PEERAGE
Last updated 28/09/2014
Date Rank Order Name Born Died Age
CABLE
17 Jan 1921 B 1 Sir Ernest Cable†††††††††††††††††††††††† 1 Dec 1859 28 Mar 1927 67
to†††† Created Baron Cable 17 Jan 1921
28 Mar 1927 Peerage extinct on his death
CACCIA
11 May 1965 B[L] 1 Harold Anthony Caccia†††††††††††††††††††† 21 Dec 1905 31 Oct 1990 84
to†††† Created Baron Caccia for life 11 May 1965
31 Oct 1990 Peerage extinct on his death
CADMAN
7 Jun 1937 B 1 John Cadman 7 Sep 1877 31 May 1941 63
Created Baron Cadman 7 Jun 1937
31 May 1941 2 John Basil Cope Cadman 23 Mar 1909 5 Apr 1966 57
5 Apr 1966 3 John Anthony Cadman 3 Jul 1938
CADOGAN
21 Jun 1716 B 1 William Cadogan 1672 17 Jul 1726 54
to†††† Created Baron Cadogan of Reading
17 Jul 1726 21 Jun 1716 and Baron Cadogan of
8 May 1718 E 1 Oakley,Viscount Caversham and Earl
to†††† Cadogan 8 May 1718
17 Jul 1726 The Barony of 1718 contained a special remainder
failing the heirs male of his body,to his brother
Charles Cadogan
MP for Woodstock 1705-1716. PC 1717
KT 1716
On his death the Barony of 1716 and the
Earldom and Viscountcy of 1718 became
extinct,while the Barony of 1718 passed to -
17 Jul 1726 2 Charles Cadogan 1685 24 Sep 1776 91
MP for Reading 1716-1722 and Newport IOW
1722-1726
24 Sep 1776 3 Charles Sloane Cadogan 29 Sep 1728 3 Apr 1807 78
27 Dec 1800 E 1 Created Viscount Chelsea and Earl
Cadogan 27 Dec 1800
MP for Cambridge 1749-1754 and 1755-1776
Master of the Mint 1769-1784
3 Apr 1807 2 Charles Henry Sloane Cadogan 29 Nov 1749 23 Dec 1832 83
23 Dec 1832 3 George Cadogan 5 May 1783 15 Sep 1864 81
Created Baron Oakley of Caversham
10 Sep 1831
15 Sep 1864 4 Henry Charles Cadogan 15 Feb 1812 8 Jun 1873 61
MP for Reading 1841-1847 and Dover 1852-
1857. PC 1866
8 Jun 1873 5 George Henry Cadogan 12 May 1840 6 Mar 1915 74
MP for Bath 1873. Lord Privy Seal 1886-1892
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1895-1902.
PC 1885. KG 1891
6 Mar 1915 6 Gerald Oakley Cadogan 28 May 1869 4 Oct 1933 64
4 Oct 1933 7 William Gerald Charles Cadogan 13 Feb 1914 4 Jul 1997 83
4 Jul 1997 8 Charles Gerald John Cadogan 24 Mar 1937
CAHER
10 Nov 1543 B[I] 1 Sir Thomas Butler 1558
Created Baron Caher 10 Nov 1543
1558 2 Edmund Butler 1560
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
1560
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6 May 1583 B[I] 1 Sir Theobald Butler 28 Apr 1596
Created Baron of Cahir 6 May 1583
28 Apr 1596 2 Thomas Butler 1568 31 Jan 1627 58
31 Jan 1627 3 Thomas Butler 1648
1648 4 Pierce Butler 30 Jan 1676
30 Jan 1676 5 Theobald Butler 27 Sep 1700
27 Sep 1700 6 Thomas Butler 29 May 1744
29 May 1744 7 James Butler 1 Aug 1711 6 Jun 1786 74
6 Jun 1786 8 Pierce Butler by 1727 10 Jun 1788
10 Jun 1788 9 James Butler Jul 1788
Jul 1788 10 Richard Butler 13 Nov 1775 30 Jan 1819 43
22 Jan 1816 V[I] 1 Created Viscount Caher and Earl of
Glengall (qv) 22 Jan 1816
30 Jan 1819 11 Richard Butler,2nd Earl of Glengall 17 May 1794 22 Jan 1858 63
to†††† 2 Peerages extinct on his death
22 Jan 1858
CAILLY
4 Mar 1309 B 1 Thomas de Cailly c 1284 1316
to†††† Summoned to Parliament as Lord de
1316 Cailly 4 Mar 1309
Peerage extinct on his death
CAIRNS
27 Sep 1878 E 1 Hugh McCalmont Cairns 27 Dec 1819 3 Apr 1885 65
Created Baron Cairns 27 Feb 1867,and
Viscount Garmoyle and Earl Cairns
27 Sep 1878
MP for Belfast 1852-1859 and 1865-1866.
Solicitor General 1858-1859. Attorney
General 1866. Lord Chancellor 1868 and
1874-1880. PC 1866
3 Apr 1885 2 Arthur William Cairns 21 Dec 1861 14 Jan 1890 28
14 Jan 1890 3 Herbert John Cairns 17 Jul 1863 14 Jan 1905 41
14 Jan 1905 4 Wilfrid Dallas Cairns 28 Nov 1865 23 Oct 1946 80
23 Oct 1946 5 David Charles Cairns 3 Jul 1909 21 Mar 1989 79
21 Mar 1989 6 Simon Dallas Cairns 27 May 1939
CAITHNESS
c 1334 E[S] 1 Malise,Earl of Stratherne by 1353
to†††† He was styled Earl of Caithness
1335 c 1334
He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
in 1335
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c 1375 E[S] 1 David Stewart by 1389
Created Earl of Caithness by Nov
1375
Younger son of Robert II of Scotland
by 1389 2 Euphemia Stewart after 1390
She resigned her peerage,after 1390,in
favour of -
after 1390 3 Walter Stewart Apr 1437
He resigned his peerage,c 1428,in
favour of -
c 1428 4 Alan Stewart 1431
1431 5 Walter Stewart(again) Apr 1437
to†††† He was executed for high treason and his
Apr 1437 peerage forfeited
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1452 E[S] 1 Sir George Crichton 1455
to†††† Created Earl of Caithness 1452
after 1452 He resigned the peerage shortly after
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28 Aug 1455 E[S] 1 William Sinclair,3rd Earl of Orkney 1476
Created Lord Sinclair c 1449and
Caithness 28 Aug 1455
1476 2 William Sinclair 9 Sep 1513
9 Sep 1513 3 John Sinclair 18 May 1529
18 May 1529 4 George Sinclair by 1527 9 Sep 1582
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
9 Sep 1582 5 George Sinclair 1566 Feb 1643 76
Feb 1643 6 George Sinclair May 1676
He resigned the peerage in favour of -
1672 [1] Sir John Campbell c 1635 19 Mar 1717
Created Lord St.Clair of Berriedale
and Glenurchy,Viscount of Breadalbane
and Earl of Caithness 28 Jun 1677
He in turn resigned the Earldom
in favour of -
1681 7 George Sinclair 1698
1698 8 John Sinclair 1705
1705 9 Alexander Sinclair 1685 9 Dec 1765 80
9 Dec 1765 10 William Sinclair 2 Apr 1727 29 Nov 1779 52
29 Nov 1779 11 John Sinclair 1757 8 Apr 1789 31
8 Apr 1789 12 Sir James Sinclair,7th baronet 31 Oct 1766 16 Jul 1823 56
Lord Lieutenant Caithness 1794-1823
16 Jul 1823 13 Alexander Campbell Sinclair 24 Jul 1790 24 Dec 1855 65
Lord Lieutenant Caithness 1823-1855
24 Dec 1855 14 James Sinclair 16 Aug 1821 28 Mar 1881 59
Created Baron Barrogill 1 May 1866
Lord Lieutenant Caithness 1856-1881
28 Mar 1881 15 George Philips Alexander Sinclair 30 Nov 1858 25 May 1889 30
Lord Lieutenant Caithness 1881-1889
25 May 1889 16 James Augustus Sinclair 31 May 1827 20 Jan 1891 63
20 Jan 1891 17 John Sutherland Sinclair 17 Sep 1857 30 May 1914 56
30 May 1914 18 Norman Macleod Sinclair 4 Apr 1862 25 Mar 1947 84
25 Mar 1947 19 James Roderick Sinclair 29 Sep 1906 9 May 1965 58
9 May 1965 20 Malcolm Ian Sinclair 3 Nov 1948
PC 1990
CALDECOTE
6 Sep 1939 V 1 Thomas Walker Hobart Inskip 5 Mar 1876 11 Oct 1947 71
Created Viscount Caldecote 6 Sep 1939
MP for Bristol Central 1918-1929 and
Fareham 1931-1939. Solicitor General
1922-1924 ,1924-1928 and 1931-1932.
