amherst's grand strategy was working. Two days before Ticonderoga exploded Sir William
Johnston had taken Fort Niagara despite the death earlier of Prideaux. When Amherst advanced
on the fort at Crown Point the French adopted their old strategy. They blew it up. But this time
the commander-in-chief did not by-pass the ruins. Realising Crown Point could be an important
military base for his troops he set his men to work rebuilding it. And they were still hard at work
on August 18 when Amherst received news that Quebec had fallen a month after Wolfe had 
had been killed in battle. Oswego had still not been taken, but winter was coming on and
Amherst halted the campaign.
 
'Spring finally came and Amherst unleashed his entire force in a mighty assault on Montreal. 
The final campaign was a masterstroke of strategy. Leading 11,000 men, Amherst set out from
Oswego, which earlier had been captured, while another force left Crown Point and a third
departed from Quebec. Although the three armies had set out at different times from places
hundreds of miles apart they met at about the same time on the plains outside the walls of 
Montreal. When the French commander saw the mighty force standing outside the bastion he
sent a messenger asking Amherst to discuss terms. Back went the reply: "I have come to take
Canada and I will take nothing less."
 
'On September 8, 1760, Canada became part of the British Crown. Appointed Governor of
Canada, Amherst proved himself a statesman. He treated the civilians kindly and saw to it that
most of the old French laws were retained. General Amherst, who had fobbed off with a knight-
hood when he expected a barony, was still waiting to be recalled home when the great Ottawa
chief Pontiac [c 1720-1769] attacked Detroit in May 1763. Pontiac, enraged to the verge of
madness by the action of the British in cutting off the regular food supplies to his people, led
his warriors through America, killing in righteous indignation. Amherst did not quite know how to
fight these unorthodox soldiers. In the spring of 1764 he was still planning a major offensive
when he was recalled to England. 
 
'Created a lieutenant-general and later a baron he was appointed British commander-in-chief
in 1778. Then just 12 months before the old soldier died on 3 August 1797 he put out a 
trembling, withered hand and took his field-marshal's baton [30 July 1796].'
The special remainder to the Barony of Amherst created in 1788
 
