PEERAGE
Last updated 16/07/2013
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
DUGAN OF VICTORIA
7 Jul 1949 B 1 Winston Dugan 8 May 1877 17 Aug 1951 74
to     Created Baron Dugan of Victoria
17 Aug 1951 7 Jul 1949
Governor of South Australia 1934-1939
and of Victoria 1939-1949
Peerage extinct on his death
DUKESTON
1 Apr 1947 B 1 Charles Dukes 28 Oct 1881 14 May 1948 66
to     Created Baron Dukeston 1 Apr 1947
14 May 1948 MP for Warrington 1923-1924 and 1929-1931
Peerage extinct on his death
DULVERTON
8 Jul 1929 B 1 Sir Gilbert Alan Hamilton Wills,2nd baronet 28 Mar 1880 1 Dec 1956 76
Created Baron Dulverton 8 Jul 1929
MP for Taunton 1912-1918 and Weston
super Mare 1918-1922
1 Dec 1956 2 Frederick Anthony Hamilton Wills 19 Dec 1915 17 Feb 1992 76
17 Feb 1992 3 Gilbert Michael Hamilton Wills 2 May 1944
DUMFRIES
12 Jun 1633 E[S] 1 William Crichton,9th Lord Crichton 1643
Created Lord of Sanquhar and 
Viscount of Air 2 Feb 1622,and Lord
Crichton,Viscount of Air and Earl of
Dumfries 12 Jun 1633
1643 2 William Crichton 1691
1691 3 William Crichton 28 Feb 1694
28 Feb 1694 4 Penelope Dalrymple 6 Mar 1742
6 Mar 1742 5 William Dalrymple-Crichton,later [1760] 4th 
Earl of Stair 1699 27 Jul 1768 69
KT 1752
27 Jul 1768 6 Patrick Macdonnell-Crichton 15 Oct 1726 7 Apr 1803 76
7 Apr 1803 7 John Crichton-Stuart 10 Aug 1793 18 Mar 1848 54
He succeeded to the Marquessate of Bute
(qv) 1814 with which title this peerage
then merged and still remains so
DUMFRIESSHIRE
3 Nov 1684 M[S] 1 William Douglas,1st Marquess of Queensberry 1637 28 Mar 1695 57
Created Lord Douglas of Kinmont,
Viscount of Nith,Torthorwald and
Ross,Earl of Drumlanrig and Sanquhar
Marquess of Dumfriesshire and Duke
of Queensberry 3 Nov 1684
See "Queensberry"
DUNALLEY
31 Jul 1800 B[I] 1 Henry Prittie 3 Oct 1743 3 Jan 1801 57
Created Baron Dunalley 31 Jul 1800
3 Jan 1801 2 Henry Sadlier Prittie 3 Mar 1775 19 Oct 1854 79
MP for Carlow 1801 and Okehampton 1819-1824
19 Oct 1854 3 Henry Prittie Jan 1807 10 Sep 1885 78
10 Sep 1885 4 Henry O'Callaghan Prittie 21 Mar 1851 5 Aug 1927 76
Lord Lieutenant Tipperary 1905-1922
5 Aug 1927 5 Henry Cornelius O'Callaghan Prittie 19 Jul 1877 3 May 1948 70
3 May 1948 6 Henry Desmond Graham Prittie 14 Oct 1912 26 Jun 1992 79
26 Jun 1992 7 Henry Francis Cornelius Prittie 30 May 1948
DUNBAR
1072 E[S] 1 Gospatric c 1115
Created Earl of Dunbar 1072
c 1115 2 Gospatric de Dunbar 22 Aug 1138
22 Aug 1138 3 Gospatric de Dunbar 1166
1166 4 Waltheof de Dunbar 1182
1182 5 Patrick de Dunbar 31 Dec 1232
31 Dec 1232 6 Patrick de Dunbar 1248
1248 7 Patrick de Dunbar 1213 24 Aug 1289 76
24 Aug 1289 8 Patrick de Dunbar 1242 10 Oct 1308 66
10 Oct 1308 9 Patrick de Dunbar 1284 11 Nov 1368 84
For information on this peer's wife,see the note
at the foot of this page
11 Nov 1368 10 George Dunbar c 1336 c 1416
c 1416 11 George Dunbar c 1370 1457
to     His peerage was forfeited in 1435
10 Jan 1435
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5 Mar 1580 B[S] 1 Robert Stuart 29 Mar 1586
to     Created Lord of Dunbar and Earl of
29 Mar 1586 March 5 Mar 1580
Peerages extinct on his death
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3 Jul 1605 E[S] 1 George Howme 29 Jan 1612
to     Created Hume of Berwick 7 Jul 1604 
29 Jan 1612 and Earl of Dunbar 3 Jul 1605
KG 1608
On his death the peerages became dormant
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14 Nov 1620 V[S] 1 Sir Henry Constable c 1588 1645
Created Lord Constable and Viscount
of Dunbar 14 Nov 1620
1645 2 John Constable 1615 c 1668
c 1668 3 Robert Constable 1651 23 Nov 1714 63
23 Nov 1714 4 William Constable 1654 15 Aug 1718 64
to     On his death the peerage became dormant
15 Aug 1718
DUNBARTON
9 Mar 1675 E[S] 1 Lord George Douglas c 1635 20 Mar 1692
Created Lord Douglas of Ettrick and
Earl of Dunbarton 9 Mar 1675
KT 1687
20 Mar 1692 2 George Douglas Jan 1738
to     On his death the peerage is presumed to
Jan 1738 have become extinct
DUNBOYNE
11 Jun 1541 B[I] 1 Sir Edmond Butler May 1566
Created Baron of Dunboyne 
11 Jun 1541
May 1566 2 James Butler 18 Feb 1624
18 Feb 1624 3 Edmond Butler 17 May 1640
17 May 1640 4 James Butler 1662
1662 5 Pierce Butler 3 May 1690
3 May 1690 6 James Butler Jan 1701
Jan 1701 7 Pierce Butler c 1718
c 1718 8 Edmond Butler Nov 1732
Nov 1732 9 James Butler 12 Dec 1768
12 Dec 1768 10 Pierce Butler 20 Aug 1773
20 Aug 1773 11 Pierce Edmond Creagh Butler Dec 1785
Dec 1785 12 John Butler c 1720 7 May 1800
Bishop of Cork 1763-1786
7 May 1800 13 James Butler 25 Jul 1780 6 Jul 1850 69
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
6 Jul 1850 14 Theobald Fitzwalter Butler 11 Feb 1806 22 Mar 1881 75
22 Mar 1881 15 James Fitzwalter Clifford-Butler 20 May 1839 17 Aug 1899 60
17 Aug 1899 16 Robert St.John Fitzwalter Butler 20 Jan 1844 29 Aug 1913 69
29 Aug 1913 17 Fitzwalter George Probyn Butler 20 Mar 1874 9 May 1945 71
9 May 1945 18 Patrick Theobald Tower Butler 27 Jan 1917 19 May 2004 87
19 May 2004 19 John Fitzwalter Butler 31 Jul 1951 11 Jul 2013 61
11 Jul 2013 20 Richard Pierce Theobald Butler 5 Jul 1983
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29 Nov 1719 B[I] 1 William Grimston c 1683 19 Oct 1756
Created Baron Dunboyne and Viscount
Grimston 29 Nov 1719
See "Grimston"
DUNCAN
30 Oct 1797 V 1 Adam Duncan 1 Jul 1731 4 Aug 1804 73
Created Baron Duncan and Viscount
Duncan of Camperdown 30 Oct 1797
See "Camperdown"
DUNCANNON
28 Feb 1723 V[I] 1 William Ponsonby 1659 17 Nov 1724 65
Created Baron Bessborough 11 Sep
1721 and Viscount Dungannon 28 Feb
1723
See "Bessborough"
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19 Jul 1834 B 1 John William Ponsonby,later [1844] 4th Earl of 31 Aug 1781 16 May 1847 65
Bessborough
Created Baron Duncannon 19 Jul 1834
See "Bessborough"
DUNCAN-SANDYS
2 May 1974 B[L] 1 Duncan Edwin Duncan-Sandys 24 Jan 1908 26 Nov 1987 79
to     Created Baron Duncan-Sandys for life
26 Nov 1987 2 May 1974
MP for Norwood 1935-1945 and Streatham
1950-1974. Minister of Works 1944-1945.
Minister of Supply 1951-1954. Minister of
Housing and Local Government 1954-1957.
Minister of Defence 1957-1959. Minister of
Aviation 1959-1960. Secretary of State for
Commonwealth Relations 1960-1964.
PC 1944  CH 1973
Peerage extinct on his death
DUNDAFF
24 Apr 1707 V[S] 1 James Graham,4th Marquess of Montrose 1682 7 Jan 1742 59
Created Lord Aberruthven,Viscount of
Dundaff,Earl of Kincardine,Marquess
of Graham and Duke of Montrose
24 Apr 1707
See "Montrose"
DUNDALK
18 Jul 1716 B[L] 1 Ermengarde Melusina Schulenberg 1659 10 May 1743 83
to     Created Baroness of Dundalk,
10 May 1743 Countess and Marchioness of 
Dungannon and Duchess of Munster for life
18 Jul 1716,and Baroness Glastonbury
Countess of Feversham and Duchess
of Kendal for life 19 Mar 1719
Mistress of George I
Peerages extinct on her death
DUNDAS
13 Aug 1794 B 1 Sir Thomas Dundas,2nd baronet 16 Feb 1741 14 Jun 1820 79
Created Baron Dundas 13 Aug 1794
MP for Richmond 1763-1768 and Stirling
1768-1794. Lord Lieutenant Orkney and
Shetland 1794-1820
14 Jun 1820 2 Lawrence Dundas 10 Apr 1766 19 Feb 1839 72
He was created Earl of Zetland (qv) 1838
with which title this peerage then merged
DUNDEE
1661 E[S] 1 John Scrymgeour,3rd Viscount Dudhope 23 Jun 1668
Created Lord Scrimgeour,Viscount of
Dudhope and Earl of Dundee 1661
On his death,the peerages became dormant.
The descent is shown below:-
23 Jun 1668 2 [John Scrymgeour] 1628 1698 70
 