Attorney General 1928-1929 and 1932-1936.
Secretary of State for Dominions 1939
and 1940. Lord Chancellor 1939-1940.
Lord Chief Justice 1940-1946PC 1932
11 Oct 1947 2 Robert Andrew Inskip 8 Oct 1917 20 Sep 1999 81
20 Sep 1999 3 Piers James Hampden Inskip 20 May 1947
CALEDON
29 Dec 1800 E[I] 1 James Alexander 1730 22 Mar 1802 71
Created Baron Caledon 6 Jun 1790,
Viscount Caledon 23 Nov 1797 and
Earl of Caledon 29 Dec 1800
22 Mar 1802 2 Du Pre Alexander 14 Dec 1777 8 Apr 1839 61
Lord Lieutenant Tyrone 1831-1839. Governor
of the Cape of Good Hope 1807-1811. KP 1821
8 Apr 1839 3 James Du Pre Alexander 27 Jul 1812 30 Jun 1855 42
MP for Tyrone 1837-1839
30 Jun 1855 4 James Alexander 11 Jul 1846 27 Apr 1898 51
KP 1897
27 Apr 1898 5 Eric James Desmond Alexander 9 Aug 1885 10 Jul 1968 82
10 Jul 1968 6 Denis James Alexander 10 Nov 1920 20 May 1980 59
20 May 1980 7 Nicholas James Alexander 6 May 1955
Lord Lieutenant Armagh 1989-
CALENDAR
6 Oct 1641 E[S] 1 James Livingston 1672
Created Lord Livingston of Almond
19 Jun 1633, and Lord Livingston and
Almond and Earl of Calendar
6 Oct 1641
1672 2 Alexander Livingston Aug 1685
Aug 1685 3 Alexander Livingston Dec 1692
Dec 1692 4 James Livingston,5th Earl of Linlithgow 25 Apr 1723
to†††† He was attainted and the peerages forfeited
1716 in 1716
CALLAGHAN OF CARDIFF
5 Nov 1987 B[L] 1 Leonard James Callaghan 27 Mar 1912 26 Mar 2005 92
to†††† Created Baron Callaghan of Cardiff for life
26 Mar 2005 5 Nov 1987
MP for Cardiff South 1945-1950 ,
Cardiff Southeast 1950-1983 and Cardiff
South & Penarth 1983-1987. Chancellor of
the Exchequer 1964-1967. Home Secretary
1967-1970. Secretary of State for Foreign
and Commonwealth Affairs 1974-1976.
Prime Minister 1976-1979. PC 1964KG 1987
Peerage extinct on his death
CALLAN
7 Nov 1622 V[I] 1 George Feilding 31 Jan 1665
Created Baron Feilding and Viscount
Callan 7 Nov 1622
He succeeded to the Earldom of Desmond
(qv) in 1628
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4 Jun 1790 B[I] 1 George Agar 18 Apr 1754 9 Oct 1815 61
to†††† Created Baron Callan 4 Jun 1790
29 Oct 1815 PC [I] 1789
Peerage extinct on his death
CALLANAN
24 Sep 2014 B[L] 1 Martin John Callanan 8 Aug 1961
Created Baron Callanan for life 24 Sep 2014
CALNE AND CALSTON
6 Dec 1784 V 1 William Petty,2nd Earl of Shelburne 2 May 1737 7 May 1805 68
Created Viscount Calne and Calston,
Earl Wycombe and Marquess of
Lansdowne 6 Dec 1784
See "Lansdowne"
CALTHORPE
16 Jun 1796 B 1 Sir Henry Gough-Calthorpe,2nd baronet 1 Jan 1748 16 Mar 1798 50
Created Baron Calthorpe 16 Jun 1796
MP for Bramber 1774-1796
16 Mar 1798 2 Charles Gough-Calthorpe 22 Mar 1786 5 Jun 1807 21
5 Jun 1807 3 George Gough-Calthorpe 22 Jun 1787 Sep 1851 64
Sep 1851 4 Frederick Gough 14 Jun 1790 2 May 1868 77
MP for Hindon 1818-1826 and Bramber
1826-1831
2 May 1868 5 Frederick Henry William Gough-Calthorpe 24 Jul 1826 25 Jun 1893 66
MP for Worcestershire East 1859-1868
25 Jun 1893 6 Augustus Cholmondeley Gough-Calthorpe 8 Nov 1829 22 Jul 1910 80
22 Jul 1910 7 Somerset John Gough-Calthorpe 23 Jan 1831 12 Nov 1912 81
12 Nov 1912 8 Somerset Frederick Gough-Calthorpe 23 Dec 1862 6 Jul 1940 77
6 Jul 1940 9 Ronald Arthur Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 22 Jun 1924 9 Oct 1945 21
9 Oct 1945 10 Peter Waldo Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 13 Jul 1927 29 May 1997 69
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
29 May 1997
CALVERLEY
17 Nov 1945 B 1 George Muff 10 Feb 1877 20 Sep 1955 78
Created Baron Calverley 17 Nov 1945
MP for Kingston upon Hull East 1929-1931
and 1935-1945
20 Sep 1955 2 George Raymond Orford Muff 1 May 1914 4 Jun 1971 57
4 Jun 1971 3 Charles Rodney Muff 2 Oct 1946
CAMBRIDGE
7 May 1340 E 1 William of Juliers c 1299 Feb 1361
to††††††††† Created Earl of Cambridge 7 May 1340
c 1361 The peerage was probably forfeited before
his death
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13 Nov 1362 E 1 Edward Plantagenet 5 Jun 1344 1 Aug 1402 58
Created Earl of Cambridge 13 Nov 1362
and Duke of York 6 Aug 1385
Fifth son of Edward III
1 Aug 1402 2 Edward Plantagenet,Duke of York 25 Oct 1415
to†††† He resigned the Earldom c 1414
c 1414
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1 May 1414 E 1 Richard Plantagenet c 1375 5 Aug 1415
to†††† Created Earl of Cambridge 1 May 1414
5 Aug 1415 He was attainted and executed when the
peerage was forfeited
c 1426 2 Richard Plantagenet 1412 31 Dec 1460
Restored to the peerage c 1426
31 Dec 1460 3 Edward Plantagenet,Duke of York 28 Apr 1442 9 Apr 1483 40
to†††† He succeeded to the throne as Edward IV
4 Mar 1461 when the peerages merged with the Crown
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16 Jun 1619 E 1 James Hamilton,2nd Marquess of Hamilton 1589 2 Mar 1625 35
Created Baron Ennerdale and Earl of
Cambridge 16 Jun 1619
3 Mar 1625 2 James Hamilton,1st Duke of Hamilton 19 Jun 1606 9 Mar 1649 42
9 Mar 1649 3 William Hamilton,2nd Duke of Hamilton 14 Dec 1616 12 Sep 1651 34
to†††† The Earldom became extinct on his death
12 Sep 1651
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13 May 1659 E 1 Henry Stuart 8 Jul 1640 13 Sep 1660 20
to†††† Created Earl of Cambridge and Duke
13 Sep 1660 of Gloucester 13 May 1659
Third son of Charles I
Peerages extinct on his death
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1660 D 1 Charles Stuart 22 Oct 1660 5 May 1661 -†††
to†††† Created Duke of Cambridge 1660
5 May 1661 Eldest son of James II
Peerage extinct on his death
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23 Aug 1664 D 1 James Stuart 11 Jul 1663 20 Jun 1667 3
to†††† Created Baron of Dauntsey and Earl
20 Jun 1667 and Duke of Cambridge 23 Aug 1664
Second son of James II. KG 1666
Peerages extinct on his death
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7 Oct 1667 D 1 Edgar Stuart 14 Sep 1667 8 Jun 1671 3