From the "London Gazette" of 26 August 1788 (issue 13020, page 413):-
 
"The King has....been pleased to grant the....Dignity of a Baron of the Kingdom of Great Britain
to the Right Honourable Jeffery Lord Amherst, Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath,
and General of His Majesty's Forces, and to the Heirs Male of His Body lawfully begotten, by the
Name, Style and Title of Baron Amherst, of Montreal in the County of Kent; with Remainder to
his Nephew William Pitt Amherst, Esq; and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten."
The special remainder to the Barony of Amherst of Hackney
From the "London Gazette" of 23 September 1892 (issue 26328, page 5383):-
"The Queen has been pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Ireland, dated the 26th August, 1892, to grant the dignity of a Baron of the
said United Kingdom unto William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst, of Amherst, in the county of Kent,
Didlington Hall, in the county of Norfolk, and of Hackney, in the county of London, Esq., and the
heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Amherst of
Hackney, in the county of London, and in default of such issue male, to hold the name, style,
and title of Baroness Amherst of Hackney, to Mary Rothes Margaret Cecil, wife of William Cecil 
(commonly called Lord William Cecil), Lieutenant-Colonel of the 4th Battalion of the Lincolnshire
Regiment, eldest daughter of the said William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst; and, after her decease,
and in default of such issue of the said William Amhurst Tyssen-Amherst, to hold the name,
style, and title of Baron Amherst of Hackney, to the heirs male lawfully begotten of the body of
the said Mary Rothes Margaret Cecil."
John Hugo Russell, third Baron Ampthill and Geoffrey Denis Erskine Russell,
fourth Baron Ampthill
In 1916, Christabel Hart, a headstrong young woman with a taste for hunting and ballroom
dancing answered an advertisement in The Times placed by three lonely sailors, one of whom
was John Hugo Russell. They met her when next on leave, and all three were smitten. Russell
proposed marriage, but Christabel rejected him and departed for Gretna Green with his friend,
Gilbert Bradley. There they failed to satisfy the residency qualification and returned to England
unmarried. In 1918, Christabel consented, after all, to marry Russell, but ruled that these
altered circumstances should not be a restriction on her social life. Russell agreed that they
should not have children for several years, not realising perhaps, that to Christabel this meant
no sexual relations either, The honeymoon was spent with Russell's parents, and although there
was a certain amount of kissing during his Christmas leave, sex consisted of his climaxing 
between her legs, but without any penetration. Christabel described this practice as 'Hunnish'.
When Russell left the navy he took a job with Vickers. The couple no longer shared a bedroom,
and in two years they dined together twice. On one occasion, Christabel spent the night at
Gilbert Bradley's flat and in the morning Bradley telephoned Russell, asking him to bring round
day clothes for his wife. Later she wrote to a friend "I have been indiscreet all my life and he
has enough evidence to divorce me once a week." In June 1921 Christabel visited a 
clairvoyant, who told her she was pregnant - a state of affairs confirmed by a gynaecologist,
in spite of the fact that she was still a virgin. She passed the news on to Russell, adding "I
suppose I must be another Virgin Mary." On 15 October 1921 she gave birth to a son, Geoffrey.
Russell petitioned for divorce, citing Bradley, an unnamed man alleged to be Geoffrey's father,
and a Lieutenant George Cross about whom little is known (I would like to think that his wife's
name was Victoria). At the first trial, which began in July 1922 before Lord Merrivale, Russell's
parents, Lord and Lady Ampthill, were the chief witnesses. They described their son as
thunderstruck when learning of his wife's pregnancy since she had always denied him his
conjugal rights. They could see no similarity between the baby and their son at the same age.
The baby was brought into court and inspected by the jury during the luncheon adjournment.
Christabel admitted indiscreet behaviour, but denied adultery. Her husband was Geoffrey's
father, she insisted, conception having taken place with penetration - possibly when Russell
was sleepwalking in his pyjamas. After a ten-day hearing, the jury was unable to agree on a
verdict. On 28 February 1923 a retrial began before Mr Justice Hill. This time, the jury found
that Christabel had had intercourse with an unknown man and the baby was declared
illegitimate. In 1926 Christabel, as her son's guardian, brought an action to establish his
legitimacy. She won the case and Geoffrey was declared to be the rightful heir.
John Russell succeeded to the Ampthill peerage in 1935. After he was divorced from Christabel
he remarried twice and, by his second marriage, had a son, John, who, on his father's death in
1973, claimed the title. Geoffrey wrote to the House of Lords requesting that he might take his
seat, but was told that his half-brother had already lodged an application. In February 1976
the Committee of Privileges in the House of Lords heard the claim for succession brought by
John Russell and contested by Geoffrey Russell 'to protect my mother's reputation.' The
evidence from the 1926 illegitimacy dispute was heard again and John Russell offered to
withdraw if Geoffrey would make available blood tests carried out on himself and his mother,
who by now had died. Geoffrey declined, but in April 1976 the Committee ruled in his favour,
and he thus became the 4th Baron Ampthill.
Arthur Annesley, 4th Baron Altham and Richard Annesley, 5th Baron Altham
and 6th Earl of Anglesey
Arthur, the 4th Baron Altham was a dissolute drunkard who married Mary Sheffield, an 
illegitimate daughter of the Duke of Buckingham. From this union, a son, James, was born in
1715. Arthur, who was reputed to change his mistresses as often as he changed his coat, grew