[1698] 3 [James Scrymgeour] 1664 1699 35
[1699] 4 [Alexander Scrymgeour] 1669 1739 70
[1739] 5 [David Scrymgeour] 1702 1772 70
[1772] 6 [Alexander Scrymgeour-Wedderburn] 1742 1811 69
[1811] 7 [Henry Scrymgeour-Wedderburn] 1755 1841 86
[1841] 8 [Frederick Lewis Scrymgeour-Wedderburn] 1808 1874 66
[1874] 9 [Henry Scrymgeour] 1840 1914
[1914] 10 [Henry Scrymgeour] 1872 1924 52
[1924] 11 Henry James Scrymgeour-Wedderburn 3 May 1902 29 Jun 1983 81
1953 MP for Renfrew West 1931-1945. Minister
without Portfolio 1958-1961. Minister of
State for Foreign Affairs 1961-1964. PC 1959
He was created Baron Glassary 30 Jul 1954
Claim to Viscountcy of Dudhope admitted
1952 and claim to Earldom of Dundee
admitted 1953
For further information about these successful
claims,see the note at the foot of this page
29 Jun 1983 12 Alexander Henry Scrymgeour 5 Jun 1949
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12 Nov 1688 V[S] 1 John Graham c Jul 1648 27 Jul 1689 41
Created Lord Grahame of Claverhouse
and Viscount of Dundee 12 Nov 1688
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
27 Jul 1689 2 James Graham Dec 1689
Dec 1689 3 David Graham 1700
to     Peerages forfeited 1690
13 Jun 1690
DUNDONALD
12 May 1669 E[S] 1 Sir William Cochrane 1686
Created Lord Cochrane of Dundonald
26 Dec 1647,and Lord Cochrane of
Paisley and Ochiltree and Earl of
Dundonald 12 May 1669
1686 2 John Cochrane 16 May 1690
16 May 1690 3 William Cochrane 1686 22 Nov 1705 19
22 Nov 1705 4 John Cochrane 4 Jul 1687 5 Jun 1720 32
5 Jun 1720 5 William Cochrane 1708 27 Jan 1725 16
27 Jan 1725 6 Thomas Cochrane 1702 28 May 1737 34
28 May 1737 7 William Cochrane 1729 9 Jul 1758 29
9 Jul 1758 8 Thomas Cochrane 23 Jul 1691 27 Jun 1778 86
MP for Renfrew 1722-1727
27 Jun 1778 9 Archibald Cochrane 1 Jan 1749 12 Jul 1831 82
12 Jul 1831 10 Thomas Cochrane 14 Dec 1775 31 Oct 1860 84
MP for Honiton 1806 and Westminster 1807-
1814. 
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
31 Oct 1860 11 Thomas Barnes Cochrane 28 Apr 1814 15 Jan 1885 70
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
15 Jan 1885 12 Douglas Mackinnon Baillie Hamilton
Cochrane 29 Oct 1852 12 Apr 1935 82
12 Apr 1935 13 Thomas Hesketh Douglas Blair Cochrane 21 Feb 1886 23 May 1958 72
23 May 1958 14 Ian Douglas Leonard Cochrane 6 Dec 1918 4 Oct 1986 67
4 Oct 1986 15 Iain Alexander Douglas Blair Cochrane 17 Feb 1961
DUNEDIN
17 Feb 1926 V 1 Andrew Graham Murray 21 Nov 1849 21 Aug 1942 92
to     Created Baron Dunedin 9 Mar 1905
21 Aug 1942 and Viscount Dunedin 17 Feb 1926
MP for Buteshire 1891-1905. Solicitor
General for Scotland 1891-1892 and 1895-
1896. Lord Advocate 1896-1903. Secretary
of State for Scotland 1903-1905. Lord
Justice General of Scotland 1905-1913. 
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1913-1932. Lord
Lieutenant Bute 1901-1905.  PC 1896
Peerages extinct on his death
DUNFERMLINE
4 Mar 1605 E[S] 1 Alexander Seton 16 Jun 1622
Created Lord Fyvie 4 Mar 1598 and 
Earl of Dunfermline 4 Mar 1605
Chancellor of Scotland 1604-1622
16 Jun 1622 2 Charles Seton 11 May 1673
11 May 1673 3 Alexander Seton 1677
1677 4 James Seton 26 Dec 1694
to     Peerage forfeited 1690
1690
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7 Jun 1839 B 1 James Abercromby 7 Nov 1776 17 Apr 1858 81
Created Baron Dunfermline 7 Jun 1839
MP for Midhurst 1807-1812, Calne 1812-1830
and Edinburgh 1832-1839. Speaker of the
House of Commons 1835-1839  PC 1827
17 Apr 1858 2 Ralph Abercromby 6 Apr 1803 12 Jul 1868 65
to     Peerage extinct on his death
12 Jul 1868
DUNGAN OF CLANE
2 Jan 1686 V[I] 1 William Dungan c 1630 Dec 1698
Created Viscount Dungan of Clane and
Earl of Limerick 2 Jan 1686
See "Limerick"
DUNGANNON
1 Sep 1542 B[I] 1 Matthew O'Neill 1558
  Created Baron of Dungannon 1 Sep 1542
   