to†††† Created Baron of Dauntsey and Earl
8 Jun 1671 and Duke of Cambridge 7 Oct 1667
Fourth son of James II
Peerages extinct on his death
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1677 Charles Stuart 7 Nov 1677 12 Dec 1677 -†††
to†††† Designated Duke of Cambridge 1677
1677 Fifth son of James II
Peerage extinct on his death
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9 Nov 1706 D 1 George Augustus 30 Oct 1683 25 Oct 1760 76
to†††† Created Baron of Tewkesbury,Viscount
1727 Northallerton,Earl of Milford Haven
and Marquess and Duke of Cambridge
9 Nov 1706
He succeeded as George II in 1727 when the
peerage merged with the Crown
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27 Nov 1801 D 1 Adolphus Frederick 24 Feb 1774 17 Jul 1850 76
Created Baron of Culloden,Earl of
Tipperary and Duke of Cambridge
27 Nov 1801
Seventh and youngest son of George III
KG 1786
17 Jul 1850 2 George William Frederick Charles 26 Mar 1819 17 Mar 1904 84
to†††† KG 1835, KP 1851, KT 1881PC 1856PC [I] 1868
17 Mar 1904 Peerages extinct on his death
For further information on this peer and his
morganatic marriage, see the note at the
foot of this page
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16 Jul 1917 M 1 Adolphus Charles Alexander Ladislaus
Cambridge 13 Aug 1868 24 Oct 1927 59
Created Viscount Northallerton,Earl
of Eltham and Marquess of Cambridge
16 Jul 1917
24 Oct 1927 2 George Francis Hugh Cambridge 11 Oct 1895 16 Apr 1981 85
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
16 Apr 1981
---------------------------------------------------
26 May 2011 D 1 HRH Prince William of Wales (William Arthur
Philip Louis) 21 Jun 1982
Created Baron Carrickfergus,Earl of Strathearn
and Duke of Cambridge 26 May 2011
CAMDEN
13 May 1786 E 1 Sir Charles Pratt 21 Mar 1714 18 Apr 1794 80
Created Baron Camden 17 Jul 1765
and Viscount Bayham and Earl Camden
13 May 1786
MP for Downton 1757-1762. Lord
Chancellor 1766-1770. Lord President of
the Council 1782-1783 and 1784-1794
PC 1762
18 Apr 1794 2 John Jeffreys Pratt 11 Feb 1759 8 Oct 1840 81
7 Sep 1812 M 1 Created Earl of the County of
Brecknock and Marquess Camden
7 Sep 1812
MP for Bath 1780-1794. Lord Lieutenant of
Ireland 1795-1798. Secretary of State for
Colonies 1804. Lord President of the
Council 1805-1806 and 1807-1812. Lord
Lieutenant Kent 1808-1840. PC 1793, PC [I] 1795
KG 1799
8 Oct 1840 2 George Charles Pratt 2 May 1799 8 Aug 1866 67
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Camden 8 Jan 1835
MP for Ludgershall 1821-1826, Bath 1826-
1830 and Dunwich 1831-1832. Lord
Lieutenant Brecknock 1865-1866.KG 1846
8 Aug 1866 3 John Charles Pratt 30 Jun 1840 4 May 1872 31
MP for Brecon 1866
4 May 1872 4 John Charles Pratt 9 Feb 1872 14 Dec 1943 71
Lord Lieutenant Kent 1905-1943
14 Dec 1943 5 John Charles Henry Pratt 12 Apr 1899 22 Mar 1983 83
22 Mar 1983 6 David George Edward Henry Pratt 13 Aug 1930
CAMELFORD
5 Jan 1784 B 1 Thomas Pitt 3 Mar 1737 19 Jan 1793 55
Created Baron Camelford 5 Jan 1784
MP for Old Sarum 1761-1768 and 1774-1784, and
Okehampton 1768-1774
19 Jan 1793 2 Thomas Pitt 19 Feb 1775 10 Mar 1804 29
to†††† For further information on this peer, see the
10 Mar 1804 note at the foot of this page.
Peerage extinct on his death
CAMERON OF BALHOUSIE
14 Mar 1983 B[L] 1 Neil Cameron 8 Jul 1920 29 Jan 1985 64
to†††† Created Baron Cameron of Balhousie
29 Jan 1985 for life 14 Mar 1983
Marshal of the Royal Air Force 1977. Chief of
the Defence Staff 1977-1979KT 1983
Peerage extinct on his death
CAMERON OF DILLINGTON
29 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Ewen James Hanning Cameron 24 Nov 1949
Created Baron Cameron of Dillington
for life 29 Jun 2004
CAMERON OF LOCHBROOM
8 Jun 1984 B[L] 1 Kenneth John Cameron 11 Jun 1931
Created Baron Cameron of Lochbroom
for life 8 Jun 1984
Lord Advocate 1984-1989. PC 1984
CAMOYS
18 Dec 1264 B 1 Ralph de Camoys 1277
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Camoys 18 Dec 1264
1277 2 John de Camoys 1251 by 1299
by 1299 3 Ralph de Camoys c 1340
c 1340 4 Thomas de Camoys 10 Apr 1372
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
10 Apr 1372
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20 Aug 1383 B 1 Thomas de Camoys 28 Mar 1419
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Camoys 20 Aug 1383
KG 1415
28 Mar 1419 2 Hugh de Camoys 1413 12 Aug 1426 13
to†††† On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
12 Aug 1426
14 Sep 1839 3 Thomas Stonor 22 Oct 1797 18 Jan 1881 83
Abeyance terminated in his favour 1839
MP for Oxford 1832-1833
18 Jan 1881 4 Francis Robert Stonor 9 Dec 1856 14 Jul 1897 40
14 Jul 1897 5 Ralph Francis Julian Stonor 28 Jan 1884 3 Aug 1968 84
3 Aug 1968 6 Sherman Stonor 5 Jul 1913 9 Mar 1976 62
9 Mar 1976 7 Ralph Thomas Campion George
Sherman Stonor 16 Apr 1940
PC 1997
CAMPBELL
1445 B[S] 1 Sir Duncan Campbell 1453
Created Lord Campbell 1445
1453 2 Colin Campbell
He was created Earl of Argyll 1457 (qv)
CAMPBELL OF ALLOWAY
2 Jun 1981 B[L] 1 Alan Robertson Campbell 24 May 1917 30 Jun 2013 96
to†††† Created Baron Campbell of Alloway
30 Jun 2013 for life 2 Jun 1981
Peerage extinct on his death
CAMPBELL OF CROY
9 Jan 1975 B[L] 1 Gordon Thomas Calthrop Campbell 8 Jun 1921 26 Apr 2005 83
to†††† Created Baron Campbell of Croy for life
26 Apr 2005 9 Jan 1975
MP for Moray and Nairn 1959-1974.
Secretary of State for Scotland 1970-
1974.PC 1970
Peerage extinct on his death
CAMPBELL OF ESKAN
14 Jan 1966 B[L] 1 John Middleton Campbell 8 Aug 1912 26 Dec 1994 82
to†††† Created Baron Campbell of Eskan for life
26 Dec 1994 14 Jan 1966
Peerage extinct on his death
CAMPBELL OF LOUGHBOROUGH
10 Nov 2008 B[L] 1 Susan Catherine Campbell 10 Oct 1948
Created Baroness Campbell of Loughborough
for life 10 Nov 2008
CAMPBELL OF ST.ANDREWS
30 Jun 1841 B 1 Sir John Campbell 15 Sep 1779 24 Jun 1861 81
Created Baron Campbell of St.