tired of his wife's protests against his infidelities and determined to be rid of her. Any excuse
would suffice, so when, one day in 1716, he found her talking with a neighbouring squire, he
accused the pair of adultery and, drawing his sword, slashed off one of the man's ears. He 
then drove his wife from the house (Dunmaine Castle in county Wexford), but he refused to 
allow her to take her year-old son with her.
The man whom he had accused of adultery challenged him to a duel, but Altham refused to
fight. He remained at Dunmaine Castle until one day a mysterious pistol shot, fired through a
window, took out one of his eyes. He then fled to Dublin where he found a new mistress, Alaine
Gregory. She, however, wanted nothing to do with young James, so he was callously thrown out
to be cared for by a band of wandering gypsies.
When the 4th baron died in 1727, the title was inherited by his younger brother, Richard, who
appears to have been equal, if not worse, than his older brother. Richard knew that, somewhere,
James was likely to be still alive and that James was the rightful heir to the title and the estates.
Richard hired a gang of ruffians to track the boy down and he was found living in humble 
lodgings in Dublin under the name of James Annesley. Even Richard balked at cold-blooded 
murder, so he arranged for James to be put aboard a ship bound for the plantations of distant 
America, where upon landing he was sold for 15 guineas to a Pennsylvania planter, who treated 
him very harshly.
James suffered the misery of living as a slave for 12 years, until, in 1739, he was able to escape
and flee to Baltimore. There he saw the warships of Admiral Vernon on their way to fight the
Spanish in the West Indies during the War of Jenkin's Ear. James stole a skiff, rowed out to the
nearest ship and poured out his story to Vernon. For the next four years, James was a steward
on a British warship.
In 1743, James finally stepped ashore at Portsmouth, eager to claim his title and estates. He 
was armed with a letter from Vernon to a wealthy Irish lawyer named Mackercher. After closely 
questioning James, Mackercher agreed to represent him and soon the news of the return of the
rightful heir swept through Dublin. Richard, now Earl of Anglesey, struck back viciously by 
arranging for James to be savagely beaten and left senseless by the side of the road. 
In order to protect James, Mackercher hustled him to England, where he hid at a farm near 
Staines. Unfortunately, James' bad luck still dogged him. During a hunting expedition, James' 
gun accidentally discharged and killed one of the beaters named Tom Eggleston. When he heard 
this news, Anglesey accused James of having an affair with Eggleston's wife, and persuaded the
authorities to arrest James for murder. At his subsequent trial, Mackercher had no difficulty in 
gaining an acquittal after the main witness against James admitted accepting bribes from 
Anglesey's lawyer.
By now the population was polarised by James' fight for his rightful inheritance. Anglesey had
many powerful friends, but his debauchery and cruelty had made him just as many enemies and
the majority of the common people were convinced that James' cause was just. 
As soon as James returned to Ireland, a further attempt on his life occurred, but this was foiled
by Mackercher's servants. Mackercher now launched his first legal action, which was heard in 
the Dublin Court of Exchequer in November 1743. The result was a legal picnic; troops of
witnesses filed into the box, piling up a mass of contradictory evidence and perjuring themselves
recklessly until the truth was hopelessly buried. At least five witnesses changed sides and flatly
retracted previous statements; it was obvious that Anglesey's money and hired thugs had been
busy. Mackercher's most impressive witness was the 4th Baron Altham's crony, Major Fitzgerald,
who swore that in 1715 Altham had invited him to Dunmaine to carouse on the birth of his son.
Finally, the evidence which clinched Mackercher's case was given by Kilkenny alderman Thomas
Barnes, who related how Altham had told him proudly, 'Tom, I have good news. I have a son by
Moll Sheffield.' Barnes said that he naturally assumed that Moll was one of Altham's many 
mistresses and enquired where he had found her. 'Zounds, man!' Altham roared indignantly, 
'she's my wife!'
The jury found in favour of James, which caused an outbreak of popular rejoicing in Dublin. But
Anglesey refused to concede defeat and sought a fresh trial. In the meantime, he tried to 
remove James by his usual methods. At the Curragh races, Anglesey and a gang of thugs made
another attack on James' life and when Mackercher came to his aid, Mackercher was beaten
unconscious with the loaded butt of a whip. James leapt on a horse and fled, as Anglesey was
heard to scream, 'Follow him and dash out his brains!' The pursuers, however, were driven off by
James' sympathisers, who had rushed to the scene.
James' legal battle was, however, less fortunate. Anglesey brought a host of new, and no doubt
bribed, witnesses and the second trial went in his favour. Undaunted, Mackercher called for a
third hearing, and once more the decision was reversed. For years, the struggle continued, with
both sides pouring out money like water. Anglesey mortgaged the estates and, by the time of
the fourth trial, Mackercher had ruined himself on James' behalf.
By then, some of the most important witnesses were dead and others had mysteriously 
vanished. The marathon lawsuit finally ended with Anglesey still in possession of the titles and
the estates. 
James died in 1760 and was buried under the name of James Annesley. The Earl of Anglesey
died the following year, when the Earldom of Anglesey and the Barony of Altham became extinct.
However, the Viscountcy of Valentia was inherited by Anglesey's son, who in 1793 was created
Earl of Mountnorris.
Henry William Paget,2nd Earl of Uxbridge and 1st Marquess of Anglesey
The following biography of the Marquess appeared in the August 1955 issue of the Australian
monthly magazine "Parade":-
 