1558   2 Brien O'Neill,later [c 1559] 2nd Earl of Tyrone 12 Apr 1562
12 Apr 1562 3 Hugh O'Neill,3rd Earl of Tyrone c 1540 20 Jul 1616
1587 4 Hugh O'Neill  (confirmed in this title 10 May 1587) 23 Sep 1609
23 Sep 1609 5 Henry O'Neill c 1626
to     The peerage was forfeited 28 Oct 1614
28 Oct 1614
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28 Aug 1662 V[I] 1 Marcus Trevor 15 Apr 1618 10 Jan 1670 51
Created Baron Trevor and Viscount
Dungannon 28 Aug 1662
PC [I] 1660
10 Jan 1670 2 Lewis Trevor 3 Jan 1693
3 Jan 1693 3 Marcus Trevor 1669 8 Nov 1706 37
to     Peerage extinct on his death
8 Nov 1706
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18 Jul 1716 M[L] 1 Ermengarde Melusina Schulenberg 1659 10 May 1743 83
to     Created Baroness of Dundalk,
10 May 1743 Countess and Marchioness of 
Dungannon and Duchess of Munster for life
18 Jul 1716,and Baroness Glastonbury
Countess of Feversham and Duchess
of Kendal for life 19 Mar 1719
Mistress of George I
Peerages extinct on her death
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17 Feb 1766 V[I] 1 Arthur Hill-Trevor c 1694 30 Jan 1771
Created Baron Hill of Olderfleet and
Viscount Dungannon 17 Feb 1766
PC [I] 1750
30 Jan 1771 2 Arthur Hill-Trevor 2 Oct 1763 14 Dec 1837 74
14 Dec 1837 3 Arthur Hill-Trevor 9 Nov 1798 11 Aug 1862 63
to     MP for New Romney 1830 and Durham 1831
11 Aug 1862 and 1835-1841
Peerage extinct on his death
DUNGARVAN
26 Oct 1620 V[I] 1 Richard Boyle,1st Baron Boyle of Youghal 3 Oct 1566 15 Sep 1643 76
Created Viscount Dungarvan and Earl 
of the County of Cork 26 Oct 1620
See "Cork"
                      ************
28 Jan 1663 Charles Boyle 17 Nov 1639 12 Oct 1694 54
He was summoned to the Irish House of Lords
by a Writ of Acceleration as Viscount 
Dungarvan 28 Jan 1663 and to the House of
Lords as Baron Clifford of Lanesborough 
16 Jul 1689
He was the son and heir apparent of the 2nd Earl 
of Cork, but died before he could succeed to
that title
DUNGLASS
4 Mar 1605 B[S] 1 Alexander Home c 1566 5 Apr 1619
Created Lord Dunglass and Earl of 
Home 4 Mar 1605
See "Home"
DUNIRA
24 Dec 1802 B 1 Henry Dundas 28 Apr 1742 2 May 1811 69
Created Baron Dunira and Viscount
Melville 24 Dec 1802
See "Melville"
DUNKELD
15 May 1645 B[S] 1 Sir James Galloway 2 Dec 1660
Created Lord Dunkeld 15 May 1645
2 Dec 1660 2 Thomas Galloway c 1680
c 1680 3 James Galloway 2 Jul 1664 16 Aug 1705 41
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1690
DUNKELLIN
1 Jul 1543 B[I] 1 Ulick de Burgh 19 Oct 1544
Created Baron of Dunkellin and Earl 
of Clanricarde 1 Jul 1543
See "Clanricarde"
-------------------------------------------------
3 Aug 1711 Michael Bourke 1686 29 Nov 1726 40
Summoned to the Irish House of Lords by a
Writ of Acceleration as Baron Dunkellin 
3 Aug 1711
He succeeded as 10th Earl of Clanricarde (qv)
in 1722
DUNKERRON
29 Apr 1719 V[I] 1 Henry Petty 22 Oct 1675 17 Apr 1751 75
to     Created Baron Shelburne 16 Jun 1699
17 Apr 1751 and Viscount Dunkerron and Earl of
Shelburne 29 Apr 1719
MP for Marlow 1714 and Wycombe 1722
PC 1704
Peerages extinct on his death
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7 Oct 1751 B[I] 1 John Petty 1706 10 May 1761 54
Created Baron Dunkeron and Viscount
Fitzmaurice 7 Oct 1751 and Earl of
Shelburne 6 Jun 1753 and Baron
Wycombe 20 May 1760
See "Shelburne"
DUNLEATH
29 Aug 1892 B 1 John Mulholland 16 Dec 1819 11 Dec 1895 75
Created Baron Dunleath 29 Aug 1892
MP for Downpatrick 1874-1885
11 Dec 1895 2 Henry Lyle Mulholland 30 Jan 1854 22 Mar 1931 77
MP for Londonderry North 1885-1895
22 Mar 1931 3 Charles Henry George Mulholland 19 Aug 1886 20 Jul 1956 69
20 Jul 1956 4 Charles Edward Henry John Mulholland 23 Jun 1933 9 Jan 1993 59
9 Jan 1993 5 Michael Henry Mulholland 15 Oct 1915 3 May 1997 81
3 May 1997 6 Brian Henry Mulholland 25 Sep 1950
DUNLO
3 Jan 1801 V[I] 1 William Power Keating Trench 1741 27 Apr 1805 63
Created Baron Kilconnel 25 Nov 1797,
Viscount Dunlo 3 Jan 1801 and Earl of
Clancarty 12 Feb 1803
See "Clancarty"
DUNLUCE
12 Dec 1620 V[I] 1 Randal Macdonnell 10 Dec 1636
Created Viscount Dunluce 28 May 1618
and Earl of Antrim 12 Dec 1620
See "Antrim"
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13 Oct 1755 V[I] 1 Randall William Macdonnell  4 Nov 1749 29 Jul 1791 41
    Created Viscount Dunluce and Earl of
  Antrim 19 Jun 1785 and Marquess of
      Antrim 18 Aug 1789
See "Antrim"
DUNMORE
11 Jul 1619 B[I] 1 Richard Preston,1st Lord Dingwall 28 Oct 1628
to     Created Baron Dunmore and Earl of
28 Oct 1628 Desmond 11 Jul 1619
Peerages extinct on his death
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16 Aug 1686 E[S] 1 Lord Charles Murray 28 Feb 1661 19 Apr 1710 49
Created Lord Murray of Blair,Viscount
of Fincastle and Earl of Dunmore 
16 Aug 1686
MP for Wigan 1685
19 Apr 1710 2 John Murray 31 Oct 1685 18 Apr 1752 66
18 Apr 1752 3 William Murray 2 Mar 1696 1 Dec 1756 60
1 Dec 1756 4 John Murray 1730 25 Feb 1809 78
Governor of New York 1770-1771, Virginia 1771-
1775 and the Bahamas 1787-1796
For further information on this peer, see
the note at the foot of this page.
25 Feb 1809 5 George Murray 30 Apr 1762 11 Nov 1836 74
Created Baron Dunmore [UK]
10 Sep 1831
MP for Liskeard 1800-1802
11 Nov 1836 6 Alexander Edward Murray 1 Jun 1804 15 Jul 1845 41
15 Jul 1845 7 Charles Adolphus Murray 24 Mar 1841 27 Aug 1907 66
Lord Lieutenant Stirling 1875-1885
For further information on this peer, see
the note at the foot of this page.
27 Aug 1907 8 Alexander Edward Murray VC 22 Apr 1871 29 Jan 1962 90
For further information on this peer and VC
winner, see the note at the foot of this page
29 Jan 1962 9 John Alexander Murray 3 Apr 1939 12 Aug 1980 41
12 Aug 1980 10 Reginald Arthur Murray 17 Jul 1911 14 Jun 1981 69
14 Jun 1981 11 Kenneth Randolph Murray 6 Jun 1913 28 Sep 1995 82
28 Sep 1995 12 Malcolm Kenneth Murray 17 Sep 1946
DUNN
24 Aug 1990 B[L] 1 Lydia Selina Dunn 29 Feb 1940
Created Baroness Dunn for life 24 Aug 1990
DUNNING
29 Jun 1869 B 1 John Rogerson Rollo,10th Lord Rollo 24 Oct 1835 2 Oct 1916 80
Created Baron Dunning 29 Jun 1869
See "Rollo" with which title this peerage
remains united
DUNOON
19 Oct 1706 B[S] 1 Archibald Campbell,3rd Duke of Argyll    Jun 1682 15 Apr 1761 78
Created Lord Oransay,Dunoon and
Arase,and Viscount and Earl of Ilay
19 Oct 1706
See "Argyll"
DUNRAVEN AND MOUNT EARL
5 Feb 1822 E[I] 1 Sir Valentine Richard Quin,1st baronet 30 Jul 1752 24 Aug 1824 72
Created Baron Adare 31 Jul 1800,
Viscount Mount Earl 5 Feb 1816 and
Viscount Adare and Earl of Dunraven and
Mount Earl 5 Feb 1822
24 Aug 1824 2 Windham Henry Wyndham-Quin 24 Sep 1782 6 Aug 1850 67
MP for Limerick 1806-1820
6 Aug 1850 3 Edward Richard Wyndham-Quin 19 May 1812 6 Oct 1871 59
Created Baron Kenry 12 Jun 1866 (qv)
MP for Glamorganshire 1837-1851. KP 1866
Lord Lieutenant Limerick 1864-1871
6 Oct 1871 4 Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin 12 Feb 1841 14 Jun 1926 85
Lord Lieutenant Limerick 1894-1922  KP 1876 
PC [I] 1899
14 Jun 1926 5 Windham Henry Wyndham-Quin 7 Feb 1857 23 Oct 1952 95
MP for Glamorgan South 1895-1906
23 Oct 1952 6 Richard Southwell Windham Robert
Wyndham-Quin 18 May 1887 28 Aug 1965 78
28 Aug 1965 7 Thady Windham Thomas Wyndham-Quin 27 Oct 1939 25 Mar 2011 71
to     Peerages extinct on his death
25 Mar 2011
DUNROSSIL
12 Nov 1959 V 1 William Shepherd Morrison 10 Aug 1893 3 Feb 1961 67
Created Viscount Dunrossil 12 Nov 1959
MP for Cirencester and Tewkesbury 1929-
1959. Financial Secretary to the Treasury
1935-1936. Minister for Agriculture and
Fisheries 1936. Chancellor of the Duchy
of Lancaster 1939-1940. Postmaster
General 1940-1943. Minister for Town and
Country Planning 1943-1945. Speaker of the
House of Commons 1951-1959. Governor
General of Australia 1960-1961.  PC 1936
3 Feb 1961 2 John William Morrison 22 May 1926 22 Mar 2000 73
Governor of Bermuda 1983-1988. Lord
Lieutenant Western Isles 1993-2000
22 Mar 2000   3 Andrew William Reginald Morrison 15 Dec 1953
DUNSANDLE AND CLANCONAL
6 Jun 1845 B[I] 1 James Daly 1 Apr 1782 7 Aug 1847 65