Andrews 30 Jun 1841
MP for Stafford 1830-1832, Dudley 1832-
1834 and Edinburgh 1834-1841. Solicitor
General 1832, Attorney General 1834 and
1835-1841. Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster 1846-1850. Chief Justice of the
Queen's Bench 1850. Lord Chancellor
1859-1861.PC 1841PC [I] 1841
24 Jun 1861 2 William Frederick Campbell 15 Oct 1824 21 Jan 1893 68
He had previously succeeded to the Barony
of Stratheden of Cupar (qv) with which this
peerage then merged and so remains
CAMPBELL OF SURBITON
30 Mar 2007 B[L] 1 Dame Jane Campbell
Created Baroness Campbell of Surbiton
for life 30 Mar 2007
CAMPBELL AND COWALL
23 Jun 1701 E[S] 1 Archibald Campbell,10th Earl of Argyll 21 Oct 1703
Created Lord of Inverary,Mull,Morvern
and Tirie,Viscount of Lochow and
Glenlya,Earl of Campbell and Cowall,
Marquess of Kintyre and Lorn and Duke
of Argyll 23 Jun 1701
See "Argyll"
CAMPBELL-SAVOURS
4 Jul 2001 B[L] 1 Dale Norman Campbell-Savours 23 Aug 1943
Created Baron Campbell-Savours for life
4 Jul 2001
MP for Workington 1979-2001
CAMPDEN
5 May 1628 V 1 Sir Baptist Hicks,1st baronet 1551 28 Oct 1629 78
Created Baron Hicks of Ilmington and
Viscount Campden 5 May 1628
MP for Tavistock 1621-1622 and
Tewkesbury 1624-1628
28 Oct 1629 2 Sir Edward Noel,1st baronet 10 Mar 1643
Created Baron Noel of Ridlington
23 Mar 1617
MP for Rutland 1601
10 Mar 1643 3 Baptist Noel 1612 29 Oct 1682 70
MP for Rutland 1640-1643
29 Oct 1682 4 Edward Noel 27 Jan 1641 8 Apr 1689 48
He was created Earl of Gainsborough 1682
with which title this peerage then merged
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16 Aug 1841 V 1 Charles Noel Noel,3rd Baron Barham 2 Oct 1781 10 Jun 1866 84
Created Baron Noel of Ridlington,
Viscount Campden and Earl of
Gainsborough 16 Aug 1841
See "Gainsborough"
CAMPERDOWN
30 Oct 1797 V 1 Adam Duncan 1 Jul 1731 4 Aug 1804 73
Created Baron Duncan and Viscount
Duncan of Camperdown 30 Oct 1797
4 Aug 1804 2 Robert Dundas Haldane-Duncan 21 Mar 1785 22 Dec 1859 74
12 Sep 1831 E 1 Created Earl of Camperdown
12 Sep 1831
KT 1848
22 Dec 1859 2 Adam Haldane-Duncan 25 Mar 1812 30 Jan 1867 54
MP for Southampton 1837-1841, Bath
1841-1852 and Forfarshire 1854-1859
30 Jan 1867 3 Robert Adam Philips Haldane
Haldane-Duncan 28 May 1841 5 Jun 1918 77
5 Jun 1918 4 George Alexander Philips Haldane
to†††† Haldane-Duncan 9 May 1845 5 Dec 1933 88
5 Dec 1933 Peerages extinct on his death
CAMPION
6 Jul 1950 B 1 Gilbert Francis Montriou Campion 11 May 1882 6 Apr 1958 75
to†††† Created Baron Campion 6 Jul 1950
6 Apr 1958 Peerage extinct on his death
CAMPSIE
17 Aug 1661 B[S] 1 James Livingston 25 Jun 1616 7 Sep 1661 45
Created Lord Campsie and Viscount of
Kilsyth 17 Aug 1661
See "Kilsyth"
CAMROSE
20 Jan 1941 V 1 Sir William Ewart Berry,1st baronet 23 Jun 1879 15 Jun 1954 74
Created Baron Camrose 19 Jun 1929
and Viscount Camrose 20 Jan 1941
15 Jun 1954 2 Seymour Berry 12 Jul 1909 15 Feb 1995 85
MP for Hitchin 1941-1945
15 Feb 1995 3 William Michael Berry,Baron Hartwell (qv) 18 May 1911 3 Apr 2001 89
to†††† He disclaimed the peerage for life 1995
1995
3 Apr 2001 4 Adrian Michael Berry 15 Jun 1937
CAMVILLE
23 Jun 1295 B 1 Geoffrey de Camville 1309
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Camville 23 Jun 1295
1309 2 William de Camville 1269 by 1337
to†††† On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
by 1337
CANADA
14 Jun 1633 E[S] 1 Sir William Alexander,1st Viscount of Stirling c 1576 12 Feb 1640
Created Lord Alexander of Tullibody,
Viscount Canada and Earl of Stirling
14 Jun 1633
See "Stirling"
CANNING
22 Jan 1828 V 1 Joan Canning 1777 14 Mar 1837 59
Created Viscountess Canning
22 Jan 1828
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the
foot of this page
Widow of George Canning
14 Mar 1837 2 Charles John Canning 14 Dec 1812 17 Jun 1862 49
21 May 1859 E 1 Created Earl Canning 21 May 1859
to†††† MP for Warwick 1836-1837. Postmaster
17 Jun 1862 General 1852-1855. Governor General of
India 1855-1862. PC 1846KG 1862
Peerages extinct on his death
CANTELUPE
29 Dec 1299 B 1 William de Cantelupe 2 Apr 1262 Jul 1308 46
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Cantelupe 29 Dec 1299
Jul 1308 2 William de Cantelupe 1293 c 1320
c 1320 3 Nicholas de Cantelupe 31 Jul 1355
31 Jul 1355 4 Nicholas de Cantelupe 1342 1370 28
1370 5 William de Cantelupe 1345 1375 30
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
1375
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18 Mar 1761 V 1 John West,7th Baron de la Warr 4 Apr 1693 16 Mar 1766 72
Created Viscount Cantelupe and Earl
de la Warr 18 Mar 1761
See "de la Warr"
CANTERBURY
10 Mar 1835 V 1 Sir Charles Manners-Sutton 29 Jan 1780 21 Jul 1845 65
Created Baron Bottesford and
Viscount Canterbury 10 Mar 1835
MP for Scarborough 1806-1832 and
Cambridge University 1832-1835. Speaker of
the House of Commons 1817-1834. PC 1809
21 Jul 1845 2 Charles John Manners-Sutton 17 Apr 1812 13 Nov 1869 57
13 Nov 1869 3 John Henry Thomas Manners-Sutton 27 May 1814 23 Jun 1877 63
MP for Cambridge 1839-1840 and 1841-1847.