'The breeze at the Battle of Waterloo along which was borne the bullet that lodged in the knee
of the Earl of Uxbridge was no exception to the "ill wind that blows nobody any good". The earl
no doubt suffered considerable anguish, but the enterprising Belgian inn-keeper in whose house
the noble leg was lopped off, and in whose garden and under whose willow tress it was solemnly
entombed (the earl attending the obsequies) thereafter put up a monument to mark the spot,
enshrined the boot, and by charging a small fee to curious sightseers was able to live off the
limb for the rest of his life. 
 
'The monument carried a tablet inscribed: "Here lies the Leg of the Illustrious Earl of Uxbridge,"
along with the date and details of its loss - an inscription commonly drawing a grin from male
visitors, a squeamish shudder from the gentler sex, and loud guffaws from the "de-limbed"
nobleman's cronies. If the inn-keeper had deferred erecting his monument over the grave of
the leg for a little while, he would have been able to advertise it as belonging to a marquess
instead of a mere earl; for the title of Marquess of Anglesey was soon afterwards bestowed on
the gallant Uxbridge for his part in the battle in which he served as the Duke of Wellington's
second-in-command. 
 
'One jester, mindful perhaps of the marquess' romantic career, scribbled beneath the epitaph:
 
   "Here lies the Marquess of Anglesey's limb, 
   The devil will have the rest of him."
while George Canning, Anglesey's friend and political leader contributed 36 lines of doggerel on
the touching event, part of which ran: 
   "A leg and foot, to speak more plain, 
   Lie here of one commanding; 
   Who, though he might his wits retain, 
   Lost half his understanding."
'The affable Anglesey took it all in good part - as he had taken much unsavoury publicity
attaching to his private life five years before. In 1810, when a married man of 42 with eight
children, he had fallen in love with Wellington's sister­in-law, Lady Charlotte Wellesley, herself
the mother of four children. He had had to pay £24,000 to the injured husband for that, and
accept divorce by his wife. It was all very painful and scandalous, but it did not halt his career.
Waterloo brought him his title of marquess, and his other exploits saw a monument erected to
him in his own lifetime; while he became a Cabinet Minister, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and a
Field-Marshal - and his marriage to the Lady Charlotte made him the father of another ten
children. All in all, the eminent marquess could be counted a man of many activities.
 