Created Baron Dunsandle and
Clanconal 6 Jun 1845
MP for Galway 1805-1811 and co. Galway
1812-1834
7 Aug 1847 2 Denis St.George Daly 10 Jul 1810 11 Jan 1893 82
11 Jan 1893 3 Skeffington James Daly 25 Dec 1811 7 Sep 1894 82
7 Sep 1894 4 James Frederick Daly 29 Aug 1849 25 Nov 1911 62
to     Peerage extinct on his death
25 Nov 1911
DUNSANY
1439 B[I] 1 Sir Christopher Plunkett c 1410 c 1463
Created Baron Dunsany 1439
c 1463 2 Richard Plunkett c 1480
c 1480 3 John Plunkett c 1500
c 1500 4 Edward Plunkett 24 Jan 1521
24 Jan 1521 5 Robert Plunkett 1559
1559 6 Christopher Plunkett c 1564
c 1564 7 Patrick Plunkett 17 Mar 1601
17 Mar 1601 8 Christopher Plunkett 15 Dec 1603
15 Dec 1603 9 Patrick Plunkett Mar 1595 c 1668
c 1668 10 Christopher Plunkett 1690
1690 11 Randall Plunkett 16 Mar 1735
16 Mar 1735 12 Edward Plunkett 1713 9 Jun 1781 67
9 Jun 1781 13 Randall Plunkett Mar 1739 4 Apr 1821 82
4 Apr 1821 14 Edward Wadding Plunkett 7 Apr 1773 11 Dec 1848 75
Lord Lieutenant Meath 1835-1848
11 Dec 1848 15 Randall Edward Plunkett 5 Sep 1804 7 Apr 1852 47
MP for Drogheda 1835-1837
7 Apr 1852 16 Edward Plunkett 29 Nov 1808 22 Feb 1889 80
22 Feb 1889 17 John William Plunkett 31 Aug 1853 16 Jan 1899 45
MP for Thornbury 1886-1892
16 Jan 1899 18 Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett 24 Jul 1878 25 Oct 1957 79
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page
25 Oct 1957 19 Randal Arthur Henry Plunkett 25 Aug 1906 6 Feb 1999 92
6 Feb 1999 20 Edward John Carlos Plunkett 10 Sep 1939 24 May 2011 71
24 May 2011 21 Randal Plunkett 9 Mar 1983
DUNSFORD
2 Feb 1920 V 1 William St.John Fremantle Brodrick,
9th Viscount Midleton 14 Dec 1856 13 Feb 1942 85
Created Viscount Dunsford and Earl 
of Midleton 2 Feb 1920
See "Midleton"
DUNSMORE
31 Jul 1628 E 1 Francis Leigh 21 Dec 1653
to     Created Baron of Dunsmore 31 Jul1628
21 Dec 1653 He was subsequently created Earl of
Chichester (qv) in 1644 - this peerage
extinct on his death
DUNWICH
18 Jul 1821 V 1 John Rous,1st Baron Rous 30 May 1750 27 Aug 1827 77
Created Viscount Dunwich and Earl of
Stradbroke 18 Jul 1821
See "Stradbroke"
DU PARCQ
5 Feb 1946 B[L] 1 Herbert du Parcq 5 Aug 1880 27 Apr 1949 68
to     Created Baron du Parcq for life 5 Feb 1946
27 Apr 1949 Lord Justice of Appeal 1938-1946. Lord
of Appeal in Ordinary 1946-1949.  PC 1938
Peerage extinct on his death
DUPPLIN
4 May 1627 V[S] 1 George Hay 1572 16 Dec 1634 62
25 May 1633 V[S] 1 Created Lord Hay of Kinfauns and
Viscount Dupplin 4 May 1627,and Lord
Hay of Kinfauns,Viscount Dupplin and
Earl of Kinnoull 25 May 1633
See "Kinnoull"
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31 Dec 1697 V[S] 1 Thomas Hay,later [1709] 7th Earl of Kinnoull c 1669 Jan 1719
Created Viscount Dupplin 31 Dec 1697
See "Kinnoull"
DURAS
29 Jan 1673 B 1 Louis de Duras 1641 19 Apr 1709 67
to     Created Baron Duras 29 Jan 1673
19 Apr 1709 He succeeded to the Earldom of Feversham
(qv) in 1677 - both peerages extinct on
his death
DURHAM
For information on the "Lambton Worm," see
the note at the foot of this page
23 Mar 1833 E 1 John George Lambton 12 Apr 1792 28 Jul 1840 48
Created Baron Durham 29 Jan 1828
and Viscount Lambton and Earl of 
Durham 23 Mar 1833
MP for Durham Co. 1813-1828. Lord Privy
Seal 1830-1833. Governor General of 
Canada 1838.  PC 1830
28 Jul 1840 2 George Frederick D'Arcy Lambton 5 Sep 1828 27 Nov 1879 51
Lord Lieutenant Durham 1854-1879
27 Nov 1879 3 John George Lambton 19 Jun 1855 18 Sep 1928 73
Lord Lieutenant Durham 1884-1928
KG 1909. PC 1911
18 Sep 1928 4 Frederick William Lambton 19 Jun 1855 31 Jan 1929 73
MP for Durham South 1880-1885 and
Durham SE 1900-1910
31 Jan 1929 5 John Frederick Lambton 7 Oct 1884 4 Feb 1970 85
4 Feb 1970 6 Antony Claud Frederick Lambton 10 Jul 1922 30 Dec 2006 84
to     MP for Berwick upon Tweed 1951-1973
23 Feb 1970 He disclaimed the peerage for life 23 Feb 1970
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
30 Dec 2006 7 Edward Richard Lambton 19 Oct 1961
DURSLEY
11 Sep 1679 V 1 George Berkeley 1627 14 Oct 1698 71
Created Viscount Dursley and Earl
of Berkeley 11 Sep 1679
See "Berkeley"
DUTTON
10 Sep 1711 B 1 James Hamilton,4th Duke of Hamilton 11 Apr 1658 15 Nov 1712 54
Created Baron of Dutton and Duke of
Brandon 10 Sep 1711
See "Hamilton"
                         ***************
4 Nov 1806 Alexander Hamilton 3 Oct 1767 18 Aug 1852 84
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Dutton 4 Nov 1806
He succeeded as Duke of Hamilton and Brandon
(qv) in 1819
DUVEEN
3 Feb 1933 B 1 Sir Joseph Duveen,1st baronet 14 Oct 1869 25 May 1939 69
to     Created Baron Duveen 3 Feb 1933
25 May 1939 Peerage extinct on his death
DYKES
21 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Hugh John Maxwell Dykes 17 May 1939
Created Baron Dykes for life 21 Jun 2004
MP for Harrow East 1970-1997
DYNEVOR
17 Oct 1780 B 1 William Talbot,Earl Talbot 27 Apr 1782
Created Baron Dinevor 17 Oct 1780
27 Apr 1782 2 Cecil Rice  [female] Jul 1735 14 Mar 1793 57
14 Mar 1793 3 George Talbot Rice 8 Oct 1765 9 Apr 1852 86
MP for Carmarthenshire 1790-1793. Lord
Lieutenant Carmarthen 1804-1852
9 Apr 1852 4 George Rice Rice-Trevor 5 Aug 1795 7 Oct 1869 74
MP for Carmarthen 1820-1831 and 1832-1852
7 Oct 1869 5 Francis William Rice 10 May 1804 3 Aug 1878 74
3 Aug 1878 6 Arthur de Cardonnel Rice 24 Jan 1836 8 Jun 1911 75
8 Jun 1911 7 Walter Fitz-Uryan Rhys 17 Aug 1873 8 Jun 1956 82
MP for Brighton 1910-1911. Lord
Lieutenant Carmarthen 1928-1949
8 Jun 1956 8 Charles Arthur Uryan Rhys 21 Sep 1899 15 Dec 1962 63
MP for Romford 1923-1929 and Guildford
1931-1935
15 Dec 1962 9 Richard Charles Uryan Rhys 19 Jun 1935 12 Nov 2008 73
12 Nov 2008 10 Hugo Griffith Uryan Rhys 19 Nov 1966
DYSART
3 Aug 1643 E[S] 1 William Murray 22 May 1651
Created Lord Huntingtower and Earl 
of Dysart 3 Aug 1643
22 May 1651 2 Elizabeth Tollemache c 1625 16 Jun 1698
For further information on this peeress, see the
note at the foot of this page.
16 Jun 1698 3 Sir Lionel Tollemache,4th baronet 30 Jan 1649 23 Feb 1727 78
MP for Orford 1679-1681 and 1685-1687
and Suffolk 1698-1707. Lord Lieutenant
Suffolk 1703-1705
23 Feb 1727 4 Lionel Tollemache 1 May 1708 10 Mar 1770 61
KT 1743
10 Mar 1770 5 Lionel Tollemache 6 Aug 1734 22 Feb 1799 64
22 Feb 1799 6 Wilbraham Tollemache 23 Oct 1739 9 Mar 1821 81
MP for Northampton 1771-1780 and
Liskeard 1780-1784
9 Mar 1821 7 Louisa Manners 2 Jul 1745 22 Sep 1840 95
22 Sep 1840 8 Lionel William John Tollemache 18 Nov 1794 23 Sep 1878 83
MP for Ilchester 1827-1830
23 Sep 1878 9 William John Manners Tollemache 3 Mar 1859 22 Nov 1935 76
Lord Lieutenant Rutland 1881-1906
For information on the Dysart peerage claim of
1881,see the note at the foot of this page
22 Nov 1935 10 Wenefryde Agatha Greaves 13 Nov 1889 2 Jun 1975 85
2 Jun 1975 11 Rosamund Agnes Greaves 15 Feb 1914 Dec 2003 89
Dec 2003 12 Katherine Grant 1 Jun 1918 8 Nov 2011 93
8 Nov 2011 13 John Peter Grant 22 Oct 1946
"Black" Agnes, wife of Patrick Dunbar, 9th Earl of Dunbar
Black Agnes is one of the national heroines of Scotland, famous for her defence of Dunbar
Castle during the wars with England during the 14th century. The following edited version
of her story is taken from the July 1950 issue of the Australian monthly magazine "Parade."
'The story of Black Agnes dates back to the days of Bannockburn, when brave Robert the Bruce
reassured Scottish independence by victory over the forces of the decadent English king,
Edward II. Agnes came of a great line, being a daughter of Bruce's nephew, Thomas Randolph,
Earl of Moray. Her swarthy complexion, flashing eyes and untamed spirit soon won her the title
of "Black." She was a lass "of a proud and goodly presence," lithe, athletic and of ready wit. 
One chronicler describes her as "wise and ware." Another said rather sourly that she was "ane
woman of great spirit, more nor came ane woman to be" - in other words, with a touch of the
vixen or termagant in her, but possibly he was on the side of the humbled English and therefore
biased.
 