Governor of Trinidad 1864-1866 and Victoria
1866-1873
23 Jun 1877 4 Henry Charles Manners-Sutton 11 Jul 1839 19 Feb 1914 74
19 Feb 1914 5 Henry Frederick Walpole Manners-Sutton 8 Apr 1879 22 Oct 1918 39
22 Oct 1918 6 Charles Graham Manners-Sutton 23 Jan 1872 26 Feb 1941 69
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
26 Feb 1941
CAPELL OF HADHAM
5 Aug 1641 B 1 Arthur Capell 20 Feb 1604 9 Mar 1649 45
Created Baron Capell of Hadham
5 Aug 1641
MP for Hertfordshire 1639-1641
9 Mar 1649 2 Arthur Capell 28 Jan 1632 13 Jul 1683 51
He was created Earl of Essex 1661 (qv) with
which title this peerage then merged
CAPELL OF TEWKESBURY
11 Apr 1692 B 1 Henry Capell 6 Mar 1638 30 May 1696 58
to†††† Created Baron Capell of Tewkesbury
30 May 1696 11 Apr 1692
First Lord of the Admiralty 1679PC 1679
MP for Tewkesbury 1660-1685 and 1690-1692
and Cockermouth 1689-1690
Peerage extinct on his death
CARADON
27 Oct 1964 B[L] 1 Hugh Mackintosh Foot 8 Oct 1907 5 Sep 1990 82
to†††† Created Baron Caradon for life 27 Oct 1964
5 Sep 1990 Governor of Jamaica 1951-1957 and Cyprus
1957-1960. Minister of State Foreign Office
1964-1970.PC 1968
Peerage extinct on his death
CARBERY(co Cork)
5 Aug 1628 E[I] 1 John Vaughan c 1574 6 May 1634
Created Baron Vaughan of Mullengar
13 Jul 1621 and Earl of Carbery
5 Aug 1628
6 May 1634 2 Richard Vaughan 3 Dec 1687
Created Baron Vaughan of Emlyn
25 Oct 1643
Lord Lieutenant Glamorgan 1660-1672
3 Dec 1687 3 John Vaughan 18 Jul 1639 16 Jan 1713 73
to†††† Governor of Jamaica 1675-1678. MP for
16 Jan 1713 Carmarthen 1661-1679 and Carmarthenshire
1679-1689
Peerage extinct on his death
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9 May 1715 B[I] 1 George Evans c 1680 28 Aug 1749
Created Baron Carbery 9 May 1715
MP for Westbury 1715-1722 and 1724-
1727.PC [I] 1715
28 Aug 1749 2 George Evans 2 Feb 1759
MP for Westbury 1734-1747
2 Feb 1759 3 George Evans 26 May 1783
26 May 1783 4 George Evans 18 Feb 1766 31 Dec 1804 38
MP for Rutland 1802-1804
31 Dec 1804 5 John Evans 1738 4 Mar 1807 68
4 Mar 1807 6 Sir John Evans-Freke,2nd baronet 11 Nov 1765 12 May 1845 79
12 May 1845 7 George Patrick Percy Evans-Freke 17 Mar 1810 25 Nov 1889 79
25 Nov 1889 8 William Charles Evans-Freke 24 May 1812 7 Nov 1894 82
7 Nov 1894 9 Algernon William George Evans-Freke 9 Sep 1868 12 Jun 1898 29
12 Jun 1898 10 John Evans-Freke (Carbery from 23 Nov 1921) 20 May 1892 25 Dec 1970 78
25 Dec 1970 11 Peter Rolfe Harrington Evans-Freke 20 Mar 1920 28 Jul 2012 92
28 Jul 2012 12 Michael Peter Evans-Freke 11 Oct 1942
CARBERY (co Kildare)
17 Jun 1541 B[I] 1 Sir William de Bermingham 17 Jul 1548
Created Baron Carbery 17 Jun 1541
17 Jul 1548 2 Edward de Bermingham 1546 c 1560
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
c 1560
CARDIFF OF CARDIFF CASTLE
20 May 1776 B 1 John Stuart,later [1792] 4th Earl of Bute 30 Jun 1744 16 Nov 1814 70
Created Baron Cardiff of Cardiff
Castle 20 May 1776,and Viscount
Mountjoy,Earl of Windsor and Marquess
of the County of Bute 21 Mar 1796
See "Bute"
CARDIGAN
20 Apr 1661 E 1 Thomas Brudenell 16 Sep 1663
Created Baron Brudenell of Stonton
25 Feb 1628 and Earl of Cardigan
20 Apr 1661
16 Sep 1663 2 Robert Brudenell 5 Mar 1607 16 Jul 1703 96
16 Jul 1703 3 George Brudenell 5 Jul 1732
5 Jul 1732 4 George Brudenell (Montagu after 1749) 26 Jul 1712 23 May 1790 77
Created Marquess of Monthermer
and Duke of Montagu 5 Nov 1766
These peerages became extinct on his death
23 May 1790 5 James Brudenell 20 Apr 1725 24 Feb 1811 85
Created Baron Brudenell of Deene
17 Oct 1780 (extinct on his death)
MP for Shaftesbury 1754-1761, Hastings
1761-1768, Great Bedwyn 1768 and
Marlborough 1768-1780
24 Feb 1811 6 Robert Brudenell 25 Apr 1769 14 Aug 1837 68
MP for Marlborough 1797-1802
14 Aug 1837 7 James Thomas Brudenell 16 Oct 1797 28 Mar 1868 70
MP for Marlborough 1818-1829, Fowey 1830-1832,
and Northamptonshire North 1832-1837
On his death the peerages passed to the
Marquesses of Ailesbury (qv)
For further information on the 7th Earl's wife,
see note at the foot of this page
CARDROSS
19 Jul 1606 B[S] 1 John Erskine,18th Earl of Mar 1562 14 Dec 1634 72
Created Lord Cardross 19 Jul 1606
14 Dec 1634 2 David Erskine 1627 1671 44
1671 3 Henry Erskine 1650 21 May 1693 42
21 May 1693 4 David Erskine 1672 14 Oct 1745 73
He succeeded as 9th Earl of Buchan in 1695 with
which title this peerage then merged and still
remains so
CARDWELL
6 Mar 1874 V 1 Edward Cardwell 24 Jul 1813 15 Feb 1886 72
to†††† Created Viscount Cardwell 6 Mar 1874
15 Feb 1886 MP for Clitheroe 1842-1847, Liverpool
1847-1852 and Oxford 1852-1874. President
of the Board of Trade 1852-1855,
Chief Secretary for Ireland 1859-1861
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1861-1864, Secretary of State for Colonies
1864-1866, Secretary of State for War
1868-1874.PC 1852PC [I] 1859
Peerage extinct on his death
George Sinclair, 4th Earl of Caithness
The 4th Earl of Caithness had long been an enemy of the Earls of Sutherland. In June 1567,
he persuaded his aunt, Isabel Sinclair, to invite the 11th Earl of Sutherland and his family to
visit them at Helmsdale Castle. There, the 11th Earl of Sutherland and his wife were poisoned,
the poison apparently being contained in mugs of ale. Their 15-year-old son escaped his
parents' fate through having been out of the castle when the fatal dose was administered.
Isabel Sinclair supposedly killed herself in prison while awaiting trial for the murders.
The young son of the murdered Earl of Sutherland was then supposedly kidnapped by the Earl
of Caithness and forced to marry his daughter, Lady Barbara Sinclair, who by all accounts was
'a woman of mature age, much homeliness and of more than uncertain reputation.' He divorced
her five years later on the grounds of her adultery.
The 4th Earl appears to have been totally ruthless in his methods. In 1567, following a quarrel,
he arrested his eldest son, John, Master of Caithness, and imprisoned him in Girnigo Castle. After
six years' imprisonment, John was still alive, so his father hastened his end by providing only
salted beef for his food, but did not allow any water to be provided and John soon died of thirst.
Perhaps John deserved this fate, as it is on record that he had previously strangled his younger
brother, William. In any event, when John's son succeeded to the Earldom on the death
of the 4th Earl in 1582, one of his first actions was to kill his father's two jailers, receiving a
pardon on the grounds that these killings were justified.
George William Frederick Charles, 2nd Duke of Cambridge [creation of 1801]
The following biography of the 2nd Duke of Cambridge appeared in the May 1954 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
'In 1772, as a consequence of the marriages of the Dukes of Cumberland and Gloucester [qqv]
with persons of low degree, which proved embarrassing to the court, George III arranged to
have introduced in the House of Lords the Royal Marriages Act, a statute which still regulates
marriages of members of the royal family. The act lays down that the reigning sovereign may
forbid the marriage of any descendant of George II other than children of princesses who marry
into a foreign family. This law produced in the following century a whole crop of semi-official
"morganatic" marriages in the royal house and more than one disgraceful example of a morganatic
wife and children being abandoned in the interests of expediency for some foreign princess. The
law produced, too, a shining exception: the marriage of Prince George, Duke of Cambridge, and
the printer's daughter Louisa Fairbrother.
'Prince George William Frederick, second Duke of Cambridge, was fourth in line of succession to
his cousin, the redoubtable Queen Victoria, who, as reigning sovereign, had the power to accept
or forbid his marriage. Prince George was the eldest child and only son of the first duke, Adolphus
Frederick. His mother was Augusta, daughter of a German princeling, the Landgrave of Hesse-
Cassel. On his marriage, George III appointed Cambridge Governor of his possessions at Hanover,
where at Cambridge House on March 28, 1819, the young Prince George was born.
'For a brief space of two months, until the birth of Princess Victoria on May 24, Prince George
was the first direct descendant of George III. Young Prince George remained in Hanover until he
was eleven years old, when he was sent to England under the care of his uncle, George IV, and
Queen Adelaide. In 1835, then 16, he returned to Hanover to the guidance of a military tutor,
as he had decided to take up the profession of arms.