Anglesey was born Henry William Paget, the eldest of four sons of Henry Paget, Earl of Uxbridge,
and his wife, the former Jane Champagne. He went to Westminster School and Oxford and as a
strapping six-footer of 21 entered Parliament as member for Carnarvon boroughs. But soldiering
was in his blood, and after serving in the Staffordshire militia, which his father commanded, he
raised an infantry regiment from his father's tenantry. On the outbreak of war with Revolutionary
France he joined the Duke of York's army in Flanders, in June, 1794.
 
'He did not learn much about the conduct of war, for the month he arrived the British and Allied
armies, manipulated from long distance by the king and politicians in England, began a long 
retreat, eventually back to Britain, leaving southern Holland in the hands of the French. Still,
promotions came thick and fast. In March, 1795, he got his lieutenancy; he was a captain by
April, a major in May, and a lieutenant-colonel in June. He was back in Holland in 1797,
commanding a cavalry brigade. The entire campaign was a failure, and by October 18 the Duke
of York patched up a truce with the French and hostilities ceased. Paget saw, as did the Duke
of York, that the British Army suffered from shocking lack of organisation. 
'Upon his return home he devoted himself to strengthening his regiment, of which he became
colonel in May, 1801, and made it one of the best in the army. Promotion to major-general
followed in 1802. In the latter part of that year he was given command of the cavalry division
sent to join Sir John Moore's army on the Peninsula [i.e. Spain and Portugal], and in December
he had to cover the army's retreat to Corunna. Because of badly organised supplies, his cavalry
horses had no shoes and half of them were lost. It was a sorry business, but Moore wrote: "The
only part of the army which has been hitherto engaged with the enemy has been the cavalry,
and it is impossible to say too much in their bias .... our cavalry is very superior in quality to any
the French have, and the right spirit has been infused into them by their two leaders - Lord
Paget and Brigadier­General Stewart."
'But Paget had no further service in the Peninsula, because his liaison with Lady Charlotte
Wellesley just then made it "difficult" for him to serve with Wellington. On July 25, 1795, Paget
had married Lady Caroline Villiers, third daughter of the Earl of Jersey. By the turn of the 
century, however, he was in love with the Lady Charlotte, daughter of the Earl of Cadogan, 
who had married the Honourable Henry Wellesley, younger brother of the Duke of Wellington.
Shortly after Paget's return from Corunna in January, 1809, the scandal broke. Henry Wellesley
divorced his wife for misconduct with Paget - attaining it by Act of Parliament, then the only
mode of divorce legal in England - and proceeded with an action against Paget for "criminal
conversation" - as the common-law suit was called by which a husband was then enabled to
recover damages from a wife­stealer.
'At the trial of this common-law action, Paget's counsel went into court under instructions to
abstain from all accusations that might justify his and Lady Charlotte's misconduct. Further, 
there was to be no plea to lessen the damages Wellesley might claim. Paget was so enamoured
of the Lady Charlotte that he proudly declared (damning the consequences) that it was doubtful
if any sum a jury might give would really compensate Wellesley for the loss of the lady. The jury
assessed the damages at the colossal figure of £24,000, which Paget cheerfully paid. 
'The domestic upheaval caused a furious flurry among the families involved. A fortnight after the
divorce, Captain Cadogan, Lady Charlotte's brother, came after Paget demanding a duel. With
rare common sense, Paget refused the challenge, saying that to fire at the brother of Lady 
Charlotte would merely add to the injuries he had already done the family, and no insult would
ever provoke him to doing so. 
'Paget's wife got a divorce by going to Scotland for it, and in 1810 Paget eloped with the Lady
Charlotte to Gretna Green, where they were wed across the blacksmith's anvil. The scandal died
down as six sons and four daughters of the second marriage gave a glow of respectability to the
union; and Paget's first wife married the Duke of Argyll. The wronged Henry Wellesley, six years
after the divorce, was to be seen chatting amiably with Paget whenever they both attended 
social functions, and he once put it on record that he now considered Anglesley the best friend
he had ever had in his life. At the time of the divorce, Wellesley had been furious, and 
resentment of Anglesey had clouded his relations with the entire Wellesley family, so that as a
soldier was unemployed from 1809 until early 1815, except for an expedition to Walcheren [in
the Netherlands].
 
'Paget became Earl of Uxbridge and took his seat in the House of Lords when his father died in
March, 1812. Three years afterwards he was ordered to Flanders to take command of the entire
cavalry and horse artillery in the Duke of Wellington's army for what was to be the last stand
against Napoleon. The situation was awkward. for Wellington still retained the family rancour
against Paget. On the eve of Waterloo, Anglesey, as second-in-command, approached the "Iron
Duke" and asked him for his plans for the battle. "Who will attack tomorrow?" Wellington inquired.
"Buonaparte," replied Paget. "Well," said the Duke with solemn irony, "Buonaparte has not given
me any idea of his projects, and as my plans will depend upon his, how can you expect me to
know what mine are?" Before Paget could protest at the snub, Wellington evidently regretted he
had used so cutting a sneer against a man who, with all his faults, was chivalrous, good-
tempered and courageous. 'There's one thing," he said quickly, putting his hand on Paget's
shoulder, "whatever happens, you and I will do our duty."
 