'Her husband, Patrick, ninth Earl of Dunbar and second Earl of March, was of royal Scottish
descent from a natural daughter of William the Lion [i.e. William I, King of Scotland 1165-1214].
At the outset he was opposed to the Bruce and supported the weakling King Edward II. When,
after Bannockburn, Edward fled with Black Douglas and 80 horsemen hot on his heels and 
thirsting for his blood, Earl Patrick gave him sanctuary behind the sturdy walls of Dunbar Castle.
One misty morning as Douglas raged about the castle walls, the fugitive king stole out of the
harbour postern and down a hazardous causeway cut in the rocks to a fishing boat waiting
below, by which he escaped to England. 
'But later - perhaps due to the fanatical loyalty of his wife, Black Agnes, Patrick became 
reconciled to the Bruce and defended Berwick Castle for him till hope was gone, and even pulled
down his own stronghold of Dunbar so that it should not fall into the hands of the English.
Thirteen years passed. The weak-minded Edward II had been deposed by his strong-minded
spouse, Queen Isabella, supported by her lover, Mortimer, and foully put to death; his son, the
valiant Edward III, though only a boy of 14, was leading an army to reconquer Scotland.
 
'The Earl Patrick had his castle rebuilt on a precipitous crag high above the sea, embodying all
that was new in the science of fortification. Known as "Earl Patrick's Strong House" it was
deemed impregnable. By a trick, Edward's men were prevented from occupying it before it was
ready for siege, and it was under the firm control of Black Agnes when the warring Edward 
crossed the border at the head of a powerful army. Patrick had gone off in command of a wing
of the Scottish army that massed to repel the invaders; so Black Agnes alone held the strong-
hold of Dunbar as an English force advanced upon it. 
'The English were commanded by such notable medieval strategists as William Montague [or
Montacute], Earl of Salisbury, renowned for his valour at Poitiers, and the Earl of Arundel, later
Constable at the Battle of Crecy. Though her husband was away fighting to the north and her
brother was a prisoner in English hands, the heart of Black Agnes did not quail, and her 
subsequent defence of Dunbar has become history. 
'The elements were her ally. The English had not timed their campaign well, and a great blizzard
was blanketing the towers of Dunbar in dense snow flurries as they plodded forward in that 
January of 1338. Salt spray topped the cliffs as the waves whipped up by an easterly gale
hammered and thundered against them. Montague was forced to encamp his armies and wait
for the weather to abate before laying siege to the fortress. Meanwhile, he blockaded it by land
while two Genoese war galleys hired by the English maintained a ceaseless vigil on the castle
and port from the sea. Dunbar was thus completely cut off from the world with its garrison
commanded by a woman greatly outnumbered.
'When the weather abated Montague called upon Black Agnes to yield. Her reply was defiant. So
the English brought up their engines of war-great catapults and battering rams to hurl rocks at
the walls and batter them down. Showers of darts, arrows and [crossbow] bolts sprayed the
battlements. The garrison, whipped up by the swarthy chatelaine, responded with even greater
vigour. As the fight waged on in spasmodic bursts of fury Black Agnes and her handmaids would
often walk on the battlements to show their contempt of the English engines, and ironically 
wipe with their kerchiefs those parts of the wall that were struck by the enemy's rocks, Agnes'
wild anger sometimes overwhelmed her breeding and inflamed her to rail and jeer at the invaders
like a fish-wife abusing a bailiff.
'After weeks of fruitless attack, Montague assembled his greatest engine of war. Known to the
English as a "sow," it consisted of a strong shed of timber or wicker with sides of dressed 
leather, within which soldiers could advance to ply a giant battering ram while others under-
mined the walls immune from assault from above. Montague brought up the sow under cover 
of darkness and the first the beleaguered garrison knew of it was the thud of the great ram
against the walls. It was greeted with cries of dismay from all within the castle except the
the redoubtable Agnes. 
 
'For an hour there was silence broken only by the thud of the ram. Then Agnes and her maids
appeared on battlements. Waving to the enemy she called in a clear disdainful voice:
 