'Two years later his first cousin, Victoria, came to the throne, and the realm of Hanover passed
to the Duke of Cumberland. George and his family returned to England. The following year he was
sent to Gibraltar to learn garrison duties. After six months there and another six months touring
Europe he came back to England, to spend the next two years with his regiment in England and
Ireland. By now he was an exceptionally handsome young man, and not without the vanity to be
expected as the natural result of his popularity with the young ladies of the provincial centres
where his regiment was stationed and where a young and eligible royal prince was a rarity. He
was, moreover, fourth in the line of succession to the throne, and statesmen were not blind to
the advantages of an alliance with a princess of some great Power. Name after name was
suggested and the possibility of a union with more than one European cousin of high rank was
hinted at. But the young prince was intent on living his own life.
He was not in favour with the imperious young queen, and his off-handed attitude to her consort
Albert did not raise him in her esteem. The queen's love of gossip tempted her to listen avidly to
any scandals that circulated about members of the royal family. It was natural that a scandal
that was linked with her unpopular cousin would be relished, and inevitable, too, that sooner or
later his flirtations would lead to one. One harmless flirtation at Kew in 1842 with Lady [Charlotte]
Augusta [Frederica] Somerset [daughter of the 7th Duke of Beaufort] gave rise to a groundless
story that the lady was expecting his child, and that the queen was making use of her powers
under the Royal Marriages Act to get even with the prince.
'[Charles] Greville, the Clerk of the Privy Council, was busily employed trying to think of a way to
stifle the rumours, and in desperation approached the editor of the London 'Times,' who published
a denial for him on November 6, 1842. Greville recorded in his diary that the Lady Augusta had
behaved with little prudence, but that there was never any truth in the suggestion that she was
expecting a child. The prince, moreover, according to him, was a "timid, unenterprising youth"
who was not unwilling to amuse himself, but who if the object of his attentions showed any signs
of ardour "would get alarmed and back out with more prudence than gallantry."
'Greville's description of the prince's timidity and lack of enterprise was a little wide of the mark.
Two years before the reputed affair with the Lady Augusta, George had met and fallen in love
with the beauty Sarah Louisa Fairbrother, the fifth daughter and ninth child of a theatrical printer
named Robert Fairbrother.Louisa had taken up the stage as a career and was playing in
pantomime at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. Though never a great actress, her outstanding
beauty had made her immensely popular.
'While Greville was expressing his scornful opinions the prince's wooing of Louisa had reached a
stage of intimacy, and she was already expecting his child. The fact that he was seeing her more
than a casual flirtation warranted was well known at court, and it is not unlikely that the rumour
of his liaison with Lady Augusta was concocted in order to force him to part from Louisa. It was
even more likely that his being made staff colonel and sent in command to Corfu in 1843 was a
definite attempt to part the lovers.
'In August, 1843, Louisa presented him with his first son, George William Adolphus [1843-1907],
later to become the Colonel George Fitz-George who served with the Hussars in the Egyptian
campaign in the eighties. In 1845 the prince returned to England as [a] major-general and for the
next six years was stationed in Ireland. In 1846 was born his second son, Adolphus Augustus
Frederick, later Rear≠Admiral Sir Adolphus Fitz-George [1846-1922].
'The prince's affections for Louisa were sincere and he was determined to marry her. The
stumbling-block which had stopped him was the Royal Marriages Act and the certainty of Victoria
refusing consent if she were approached. The only alternative was to marry quietly and secretly
in defiance of the act, if they could find a clergyman willing to risk the penalty of Praemunire for
contempt of the queen's right to forbid the marriage. They found their hero in the Reverend Mr.
Hughes, vicar of the little eighteenth-century church of St.John's, Clerkenwell. In the vestry
of the church there still hangs a framed photostat of the entry in the marriage register of
January 8, 1847, and beside it a photograph of the intrepid Mr. Hughes. The prince is described
in the entry as George Frederick Cambridge, bachelor, gentleman, of St. Paul's, Deptford, in the
County of Kent. Louisa had a sister living at Deptford, and it is probable that it was her address
that was used. Six months later the third and youngest son was born. He was Augustus Charles
Frederick [1847-1933], later Colonel Sir Charles Fitz-George, who, like his eldest brother, served
with the Hussars.
'The marriage was a secret kept from the ears of the queen, although the prince set his bride up
as Mrs. Fitz-George in a house at No. 6 Queen Street, Mayfair, and devoted all the hours he
could spare from a busy official life to the company of her and her children. The first that the
queen learned of the marriage was when Mrs. Fitz-George arrived at the Crimea in 1854 to nurse
her husband back to health. He had gone there that year in command of his division and
distinguished himself at the battle of Alma. At Inkerman his horse was shot from under him and he
and his aide-de-camp had to ride for their lives to escape being cut off by the Russians. After a
period of rest a medical board invalided him back to England.
'Four years earlier, on the death of his father, he had become Duke of Cambridge and Parliament
had voted him an allowance of £12,000 a year. Victoria, however, refused to receive Mrs. Fitz-
George at court or to recognise the marriage. Louisa made no attempt to claim the title of
duchess, but continued to live quietly as Mrs. Fitz-George at the Queen Street house. A French
writer recorded that the duke insisted on her status being recognised when she was in his
company, and that whenever she rose as royalty entered a room he would gruffly command her
to sit down.
'There was necessarily a strict separation between his public and private life, and of her life
there is little on record. One of the duke's two biographers makes only a passing reference to the
fact that he married. The other ignores her existence altogether. Even the Dictionary of National
Biography discreetly predates the wedding by seven years and gives it as January 8, 1840.
'On his return from the Crimea the duke became president of Christ Hospital and London Hospital.
In 1856 he was appointed to the Privy Council and made General Commander-in-Chief of the
army. In 1862 he was made Field Marshal. England had entered a period of peace, and the
reformers regarded the army as an unnecessarily expensive institution. In 1888 a commission was
set up to enquire into army and naval administration and in May, 1890, it recommended the
abolition of the post of C.-in-C. which had already been subordinated, in spite of the duke's
appeals to the queen, to the War Minister.
'The enquiry was a bitter blow to the ageing Field Marshal, but a worse blow was soon to fall. In
1888 Louisa's health was beginning to decline. She was now 72, and though her suffering was
intense she bore it stoically. On January 8, 1890, the anniversary of their wedding, an occasion
which they always celebrated together, she rallied sufficiently to take Communion, and then
lapsed into unconsciousness. Four days later she passed away. Louisa was buried in the
cemetery at Kensal Green, and huge crowds lined the street from the chapel. The hearse was a
mass of wreaths and floral crosses, and for hours after the service thousands filed past the
pyramid of flowers that hid the grave. The queen had mellowed sufficiently to send messengers
to enquire about her health, and was represented at the funeral by her equerry.
'As soon as he could conclude the necessary formalities of her will the duke escaped to Cannes,
in the south of France, to recover from the shock. Her death had left him a lonely and discons-
olate man. Every day for fifty years, while they had been forced to live, at least officially, apart,
he had written to her and she to him. The clamour for his resignation as commander-in-chief was
growing in volume, and at the queen's suggestion he grudgingly resigned in 1895. To compensate
him she made him her personal A.D.C. With the right of holding a parade on her birthday. She had
apparently become as attached to the ageing duke as she had been hostile to the indiscreet
young prince. He retained his interest in the army and regularly presided at regimental dinners
until 1904, when he died on March 17 and was buried beside his well-loved wife at Kensal Green.'
Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron Camelford
Pitt was born in Cornwall and, after spending his early years in Switzerland, was educated at
Charterhouse School in Surrey. He entered the navy as a midshipman in 1789, aged 14. Almost
at once, he was plunged into adventure, for in that year, he was posted to the 44-gun man-
of-war, Guardian, which was sailing to Sydney with a 'mixed cargo' of stores, cattle and
convicts. Adverse winds made the voyage slow and by the time the ship was 1500 miles beyond
the Cape of Good Hope, its fresh water reserves were nearly exhausted. On Christmas Eve 1790
the lookout spotted a large iceberg, and as a desperate measure the captain decided to fill the
ship's tanks with broken ice. But as the Guardian came alongside the iceberg, she was holed
below the waterline by a projecting spar and her crew were ordered to the lifeboats. There was
no room in the boats for the convicts, and rather than letting them drown, the captain elected
to remain behind in the hope of saving the vessel. Pitt and a handful of volunteers stayed with
him, and almost miraculously they coaxed the stricken ship back to Cape Town in a two-month's
voyage.