'During the battle the next day, Paget behaved with great gallantry, leading the cavalry charge
of the British centre with his customary dash. He was beside Wellington and the battle had
nearly ended when a bullet from a field-piece struck him on the knee. "By God, I've got it at
last!" he exclaimed. But he hadn't. His leg was amputated and buried at Waterloo, but he came
back to England without it to be created Marquess of Anglesey in recognition of his services and
live on for nearly 40 years more. Later a more dignified memorial than the one over his leg was
erected on a hill in Anglesey "in commemoration of the consummate skill and undaunted bravery"
he had shown at Waterloo. 
 
'Although nearly 50 and handicapped by a wooden leg, Anglesey was still straight and handsome,
an extremely impressive figure. He was Lord High Steward at the coronation of King George IV in
1820 [actually 19 July 1821], and as one of the peers of the realm, attended the House of Lords
for the divorce action which that fat and pompous monarch brought against his wife, Queen
Caroline. Their marriage had been doomed from the start, as George and Caroline were totally
incompatible. George thought Caroline the most tasteless, worst-behaved woman he had ever
known, and three months after their wedding wrote her that he never again intended to treat her
as his wife. She thought him "rather like a fat sergeant-major with his ears powdered." A man of
much matrimonial experience himself, Anglesey saw both sides of the royal divorce action - that
George was lazy, selfish, extravagant and cruel, and that Caroline was foolish and indiscreet to
the point of madness. He wrote to George advising him that the temper of the people was totally
against him - and he was cut in public by the King for his pains. At the same time, in attending
the House for the hearing of the action, he had to suffer the hisses and abuse of the mob who
"rubbed his own two wives under his nose." On one occasion he was held up by a crowd that
sympathised with Queen Caroline and insisted on his cheering her. He complied, saying with
calculated malice, "The Queen  - and may all your wives be like her!"
'When his friend George Canning became Prime Minister and the Duke of Wellington resigned as
Master-General of Ordnance, Anglesey succeeded to the latter post, which carried a seat in the
Cabinet. Nine months later, in February, 1828, he succeeded Wellington as Lord Lieutenant of
Ireland [This is not correct - he succeeded Wellington's elder brother, the Marquess Wellesley].
It was thought in England that Anglesey would be "the flash of steel that would bring the Irish 
to heel," for he had often hinted that Hussars galloping through Ireland sword in hand were the
best means of ending Irish demands for Catholic emancipation. 
 
'George IV, who had long forgotten the squabble over his divorce, said to him when he took his
leave before sailing tor lreland: "God bless you, Anglesey, I know you are a true Protestant." On
that occasion Anglesey replied unexpectedly: "Sir, I will not be considered either Protestant or
Catholic. I go to Ireland to determine impartially between them and without the least bias either 
one way or the other." Once in Ireland, he soon came to the conclusion that concessions must 
be made to the Catholic Association which, led by Daniel O'Connell, was forcing the question of
Catholic emancipation. 
'In public speeches, he spoke of his "warm anxiety to promote the best interests of Ireland," of 
his own "sanguine and ardent temperament" - doubtless with a smile - of his own Irish blood and
of his admiration for the Irish people. Writing to the Chief Secretary he said: "I abhor the idea of
truckling to the overbearing Catholic demagogues. To make any movement towards conciliation
under the present excitement would revolt me; but I do most conscientiously, and after the 
most earnest consideration of the subject, give it as my conviction that the first moment of 
composure and tranquillity should be seized to signify the intention of adjusting the question."
'This letter led to his immediate recall, for the English Government was pledged at the time to 
the king not to enter upon any negotiations for Catholic emancipation. Anglesey had become 
popular in Ireland and his departure was marked as day of mourning. In Dublin the shops were
closed and he was escorted to the embarkation point by thousands of all classes of the people,
many of the women being in tears. When Lord Grey became Prime Minister, Anglesey was again
made Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at the end of 1830. This time, however, agitation for repeal of
the Act of Union had taken the place of the earlier agitation for emancipation, and he was 
immediately at war with Daniel O'Connell. The situation became impossible, and when Anglesey
was driven to ask for coercive powers, he was recalled and was succeeded by the Duke of 
Wellington [actually the Marquess Wellesley]. His greatest legacy to Ireland was his establish-
ment of the Board of Education.
 
'He held further offices, being appointed Master-General of Ordnance in 1846, and Field Marshal
in 1852, although he was then 84 and a great-grandfather, but within three years - on April 29,
1854, he died. He was buried in the family vault in Lichfield Cathedral - that is, all of him except
his famous leg was buried there. It was still interred in the innkeeper's yard at Waterloo.'
 