           "Beware Montagow
            For farrow shalt thy sow."
'A derrick swung over the walls. From it was suspended an enormous rock, which, suddenly
released, plunged unerringly through the wood-and-wicker roof of the engine of war. The
thud of the ram ceased as the soldiers crawled from the battered hulk and fled, leaving some
of their comrades crushed and groaning under Black Agnes's rock. 
'A peal of feminine laughter came from the castle. "Look, Montague's sow has farrowed," jeered
Black Agnes, as the fleeing soldiers looked, from the battlements, like a litter of little pigs. 
Burning pitch now poured from the battlements. Soon Montague's sow was a smoking wreck,
and the stench of roasting flesh filled the air as the flames consumed the dead and injured
trapped within the shattered contraption. Montague himself narrowly escaped with his life. As
he stood with a knight on one of the trenches, a Scottish archer, William Spens, recognised him
and took a pot-shot. He missed the earl but hit the knight. So great was the power behind the
shaft that it pierced his surcoat, and three folds of his mailed coat and quilted tunic and came
to rest with its point buried deep in his heart. "That is one of my lady's hatpins," muttered
Montague grimly as the knight clanged dead at his feet. "Black Agnes' love shafts go straight
to the heart."
'The giant battering-ram having failed to gain him entry to the castle, he now tried treachery. 
By some means he communicated with the chief keeper of the sally port, and promised him
wealth and high honour if he would betray his trust and admit a party of besiegers to the castle.
The keeper told Black Agnes. "Agree," she said, "We'll give him such a welcome as he will never
forget." Montague himself led the treacherous force. As he stealthily led his men beneath the
shade of the great walls, the portcullis rose slowly with jar of chains and pulleys and the castle
gate swung open. Just as he was entering, his intermediary pressed ahead. The portcullis
clanged down. Montague. just managed to leap to safety but his man was caught. Black Agnes 
had sprung the trap too soon. There was disappointment in her voice as she taunted from the
battlements: "Farewell, Monsieur Montagow. I intended you should sup with me tonight and help
me hold Dunbar against the Southrons." 
'Rations were now running short within the castle. The defenders had pulled in their belts to the
last hole to stifle their ravenous hunger. But the heroic Agnes still defied the besiegers. Death 
from starvation was facing Dunbar's defenders when at last relief came from Sir Alexander 
Ramsay of Dalhousie, who with a roving band had been harassing the English from hideouts in
the caverns of Hawthornden. Loading several row-boats with provisions on a dark moonless 
night, he and his men risked their lives with every swing of the muffled oars to run the gauntlet 
of the now reinforced blockading fleet to gain the rocks below the castle postern, where they 
were welcomed deliriously by the famished garrison.
 
'Ramsay decided to make a surprise sortie in force from the castle. The sally took the English 
advance posts unprepared and threw them back with bloody losses on to their main lines.
Angered by this cheeky manoeuvre, Montague tried to force Black Agnes to yield by a dastardly
expedient. He sent a message back across the border for Agnes' imprisoned brother, the Earl of
Moray, to be sent to him. "Yield or we slay him," was his ultimatum to Black Agnes. "I deliver to
none." came the proud reply. "I hold the castle for Scotland's King!" It is to Montague's credit
that faced with this magnificent defiance from a woman he did not carry out his threat.
 
'On June 10, 1338, five months after the first rock had crashed against the walls, he raised the
siege, struck camp and marched away with the taunts of Black Agnes ringing in his ears.
 
'The valiant chatelaine of Dunbar lived to a good old age [she died in 1369]. She is 
commemorated in the parish church at Whitekirk near Dunbar, where she built a chapel in 
thankfulness for a miracle cure at a holy well. She was in flight by sea in one of the alarms that
preceded the siege when she was thrown against the thwart of a boat in stormy seas and
forced to land in agony. A hermit told her to drink with faith from the holy well. She did and
was instantly restored, so the story goes. Pilgrims flocked to the shrine she built. Among the
pilgrims of 1435 was Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, later Pope Pius II, who, caught by a tempest
in the North Sea while on a mission to Scotland, vowed he would go barefoot to the nearest
shrine if he were spared. He walked barefoot in the frozen snow to the shrine of Black Agnes
to fulfil the vow - and, it is recorded, ever afterwards suffered from rheumatism. He was the
only Pope ever to visit Scotland, and he probably regretted his visit.'
James Butler, 13th Baron Dunboyne
In 1850, Dunboyne was tried for perjury for incorrectly describing himself in the parish register
of St.George's, Hanover Square, as a widower. The following report is from 'Freeman's Journal
and Daily Commercial Advertiser' (Dublin) of 21 June 1850:-
'Mr. Sergeant Wilkins, in opening the case for the prosecution, stated that the defendant, the
Baron Dunboyne, was married on the 25th August, 1842, to Margaret Ann Vincent Vaughan, at 
the parish church of Paddington. A settlement had been drawn up two days before the marriage
settling the property on the wife under certain restrictions, to which the defendant was a 
party. After the marriage, on the 27th August, 1842, it was obvious that the name of the lady
ceased to be Vaughan. She was no longer a widow, nor was he a widower. The marriage was
kept a profound secret except to persons present at it solemnization, for reasons which he
was not at liberty to explain. Even the servants in Mrs. Vaughan's house were not privy to it.
On the 19th Dec., 1843, Lord Dunboyne went to St. George's church, Hanover-square, with
the same lady, describing himself as the Baron Dunboyne, a widower, and the lady as Mary Ann
Vincent Vaughan, which description was, consequently, untrue. The learned sergeant then 
called the attention of the jury to the 41st section of the 6th and 7th Wm IV., cap 8, under
which the prosecution was instituted. That section enacted that every person who should 
wilfully make, or cause to be made, false entries in the register of births, deaths and marriages,
should be subject to the same pains and penalties as if they were guilty of perjury. The 
learned sergeant then called the following witnesses to support the indictment :--
'The Rev. E. H. Stevenson, curate of the church at Paddington, proved that in 1842 he
solemnized a marriage between Lord Dunboyne and Mrs. Vaughan. The particulars in the entry
of marriage were written by witness.
'Mr. John Burley proved that the signature to the register of marriage was that of Lord 
Dunboyne.
'Mr. Withers, a clerk to Simmons & Co., bankers, at Reading, with whom Mrs. Vaughan kept an
account, proved that the signature to the register of marriage was in that lady's handwriting.
'Mr. Dyke, Registrar of Doctors' Commons, produced an affidavit sworn in December, 1843, on 
the application for a marriage licence.
'Dr. Waddilove proved that it was his duty to administer the oath to parties coming before
him for a marriage licence. (The affidavit, which was in the usual form, was here read).
'Mr. C. H. Powell said, in December, 1843, he was the parish clerk of St. George's, Hanover-
square. Witness produced the marriage licence and register-books for the marriage of Lord
Dunboyne and Mrs. Vaughan, respectively described as widower and widow.
'The Rev. W. E. Dickenson, curate of St. George's Hanover-square, proved that he solemnized
a marriage between Lord Dunboyne and Mrs. Vaughan on the 19th December, 1843. He also 
proved the signatures of Lord Dunboyne and Mrs. Vaughan to the entry of the marriage.
'Ann Roche proved that she was sometime ago a servant to Mrs. Vaughan. Remembered her
marriage in December, 1843 at St. George's, Hanover-square, and had lived with her since
1842. Previous to 1843 she was always addressed as Mrs. Vaughan. Major Marshall married
a daughter of Lord Dunboyne and Mrs. Marshall was present at the marriage of Lord Dunboyne
and Mrs. Vaughan, in December, 1843.
'By Mr. Cockburn -- In 1842, Mrs. Vaughan lived at Belle Hatch, near Henley. Lord Dunboyne
sometimes visited at that place. She lived with her grandmother, Mrs. Halloway, and sometimes
she lived at her own house. Witness was not aware of the first marriage with Lord Dunboyne.
For a long time in 1843 Mrs. Halloway was poorly. She was possessed of some property. She
died on the 5th of September, 1844. After the marriage in 1843, Mrs. Vaughan took the name
of Lady Dunboyne. She died in 1846.
'By Mr. Sergeant Wilkins -- They lived together till the 7th of November, 1844, after which
Lord Dunboyne never came back
'Mr. Cockburn, in his address to the jury on the part of the defence, characterised the present
indictment as the most cruel proceeding that had come within his professional experience,
seeing that Lord Dunboyne whom he had the honour of representing was now eighty [sic]
years of age, and on the verge of the grave, and that the lady whom he had married, and with
respect to which marriage this indictment was preferred, was now removed from this world.
He contended that what had been done by Lord Dunboyne in this case was nothing more than
what took place every day in the marriages of Roman Catholics, who were now in the habit of
being married in the first instance at the superintendent registrar's office, and then going
immediately afterwards to be a second time married in a Roman Catholic church. At that second
marriage they denied the first, on the ground that being only a civil contract it was not a
marriage in the eyes of the Roman Catholic church, which regarded marriage as a sacrament.
He submitted that no one would think of indicting any of the parties of the marriage for having
on the second marriage at the Roman Catholic church denied that which took place at the
superintendent registrar's office. The learned counsel also cited the case of the late Lord
Eldon, who having been married in Scotland, was subsequently married in England, on which
last marriage he described himself in the marriage register as "John Scott, bachelor," and his
lady as "Elizabeth Surtees, spinster," notwithstanding they had previously contracted a valid
marriage by the law of Scotland.
'Lord Campbell having summed up the case, the jury found a verdict for the defendant, thus
acquitting Lord Dunboyne of the imputed perjury.'
Dunboyne's defence counsel was certainly correct when he described his client as being 'on
the verge of the grave,' since Lord Dunboyne died a fortnight later. The reference to Lord
Eldon is also quite correct, since John Scott, who later became the 1st Earl of Eldon,
married Elizabeth Surtees firstly in Scotland on 19 November 1772 and again in England on
19 January 1773.
John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee
The following biography of Viscount Dundee is taken from the March 1966 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
 
'On the afternoon of July 27, 1689, an army of 4000 English, Dutch and Lowland Scottish 
soldiers were winding through the Pass of Killiecrankie, the wild gorge that formed one of the
gateways to the central Highlands of Scotland. For four months they had been hunting John
Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount Dundee, the ruthless military commander who only a few
years before had spread terror throughout half the country. Bloody Claverhouse he was
called by his enemies, the Presbyterian Covenanters whom he had mercilessly harried with
fire and sword in the name of the Stuart monarchs Charles II and James II. Round his name
many dark legends had gathered. It was whispered that because of his pact with the Devil
he could only be killed by a silver bullet and that his great black horse was a gift from Satan
himself.
 