Returning to England, Pitt transferred to the H.M.S. Discovery, in which the famous navigator
Captain George Vancouver was about to set out to explore the Pacific coast of North America.
Since there were no vacancies for officers, he signed on as an able seaman. During the voyage,
Pitt's truculence and a tendency to query orders led him to be flogged on three occasions -
twice for unauthorised trading with natives and the other time for breaking the binnacle glass
while skylarking. Finally, he was found sleeping on his watch, which led him to be clapped in
irons. After three years together, Vancouver could stand no more of Pitt and marooned him at
Hawaii within a few days of his 19th birthday. Forced to work his way home in merchant
vessels, Pitt was shipwrecked at Ceylon and did not reach London until almost a year later.
There he found himself the second Baron Camelford, his father having died three years
previously.
Because he was a nephew of William Pitt, the Prime Minister, and a peer in his own right, Pitt
was reinstated as a midshipman without any inquiry into the reasons Vancouver had marooned
him. In August 1796, Camelford sent Vancouver an insulting letter and challenged him to a duel,
which offer Vancouver declined. Camelford began to stalk Vancouver and attacked him on a
London street, but Vancouver's brother, Charles, was present and gave Pitt a beating. This feud
simmered on until Vancouver died in 1798.
Meanwhile, Camelford was appointed lieutenant in April 1797 and sent to the West Indies
Station, where he was raised to the rank of acting Commander after only six weeks and given
charge of H.M.S. Favorite. This antagonized the Favorite's first lieutenant, Charles Peterson,
who was nearly two year's Pitt's senior in the service. Accordingly, Peterson arranged for a
transfer to the frigate Perdrix commanded by a Captain Fahie.
In early 1798, the Favorite and the Perdrix were both in dock in Antigua refitting when
unidentified vessels were reported off the island. As Captain Fahie was absent on leave,
Camelford considered himself the senior officer in port, and as such ordered Peterson to
arrange harbour patrols to intercept the approaching ships. Peterson, in reply, despatched
a similar order to Camelford, signing it 'senior officer.' Camelford responded by sending a
lieutenant with a strong marine escort to repeat the order to Peterson and arrest him if he
refused to carry it out. The party from the Favorite found Peterson's quarters guarded by a
strong contingent of armed sailors with bayonets fixed. After a temporary deadlock, with both
sides unwilling to open hostilities, Camelford himself arrived on the scene and ordered Peterson
to surrender. Thus challenged, Peterson drew his sword and instructed his men to load their
muskets with ball ammunition. Camelford, who was unarmed, snatched a pistol from a marine
and levelled it at Peterson. 'Do you still refuse to obey my orders?' he demanded. 'I do'
replied Peterson firmly. He gave the same answer when the question was put a second time.
After asking a third time, and receiving the same answer, Camelford shot him dead. He was
court-martialled, but acquitted.
Transferred to the Home Fleet, Camelford took command of H.M.S. Charon but soon was in
more trouble. In January 1799, he decided to pay a lightning visit to France, a treasonable
offence given the two countries were at war. Arrested at Dover, he was found to be carrying
a letter of introduction to the Vicomte de Barras, then virtual ruler of France. This letter
described Camelford as 'a man willing to render important service to France.' After lengthy
deliberation, Camelford was released, but he was relieved of his command for leaving his ship
without permission. Camelford flew into a rage and demanded that his name be struck off the
list of naval officers - the Admiralty was happy to oblige him.
Deliberately careless of his own appearance, Camelford now had the leisure time to devote
himself to waging a one-man war against the over-dressed fops of his day. He overstepped
the mark in April 1799 when he attended the Drury Lane Theatre, to watch a play appropriately
titled 'Devil to Pay'. Noticing a certain elegant Mr Humphries occupying a box, Camelford strode
in and ordered Humphries out. Having paid for the box, Humphries refused, so without further
ado Camelford felled him with a series of vicious punches that caused Humphries to somersault
down a stairway. Humphries was later awarded £500 damages.
In January 1802, when he refused to illuminate his house to celebrate rumours of a peace with
France, an angry mob smashed all of his darkened windows. Camelford rushed out and attacked
them violently and eventually drove them off.
Two years after this incident, Camelford was dead. One of his closest friends, a man named
Best, quarrelled with his latest mistress and, out of spite, the rejected mistress told Camelford
that Best had spoken disparagingly of him. Without waiting to hear Best's denial, Camelford
sought him out and loudly denounced him as 'a scoundrel, a liar and a ruffian.' Best, one of the
finest pistol shots in England, could not ignore such a public insult and so a duel was arranged.
At 8 a.m. on 7 March 1804, the two met for the last time. Camelford fired first and missed,
some say deliberately. Best then fired and hit Camelford in the lung, with the bullet lodging in
his spine. He lingered a few days and died on 10 March 1804, the title becoming extinct on his
death.
Camelford had requested that he be buried on the shores of Lake St. Pierre in Switzerland, but
the renewal of the war with France prevented this from happening immediately. His body was
therefore embalmed and placed in a crypt at St. Anne's Church in Soho until such time as his
wishes could be carried out. There was a final twist, however. When it came time to send the
body abroad for burial, it could not be found and although numerous searches were made, the
body was never recovered. Some say it was consumed in the fires of his own hot temper.
For further reading on Camelford, I recommend 'The Half Mad Lord: Thomas Pitt, 2nd Baron
Camelford' by Nikolai Tolstoy, London 1978.
The special remainder to the Viscountcy of Canning
From the "London Gazette" of 18 January 1828 (issue 18433, page 122):-
"The King has been pleased to direct letters patent to be passed under the Great Seal, granting
the dignity of a Viscountess of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland unto Joan
Canning, widow of the Right Honourable George Canning, deceased, by the name, style, and
title of Viscountess Canning, of Kilbrahan, in the county of Kilkenny, and, at her decease, the
dignity of a Viscount of the said United Kingdom to the heirs male of her body by the said George
Canning, by the name, style, and title of Viscount Canning, of Kilbrahan, in the county of
Kilkenny."
Adeline Brudenell, Countess of Cardigan (1825-1915)
The following is extracted from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
By living openly with Lord Cardigan for a year before they were married, Adeline Brudenell
outraged Victorian society. As Lady Cardigan she became a leader of the 'fast' set, but the
Queen never forgave heryouthful indiscretion. In 1873 Adeline's second marriage to a
Portuguese nobleman, the Comte de Lancastre, gave her an opportunity for revenge. She
continued to smoke in public, and go cycling in tight red military trousers and leopard-skin
cape, but she now had the added satisfaction of knowing that the gossips had anglicised her
name to the 'Countess of Lancaster', which was Queen Victoria's own travelling pseudonym.
Lady Cardigan cut a no less distinctive figure in old age. An excellent rider in her day, she
continued to attend all important meets in full hunting-dress. She had no intention, however,
of actually joining in; her invariable custom was to step out of her carriage, look round
anxiously, and with a sigh of exasperation declare that her incompetent groom must have
taken her horse to the wrong meet. She was then free to enjoy the hunt as an onlooker.
In her last years Lady Cardigan was a memorable sight as she promenaded in Hyde Park,
wearing a curly blonde wig, a three-cornered hat, a Louis XVI coat and trailing her leopard
skin behind. She was generally arm-in-arm with an elderly swain and followed at a
respectful distance by a tall footman supporting her pet dog on a silk cushion.
She always loved entertaining, but developed some individual notions as to what it involved. It
was one thing to dress up in mantilla and layered skins and to dance and play the castanets,
even if few other 70-year-old ladies went in for such activities. But her guests had also to
humour her whim that Deene, the Cardigan home in Northamptonshire, was haunted by the
ghost of a nun, and were expected to oblige by screaming and fainting when Lady Cardigan
herself donned a nun's habit and drifted through the dimly lit reception rooms. One especially
charming woman endeared herself to her hostess by fainting in earnest.
For several years before her death, Lady Cardigan kept a coffin the ballroom at Deene.