Henry Cyril Paget, 5th Marquess of Anglesey
When Anglesey succeeded to the title in 1898, he became one of the wealthiest men in 
England. By the time of his death, less than 7 years later, his eccentricities and extravagances
had reduced him to bankruptcy.
Following his death at the age of 29, the 'Chicago Daily Tribune' on 15 March 1905 published
the following [edited] account of his career. Being an American newspaper, all currency 
amounts are shown in US dollars - at that time the exchange rate was roughly five dollars
to the pound:-
'MONTE CARLO, March 14 - Henry Cyril Paget, marquis of Anglesey, whose eccentricities,
extravagances, and escapades for six years has filled all European capitals with amazement, 
died here early this morning. His wife, from whom he separated two years ago, became 
reconciled with him at his deathbed……
'The dead marquis held the title for six years, and in those six years he spent $3,000,000 of
his own and contracted debts amounting to $2,725,000. His prodigalities in jewels and clothing
were enormous. His house parties and private theatricals excited the wonder of London,
Paris and Berlin. His personal eccentricities kept him constantly in the public eye. He perfumed
his automobile with violets. He put primroses in his hair. He wore women's clothing. He appeared
on the vaudeville stages of several cities in Europe in the costume of a ballet dancer. He
imitated the serpentine and fire dancers of Lole Fuller, wearing draperies spangled with
diamonds, emeralds and rubies costing $200,000. He spent $1,000,000 for jewels in a single
year. There was no splendor, however barbaric, that the eccentric young marquis did not
attempt to achieve, no extravagance he was unwilling to attempt.
'Before he became the marquis young Paget was a scholar at Eton and afterward second
lieutenant in the Royal Welsh fusiliers. Once in possession of the great estate in Wales, with its
famous collection of plate, jewels, paintings, furniture, tapestries and armor, the young marquis
launched upon the career of eccentricities that made him famous. One of the first things he did
was to transform the beautiful old gothic chapel, Plas-Newydd, into a private gayety theater.
'The wedding of the marquis was of a piece with his strange career. He chose for his wife Miss
Chetwynd, daughter of Sir George Chetwynd and the marchioness of Hastings. She was only
17 years old, of beautiful and refined features, with violet eyes and masses of Venetian red 
hair. They were cousins, and it was declared at the time that the marriage was arranged in
order that they might jointly inherit property which both would have lost if they did not marry
each other.
'Eighteen months after their wedding the marchioness applied to the English courts for a 
divorce. The terms of the separation proved the marquis' eccentricity. For the first year he
allowed her $15,000, and $4,500 to pay debts contracted while they were living together.
The second year he was to pay her $20,000, the next, if they were still separated, $25,000,
and so on, the allowance increasing $5,000 each year until it reached $50,000.
'Afterwards the marquis and his young wife met in Paris and became reconciled, were seen
everywhere together, and even travelled together. So society was not surprised when she
appealed to the English courts to have her decree of divorce annulled. Her request was
granted but the reconciliation was short lived, and they separated a second time, only to be
reunited at his deathbed.
'In the meantime the marquis had launched into the career of extravagance that made him 
famous. His theatrical entertainments at Anglesey castle became as famous as his jewels. 
Money was not considered. In the early days he used to gather around him amateurs as well
as professionals, but in the later shows he only had professionals to assist him. He was always
the star. His taste ran little toward plays of serious interest or dramatic value. Her perfected
extravaganzas which allowed costly costuming and enabled him to wear most gorgeous clothes -
women's and well as men's - and gave him a chance to display his jewels. Among the plays he
produced were "Aladdin," "Sinbad" and "Red Riding Hood." The entertainments usually continued
for six weeks. 
'In "Aladdin" his costume consisted of a gauze suit, to which had been fastened literally 
thousands of brilliants, so that he was all of a sparkle wherever he moved. About his neck he
wore strings of diamonds, and on his shoulders were bows of the precious stones. His head was
covered with a turban which would have excited the envy of the richest rajah of India. It
contained a magnificent emerald, surrounded by turquoises. On his breast he wore another
wonderful arrangement of jewels, the center of which was a ruby as large as a 25 cent piece.
Thus gorgeously arrayed he danced, while limelight cast varied hued beams upon him.
'Another extravagance recently reported was a gorgeous motor car, which contains a boudoir.
Its interior was hand painted. When riding in this the marquis was accustomed to wear a
magnificent coat of imperial Russian sable, which was worth thousands of pounds, and his
motorman was dressed like an Indian prince.
'He wore strange costumes about his home and his servants were put into uniforms that 
matched their master's. For example, his evening suits were ordinarily of blue or pink.
'Then came the crash. The marquis had spent in the six years $5,750,000. Of this amount he
had borrowed $2,500,000. His creditors descended upon him, he was declared a bankrupt, and
orders for the sale of his personal effects were issued.
'Court bailiffs took possession of Anglesey castle and searched it for jewels. They were 
astounded at what they found. The first day's sale netted the creditors $85,000. The second
day's sale realised $77,430 - a total of $162,430 - for jewels that cost the marquis many times
that amount. One pair of matchless cabochon sapphires of unusual size, mounted as sleeve
links, sold for only $6,000 - and they had cost the marquis $100,000.
'His wardrobe was sold with his jewels. There were 300 lots of wearing apparel, including more 
than 100 overcoats, 200 pairs of slippers, and 200 walking sticks, many of them with handles
incrusted with jewels.
'Though the sale had no precedent, the only things to drag in the bidding were the waistcoats.
These were found too loud even for stagework. Some of them were covered with spangles, with
contrasts of color that were blinding. One of blue peacock with iridescent feathers brought $65,
but the remaining 240 in all realized only $875.
'Another costume that stunned bidders was the marquis' white suede evening dress which he
wore in public with a black silk shirt and black collar.
'Gloves, stocks, and handkerchiefs went for more than their retail value. A new smoking jacket
of Persian lamb was also coveted by many.
'The highest amount paid for any single article was $1,500 for the marquis' famous overcoat of
brown sable. It is ornamented with twenty tails and ten sable heads, and is said to have cost
more than $5,000. In the overcoat collection there were specimens for every possible weather
and temperature, from the tropics to midwinter in St. Petersburg.
'A silver gray moleskin coat with raccoon collar brought $300 and two melton coats with mink 
and Persian linings brought $200 each. Greatly admired by women was a smoking suit of silver
gray silk with trousers of robin-egg blue. On the white silk facings were embroidered sprays of
forget-me-nots and wood violets.
'Shoes, few of which showed any trace of wear, brought high prices. Those that an ordinary
mortal could wear averaged $6 a pair. Golden slippers and high heeled fancy dress shoes were
bought by theatrical costumers.
'The pajamas and night shirts were dreams of oriental splendor. Some of the latter ran as high
as $72, while many pairs of pajamas were eagerly bid in at $42. The marquis' twelve evening
black silk shirts found purchasers at $22.
'The marquis had invented several "evening costumes" to take the place of the ordinary black
and white, which was abhorrent to his esthetic taste. One of these was pink and another of
blue silk. The nobleman's dressing gowns were of gold brocade. The magnificence of his bedroom
was approached by that of no royal personage in Europe, for it was draped in mauve velvet,
with hanging figures of solid silver. Its ornaments were of filigree and gold, and its tables 
crowded with bottles of the most costly perfumes. His "boudoir" was of green and gold. He had
three valets and a "coiffeur," all of whom earned their high salaries, for it was no unusual thing
for this modern Beau Brummel to spend a whole morning "working out" some special scheme of
color by dint of combining the effects of neckties, trousers, waistcoats, and "spats," discarding
one by one such as failed to "harmonize."
'Already the unsatisfied creditors are flocking to Monte Carlo in hope of securing something from
the sale of his remaining personal effects. They received 15 cents on the dollar originally and 
they are likely to get little more.'
                                       ************************
Another source states that marital relations between the Marquess and his wife became strained
when to took to waking her in the night, ordering her to strip naked, then covering her with 