'Every atrocity that stained Scotland during the "Killing Time" of religious civil war was blamed
on Claverhouse by the Covenanting fanatics. No man was more hated by his foes or more
idolised by his own followers. Now, however, with James II in exile and William of Orange on
the English throne, Claverhouse was a hunted fugitive. The last act in the stormy drama of
his life was played on the blood­soaked heather of Killiecrankie. There he died, shot from his 
black horse just as he led the final charge of his Highland clansmen down the slope of the pass.
'John Graham of Claverhouse, the son of a substantial laird and a remote kinsman of the noble
house of Montrose, was born on his family's estate near Dundee probably in 1649. He grew up a
handsome, high-spirited youth with a romantic passion for poetry and history and an equal
ambition to make his name as a soldier. In his 20s he served as a volunteer in the wars against
France in Flanders. By 1678 he had returned to England and was a captain in the regiment of
Horse Guards newly raised by Charles II's brother, James, Duke of York.
 
'The Horse Guards, the Dark Dragoons that many of the Scottish Lowlanders were soon to
curse so bitterly, had been raised for a specific purpose. Since the Restoration of King Charles
in 1660 the royal government had been determined to enforce the Anglican church system in
Scotland as well as England, a plan that aroused violent resistance among the Presbyterians
of the Lowlands. Most Presbyterians clung to their Covenant, a pledge that bound them to
deny the authority of the king's bishops and to uphold their own church organisation. In
defiance of the law Covenanting preachers travelled the countryside holding services on the
bleak moorlands, risking death or prison to keep the zeal of their followers at fever pitch.
'The dragoons were sent to Scotland to strike terror into the Covenanting districts. And of
all their commanders none proved more ruthless than Captain Graham of Claverhouse,
especially after his first humiliating encounter on Drunclog Moor. In May 1679 the brutal murder
Archbishop Sharpe led to reprisals that set the whole Lowlands ablaze. It was the beginning of
the Killing Time that filled the country with horror for the next 10 years.
 
Learning that a Covenanting army was mustering at Drumclog near Glasgow, Claverhouse
rode against them with 800 dragoons, planning to surprise them, cut them to pieces and
seize their three most notorious leaders, Robert Hamilton [1650-1701], David Hackston [d 1680]
and John Balfour. Instead it was Claverhouse who was surprised. Overwhelmed by a horde of
armed farmers the dragoons broke and fled. Claverhouse barely escaped with his life when his
horse's flank was laid open by the slash of a scythe. With the Covenanters hot on their heels
the royal cavalry retreated into Glasgow, where they beat off two desperate assaults in the
town streets before reinforcements turned the tide.
 
'The rout of Drumclog caused panic in the royal council at Edinburgh. More troops were rushed
from England. With them as supreme commander came the king's illegitimate son, the Duke of
Monmouth. On June 22, 1679, the overconfident Covenanters were taught a terrible lesson.
Trapped at Bothwell Brig on the River Clyde they were crushingly defeated and 500 of the
the fugitives were butchered by Claverhouse's vengeful dragoons in the pursuit that followed.
Another 100 prisoners were herded into cattle-pens in Edinburgh to await execution, prison
or exile to the West Indian plantations.
'Monmouth's mildness soon brought his recall to England. The task of stamping out the
Covenanting rebels was handed over to other military chiefs among whom Claverhouse
quickly earned a sinister prominence. He campaigned with the fury of a crusader, outraging
many of the powerful Scottish royalist nobles by his "high proud humour" and refusal to accept
any compromise. 
'By 1682 Claverhouse was a colonel with his own regiment of dragoons and throughout south-
western Scotland, the main stronghold of the Covenanters, people shivered at the sound of
his name. His horsemen rode through Ayrshire, Galloway, Dumfries and Lanark, harrying
preachers into the hills, burning and plundering the farms of Covenanting families and
executing suspects without any pretence of a trial. Claverhouse was not personally responsible
for what was possibly the worst horror of the campaign but it happened in the area he
controlled and his brother was one of the judges who passed sentence. The victims were two
women, one elderly and the other a teenage girl, who were convicted of having refused to
take an oath abjuring the Covenant. They were chained at stakes on the sands of Solway
Solway Firth and left there to drown in the incoming tide. No other incident stirred such
burning and hatred of Claverhouse's name. [for further information on this incident, see the
note under the Grierson baronets]
'In 1683 Claverhouse visited Charles II at Newmarket in England, where the king spared
enough time from his jockeys and mistresses to load the colonel with favours and grant him
£4000 worth of estates confiscated from Presbyterian lairds. But no severity could break the
spirit of the Covenanters. The Killing Time went on. Many of the great Scottish peers,
including the Duke of Hamilton and Marquess of Queensberry, advocated a compromise peace.
Claverhouse refused to listen. "I will have no peace but submission," he vowed.
 
'The turmoil reached its climax during the brief reign of James II when Claverhouse, now a
major-general and the most powerful man in Scotland, made a final effort to bludgeon the
Covenanters into surrender. He failed, while the Earl of Argyll's revolt and the seething
discontent in the towns showed that opposition to King James was spreading far beyond the
Presbyterian extremists.
'Then late in 1688 stunning news reached Edinburgh from London. England was rising against
King James, Prince William of Orange was about to sail from Holland to claim the throne of his
father-in-law and the king was desperately appealing to his Scottish subjects for aid. In
October 4000 troops left Scotland under the nominal command of Archibald Douglas but with
Claverhouse leading the dragoons and the dominant figure in the hopeless expedition. A few
weeks later Claverhouse reached the royal camp at Salisbury only to find James in despair at
the news of his rival's landing and already determined on flight from England.
 
'Claverhouse urged the king to stay and fight it out. His angry pleas were useless. After
creating his supporter Viscount Dundee, James fled from his camp to London to begin his
escape into exile. With tears in his eyes and rage in his heart, Claverhouse gathered the few
dragoons who remained loyal to the Jacobite cause and set out back to Scotland, still
determined to fight. In Edinburgh he found most of the nobles and magnates determined to
support King William. Only the great, rock-perched castle was held for the fallen monarch by
the Duke of Gordon. 
'Fearing assassination and threatened with imminent arrest for treason, Claverhouse decided
to make for the Highlands and raise an army of clansmen round the nucleus of his handful of
dragoons. Before quitting Edinburgh he scaled the precipitous cliff below the castle walls,
held a hurried conference with Gordon and begged him to hang on until the host of Jacobite
Highlanders swept into the city to relieve him. Then Claverhouse galloped north, raiding Perth
and Dundee to seize arms and ammunition on the way before he entered the wild country
ruled by the patriarchal chieftain, Cameron of Lochiel. For two more months, with several
thousand Camerons, Murrays of Atholl and other clansmen, Claverhouse roamed the Highlands
eluding every attempt by King William's general, Hugh Mackay [c 1640-1692], to bring him to
open battle. 
'Then at last, when Mackay was advancing to seize Blair Atholl Castle, Claverhouse laid a 
trap in the Pass of Killiecrankie. Swarming at dusk down the heather-clad slopes, the
claymore-wielding Highlanders hacked Mackay's small army to pieces, killing or capturing 2000
men. But in the heat of the charge Claverhouse rolled from his saddle with a fatal bullet lodged
under his armpit. "The day goes ill for me, but it goes well for King James," he said.'
 