Assisted by the butler, she would from time to time climb in to make sure it was comfortable.
The servants were summoned to these rehearsals of her lying-in-state and were afterwards
required to give their impressions of the overall effect.
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† **************
In 1909 the Countess published "My Recollections" [Eveleigh Nash, London], a rich source of
scurrilous stories of the aristocracy. After her death in 1915, newspapers reflected on her life
and related a number of the stories contained in her book. Typical amongst such newspaper
articles was the following, which appeared in the 'Adelaide Advertiser' of 10 July 1915:-
'The Countess of Cardigan, who has just died at the age of 90, was a famous beauty in her day,
and when the world was in danger of forgetting that such a person existed she startled us all
by issuing her "Recollections." This volume was one of the most audacious compilations ever
presented to the British public, and its issue created as much stir in society as the ignition of a
giant cracker, or the introduction of half a dozen rats would in a ballroom. A long time will
eventually elapse before any publisher will place on the market a work more piquant or
scandalous - according to the point of view - than the aged Countess's "Recollections."
'Lady Cardigan's record was the more remarkable because she was not an "outsider," so far as
her birth was concerned. She was the daughter of Mr. Spencer de Horsey, M.P. [he was born
Spencer Horsey Kilderbee and changed his name to de Horsey in 1832. He was MP for Orford
1830-1832 and Newcastle-under-Lyme 1837-1841] and her mother was the daughter of an Earl
of Stradbroke, and her brother, Admiral Algernon de Horsey, was for some years A.D.C. to
Queen Victoria. From childhood Miss de Horsey moved in the best society, but she was a young
lady of decidedly advanced views, and finally left her father's house because he would not
allow her a latch-key. At least, so she said. It was just before this time that she made the
acquaintance of the seventh Earl of Cardigan, the famous hero, and it is more than likely that
de Horsey pere really turned the lady out of his home because he disapproved of her "goings
on" with the earl, who was a married man. Indeed, in the "Complete Peerage" the Hon. Vicary
Gibbs states that Miss de Horsey's intimacy with Lord Cardigan during his first wife's lifetime
led to her having to leave her father's house and to her being "cut" by respectable people.
'In her old age Lady Cardigan practically admitted that she and Lord Cardigan were on terms of
peculiar intimacy, for in her "Recollections" she gave this account of her marriage:-
"On the morning of July 12, 1858, I was awakened by a loud knocking at the front door. I looked
at my watch, and saw that it was not 7 o'clock. I was, needless to say, very alarmed, as I
wondered whether anything had happened to my father or my brothers. The knocking continued.
I heard the bolts drawn, the door opened, and a voice I knew well called impatiently for me. It
was Lord Cardigan! I had just time to slip on a dressing gown before he came into my room, sans
ceremonie, and taking me in his arms, he said, "My dearest, she's dead! Let's get married at
once." [Note that Burke's states that Cardigan's first wife died on 15 July 1858 which means that
the date given of 12 July above must be incorrect]
'Miss de Horsey married Lord Cardigan in the following September, and she wrote with regard to
Queen Victoria, who had been most kind to her when young, that "the way in which I defied
convention before I married Lord Cardigan did not prepossess her favourably to me."
'Society naturally followed Queen Victoria's lead, and Lord Suffield, the friend and confidante
of King Edward, has said in his memoirs that he had seen Lady Cardigan sitting alone on the lawn
at Cowes and other places of fashionable resort, with not a single person speaking to her. She
must have had iron courage to endure this sort of ostracism.
'Lady Cardigan dealt summarily with members of her husband's family. She was sitting in the
Peeresses' Gallery in the House of Lords when Lady Ailesbury, whose husband was a cousin of
Lord Cardigan, appeared. And this, according to Lady Cardigan was how she tackled the
situation:-
"I could see by her look that she meant to cut me, so I thought I would carry the war into the
enemy's camp, and just as she was about to pass me I said, "Oh, Lady Ailesbury, you may like
to know that before Lady Cardigan died she told my lord all about you and your illegitimate
children." Lady Ailesbury looked nervously round and said in an agitated manner, "Hush, hush,
my dear! I'm coming to lunch with you tomorrow." From that day we were outwardly the best
of friends."
'After four years [actually ten] of married life Lord Cardigan died, and his lovely widow's hand
was much sought in marriage, principally, it seems, by widowers well-blessed with olive-branches.
They included, according to her ladyship, the Duke of Leeds, Prince Soltykoff, the Duke of St.
Albans, and Disraeli. She narrated that, with regard to the last named, she consulted the then
Prince of Wales, and he advised that he did not think the union would be a happy one. When this
story was told by her Disraeli had been dead for many years, and there were many who hinted
that they did not believe the proposal was ever made. However, the countess was remarried in
that same year [actually 1873] to Count de Lancastre, a Portuguese noble. Her marriage gave
offence to Queen Victoria, for she [illegally] adopted the style of Countess of Cardigan and
Lancastre, and it had been the custom of the Queen to travel incognito as the "Countess of
Lancaster."
'In her later life the Countess became acquainted with Earl Russell and his first wife, the unhappy
Countess "Babs." In fact, the tragedy of that union was largely due to her. Lady Cardigan was
the "Lady X" who first instilled into the mind of the young Countess Russell dark suspicions of her
husband's character. She was mentioned in court as "Lady X" but the name came out during the
hearing of the libel proceedings at the Old Bailey in 1897, and Mr. Justice Hawkins called her
"that arch unscrupulous slanderer." In 1898 the count [i.e. Lancastre] died, and Lady Cardigan
did not come into the public eye again until the publication of her astonishing "Recollections."
It is said by her critics that she had tried to revenge herself on those who had refused to
associate with her by bringing into the light family scandals, true and untrue. Certainly no book
ever set society by the ears as did her ladyship's, and if she had been a man she would
undoubtedly only have had age to protect her against a number of horsewhippings from the
indignant relatives of men and women maligned in the "Recollections."
'Writing of the grandfather of the present Duke of Westminster, who, notwithstanding his great
wealth, had the reputation of being rather mean, she said:- A story was told about his once
looking at a pair of trousers his valet was wearing, and saying, "These are very good trousers.
Did I give them to you?" "Yes, my lord." "Well, here's a shilling for you," said the stingy nobleman.
"I'll have them back again."
'Lady Cardigan's uncle, Admiral Rous, the famous racing man, is the hero of another anecdote.
"Mrs. Rous was very dictatorial, and I remember one day after [her] death calling to enquire how
my uncle was. "Indeed, my lady," said the servant, "I may say the admiral is a deal better since
Mrs. Rous' death." I believe the same answer was given to all callers."
'In contrast is this grim story of the death of Lady Ward, who as Constance de Burgh had been a
famous beauty:- "On the evening of the day before her burial [she died 14 November 1851 after
a marriage of less than 7 months], Lord Colville came to see Lord Ward [i.e. the 11th Baron Ward
and, from 1860, the 1st Earl of Dudley]. They talked for some time, and then the widower
suddenly turned to his friend. "Colville, you admired my wife?" "Yes," replied Lord Colville, "I did."
"Well, come and look your last on her," said Lord Ward, and lighting a candle he led the way
upstairs. The room was full of shadows, and the flickering light fell on the lovely face of the dead
woman. Silently Lord Colville stood by her.....Ward was watching him attentively. "Still admiring
my wife? Well, she was a pretty woman - but you'd never credit that she had such bad teeth."
He put down the candle on a table as he spoke and raised his wife's head from the pillow. With
cold deliberation he wrenched the jaws apart. "I always told you she had bad teeth," he
repeated. "Look here, man." But Lord Colville had hurriedly left the room. He told me afterwards
it was the most ghastly sight he had ever seen."
††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† **************
If I were to asked to take part in the common popular quiz of "which five figures from history
would you most like to dine with", the 7th Earl of Cardigan would be one of my fellow diners.
For further reading on the 7th Earl, the following are recommended:-
* "The Reason Why" by Cecil Woodham-Smith (Constable, London 1953)
* "Charge! Hurrah! Hurrah!" by Donald Thomas (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1974)
* "The Homicidal Earl" by Saul David (Little, Brown and Co., London 1997)
Copyright @ 2003-2014Leigh Rayment