gems. Given the Marquess's pre-occupation with jewellery and clothes, it is not altogether 
surprising that her grounds for the initial divorce proceedings were believed to have been the 
non-consummation of their marriage.
The Annandale and Hartfell peerage claim of 1985
The  following edited account of the successful claim made for the peerage appeared in 'The
Times' on 24 July 1985:-
'The Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords considering the petition presented to her
Majesty by Patrick Andrew Wentworth Hope Johnstone of Annandale and that ilk, praying that
her Majesty might admit his succession to, and declare him entitled to the title, style and
dignity of Earl of Annandale and Hartfell in the peerage of Scotland, created by King Charles II
in 1662, proposed that it should report to the House that the petitioner had made out his claim.
'Lord Keith said that the petitioner was a descendant, partly through females, of James, first
Earl of Annandale, and second Earl of Hartfell ("the first earl") whose father was by King Charles
I created Lord Johnstone of Lochwood in 1663 [1643?] and Earl of Hartfell by letters patent in 
1643, the destination of the latter being to the grantee "and his heirs male."
'The first earl was created Earl of Annandale by letters patent of King Charles II in 1661, with
precedence according to letters patent creating his father Earl of Hartfell in 1643.
'Those recited inter alia that another Earl of Annandale had died without heirs male of his body
so that a patent of that title and dignity (granted in 1624 [1625]) had come to the king's hands
and that no one was so worthy as the first earl to enjoy that title.
'The letters accordingly created as Earls of Annandale and Hartfell, Viscounts of Annand and
Lords of Johnstone and Lochwood, Lochmaben and Evandale, the first earl "and his heirs male
whom failing the eldest born heir female without division of [his] body.....and the heirs male
of the body of the said eldest born heirs female legitimately begotten......and all of which
failing the nearest heirs whatsoever" of the first earl.
'The first earl died in 1672 and was succeeded by his male heirs until 1792 when the heirs
male of the body of the first earl became extinct.
'A claim was thereupon advanced by James, third Earl of Hopetoun, who was the grandson
of the first earl's eldest granddaughter. Following the death of that claimant a claim was
presented by his daughter Lady Ann Hope Johnstone and subsequently pursued by her son
and grandson. Those claims which were all unsuccessful were founded upon the letters patent
of 1661.
'They depended for their success upon establishing that, upon a true construction, the
words "heirs male" in the destination of the peerage thereby created meant heirs male of
the body [of] the first earl, not his heirs male general, with the consequence that upon the
extinction of the heirs male of the body the succession opened to the eldest heir female of
his body and the heirs male of the body of such eldest heir female. The Committee for
Privileges rejected that construction in 1844 and again in 1879.
'The present claimant relied not upon the letters patent of 1661 but upon a Signature
under the sign manual of King Charles II dated April 23, 1662 and a Charter under the Great
Seal of Scotland following thereon and bearing the same date.
'His contention was that that Charter brought a new creation in favour of the first earl of the
Earldom of Annandale and Hartfell, separate from and independent of the creation brought 
about by the letters patent of 1661. The Charter, which was in Latin, detailed a great many 
lands, some of which were held by the first earl directly of the Crown and others of which he
had acquired by purchase, and recited that they had been resigned for new infeftment [in
Scottish law, the old process of granting symbolical possession of heritable property. The 
legal evidence of such a grant is an instrument of sasine - i.e. the deed or document which
records such transfer].
'It then proceeded of new to grant all those lands to the first earl and the heirs male lawfully
begotten or to be begotten of his body, whom failing to his heirs female carrying the name
and arms of Johnstone, whom all failing the nearest heirs and assignees whomsoever of the
first earl.
'The petitioner's pedigree and status as heir male of the body of the eldest heir female of
the body of the first earl, and also the fact of extinction of heirs male of the first earl's
body was accepted without the requirement of formal proof, as suggested by the Lord
Advocate in his report to her Majesty.
'The crucial issue was whether the 1662 Charter made a new creation of an Earldom of
Annandale and Hartfell. It was not contended that the earldom created by the letters patent
of 1661, following a resignation, was granted anew by the 1662 Charter and there was no
trace of an instrument of resignation. It was also significant that the words of the regrant
de novo dedimus governed only the described lands.
'The Charter then embarked upon a new clause introduced by et similiter which contained the 
erection of the lands into a territorial earldom cum titulo stylo et dignitate comitis.
'The first matter to be considered is resolving that issue was whether or not any precedent
existed for the royal creation of a second title of nobility in the same name as that of an earlier
creation. That question must be answered affirmatively, the best known example being the
Earldom of Mar where there are now two holders of a title of the same name recognized as 
eligible to sit in their Lordships' house.
'It was therefore within the legal competence of the sovereign to grant the same title of nobility 
to more than one person concurrently, or to grant a title of nobility to an individual on more 
than one occasion without there having been any resignation of the prior grant, and that the
subsequent grant might be on a different destination than the earlier one.
'The question was whether the Signature and Charter of 1662 upon their true construction 
demonstrated the royal intention of making a new grant of the title and dignity of Earl of
Annandale and Hartfell. The conveyancing procedure followed was, in accordance with the
practice of the time, apposite for the grant of a title.
'The Signature was superscribed by the royal sign manual and there was appended to it a 
docquet signed by the secretary of state summarising the effect and mentioning in particular
that the lands specified were to be united in a free barony, lordship and earldom called the
Earldom of Annandale and Hartfell with the dignity of an earl having the precedence of the
earlier patents in favour of the first earl and his deceased father.
'The Charter itself followed the terms of the Signature and duly passed the Great Seal of 
Scotland. There was no doubt that if there had been no earlier creation of peerage dignities of 
the same name, the Charter would have been completely effective to make a first creation of
Earl of Annandale and Hartfell.
'Many charters of the period contained a grant of lands, followed by the erection of those lands 
into a territorial barony or earldom under a particular name, followed by the grant of a title of
nobility of that name.
'There were precedents where, following a grant of lands later expressed as being erected into 
a territorial lordship, mention of title and dignity was introduced by the preposition cum, which
the general conveyancing practice of those times indicated was quite regularly used to add to
what was earlier granted further heritable subjects of considerable importance.
'His Lordship concluded that in the present case the circumstance that mention of the title and 
dignity of an earl was introduced by cum and that the title and dignity was not directly made
the object of words connoting a grant was not inconsistent with the intention to create a 
peerage dignity.
'Read literally the words used were capable of bearing that interpretation: "we have created
(creavimus) a territorial earldom (comitatum) with the title, style and dignity of an earl."
'It was clear that the king by the 1662 Charter intended to and did create, not only the 
territorial Earldom of Annandale and Hartfell, but also the new title, style and dignity of Earl of
Annandale and Hartfell to go with it upon the same destination.
'It followed that just as the title of Annandale might have followed a different destination from 
that of Hartfell, so might that of Annandale and Hartfell have followed a different destination
from one at least of the others.
'The findings of the Committee for Privileges, adopted by the House in the proceedings of 1844 
and 1879 relating to claims by the petitioner's ancestors, did not constitute a bar to the
petitioner's claim since no attempt was made in the earlier proceedings to rely on the Charter
and Signature of 1662.
'The question now at issue was not then considered or decided, and the nineteenth-century 
proceedings could properly be treated as different from that of the present claim. Moreover,
it was well settled in the law of Scotland that heritable rights and rights of blood did not
prescribe unless there had been adverse possession. The conclusion therefore was that the
petitioner had made out his claim.'
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