The successful claims made by Henry James Scrymgeour-Wedderburn to the
Viscountcy of Dudhope in 1952 and the Earldom of Dundee in 1953
The following edited account of the successful claim to the Viscountcy of Dudhope appeared
in 'The Times' of 31 July 1952:-
'The Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords yesterday announced that in their view Mr.
Henry James Scrymgeour-Wedderburn, of Birkhill, near Cupar, Fife, had made out his claim to
the titles of Viscount Dudhope and Lord Scrymgeour in the Peerage of Scotland.
'The Attorney-General [Sir Lionel Heald] had said that there were four main issues before the
Committee. The first was the creation by Charles I in 1641 of Sir John Scrymgeour, Constable
of Dundee, "and his heirs male lawfully begotten....whom failing his heirs male whomsoever" as
Viscounts of Dudhope and Lords Scrymgeour. The patent by which the title was created could
not itself be produced but it was accepted that secondary evidence, coupled with general
historical background, was sufficient to establish creation of a title.
'Secondly, the petitioner had to show that there were no remaining heirs male of the original
grantee.
'Thirdly, the petitioner claimed that he was descended from a common ancestor with the
patentee. There was no doubt that both the petitioner and the patentee were descendants
of a common ancestor, a great warrior, Sir James Scrymgeour, Constable of Dundee, who was
killed at the Battle of Harlaw in Aberdeenshire in 1411. In the early documents the name
Scrymgeour was spelled "Skyrmisher" and there was some reason to suppose that it was 
because Sir James was a great fighter that he had that name.
'The fourth issue was whether, as claimed by the petitioner, all intervening heirs male were
deceased and the male line was now extinct. In such matters circumstantial evidence was
just as convincing as direct evidence.
'Lord Normand, with whom the other members of the Committee concurred, said that Mr.
Scrymgeour-Wedderburn had to show first that the viscountcy was created with the
destination which he alleged. There was a difficulty in that neither the signature nor the
patent creating the title in 1641 was in Mr. Scrymgeour-Wedderburn's possession, and was
not even known by him to exist. There were, however, other records which satisfactorily
established the point. The fact that the peerages held by the third Viscount, also created
Earl of Dundee in 1660, had never been claimed since his death in 1668, was itself strong
evidence that at that time there were no heirs male of the first Viscount.
'Referring to the "processed and most unscrupulous covetousness" of the second Earl of
Lauderdale, who was Secretary for Scottish Affairs from 1660 to 1680, Lord Normand said that
as a result of his action in 1670 the family of Scrymgeour were deprived of their archives which
passed into the possession of the Earl of Lauderdale. Thus it came about that the petitioner's
family were deprived of the documents which might have enabled them to put forward their
present claim at an earlier date. Mr. Scrymgeour-Wedderburn's evidence, with many
corroborative circumstances, proved that his family had long believed they were entitled to the
peerages now claimed. When a claim was put forward after three centuries, however, it was
incumbent on the claimant to explain the delay. He (his Lordship) was clearly of the opinion
that the petitioner had satisfactorily explained the delay, at least for the period ending in 1937.
'Mr. Scrymgeour-Wedderburn had successfully traced his descent from a common ancestor
and scrutiny of the evidence revealed no flaw or weakness.
'It was more difficult for him to establish the extinction of all intermediate collateral heirs male,
and family traditions must be accepted with caution for they might be flattering and deceptive 
myths. There had been, however, an intense search for evidence and much of it supported the
present claim. It would be surprising if any new evidence were to be found which would show
that the petitioner was not entitled to the office of Standard Bearer and to the peerages he
had claimed. On the case as a whole Mr. Scrymgeour-Wedderburn's claim succeeded.
'The Committee directed that a resolution to that effect be presented to the House of Lords
for approval.'
In May 1953, a further petition made by the then Viscount Dudhope was successful, as 
reported in 'The Times' of 19 May 1953:-
'The House of Lords Committee for Privileges yesterday decided in favour of the petition of
Viscount Dudhope, of Birkhill, Fife, Hereditary Royal Standard Bearer for Scotland, to be
recognised as Earl of Dundee and Lord Inverkeithing. They reported that in their view he had
made out his claim to be the "heir male whomsoever" of the first Earl, who was also the third
Viscount Dudhope, who died in 1668.
'Lord Normand, delivering the principal judgment, with which the Chairman (the Earl of 
Drogheda) and the other members of the committee agreed, said that the petitioner had
relied on the evidence given in his claim to the Dudhope Viscountcy, and that evidence
satisfactorily explained the petitioner's inability to produce the Patent of the Earldom and the
Signature, although the Signature ought to have been retained in the public records when the
Patent was granted, and the Patent itself should have been recorded in the Great Seal Register
of Scotland.
'The committee's report will now be submitted to the House of Lords in the form of a resolution
which will be considered this week.'
Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald
Before he succeeded to the title in 1831, the 10th Earl was styled Lord Cochrane, and it is
this name which will be used to refer to him for the greater part of this note. 
After a naval career, Cochrane entered politics in 1806 when he was returned for the seat of
Honiton. In the following year he was elected for the seat of Westminster, for which he
continued to sit until 1814. During this period, in August 1812, he secretly married Catherine
Barnes. In June 1818, he again married her, but this time publicly. While not of any relevance
to this note, the secret marriage plays an important role in the note below regarding the 11th 
Earl of Dundonald. Also during this period, Cochrane was knighted in 1809.
On 21 February 1814, a man dressed in a red jacket (note that the colour of the jacket is
important) who called himself Colonel de Bourg arrived in Dover from France, bearing the news
that Napoleon had been captured and killed by the Cossacks. As a result, prices on the London
Stock Exchange rose sharply, including a stock called Omnium, which jumped by 20% from
26.5 to 32.
It soon became clear, however, that the news was a hoax. The Stock Exchange examined the
trading patterns in Omnium stock and found that six men had sold Omnium stock during its
rise in price. The six included Cochrane, who had sold £139,000 worth of Omnium stock, at a
profit of £2,470. Also in the six were Cochrane's uncle, Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone 
(MP for Grampound since 1812), who made a profit of £4,931, and Cochrane's broker, Richard 
Butt, who profited to the extent of £3,048.
Within a few days, an anonymous tip-off informed the Stock Exchange that de Bourg was in
reality a Prussian named Charles Random de Berenger, and that he had been seen entering
Cochrane's house on the day of the hoax. As a result, Cochrane and de Berenger were charged
with conspiring with each other and with six other men in a fraudulent conspiracy to deceive
the public into thinking that the war with France had been won and that Napoleon was dead,
with the object of causing Government securities to rise in value, so that the conspirators might
sell such securities at a profit. The six other men were Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone,
Richard Butt, a wine merchant named Holloway and three other men named Sandon, M'Rae and
Lyte. The last three defendants were accused of having assisted in the hoax by posing as
French officers who had distributed leaflets celebrating the downfall of Napoleon. Holloway
admitted that he had instigated their actions in order to profit from the subsequent rise in 
stock prices, but all four denied any connection with de Berenger.
Their trial commenced in the Court of King's Bench at the Guildhall in London on 8 June 1814.
The evidence against Cochrane was largely circumstantial. One of the most important points
was the colour of the uniform that de Berenger had been wearing when he called at Cochrane's
house. Cochrane insisted that de Berenger was wearing a green uniform, and was backed up in
this belief by a number of his servants. However, a cab-driver named Crane swore that de
Berenger had been wearing a red uniform when he drove him to Cochrane's house. The judge
who presided at the trial was the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench, Lord Ellenborough, who
made no secret of the fact that he considered Crane's testimony as to the colour of de
Berenger's uniform to be damning evidence against Cochrane. After two and a half hours
deliberation the jury found all defendants guilty as charged.
Two of the defendants, Andrew James Cochrane Johnstone and M'Rae, fled the country before
they could be sentenced. The remaining defendants were each sentenced to 12 months' 
imprisonment, and, in Cochrane's case, ordered to pay a fine of £1,000 and to spend an hour in
the pillory opposite the Royal Exchange at lunch-time. The pillory sentence was subsequently
remitted, partly because Sir Francis Burdett, Cochrane's fellow MP for Westminster, said that he
would stand there too if the sentence were carried out, and partly because the government 
feared that the carrying out of the sentence would cause a riot.
In subsequent weeks, Cochrane suffered further humiliation. On 5 July 1814, both Cochrane and 
his uncle were expelled from the House of Commons. During the same period, Cochrane was
dismissed from the Royal Navy and was also stripped of his knighthood. However, on 16 July 
1814, Cochrane was again returned unopposed as MP for Westminster, and, as the House of
Commons did not see fit to interfere further in this matter, he continued to represent this seat
until 1818.
In 1817 Cochrane, still in official disgrace, left England to further his naval career elsewhere. 
In May 1817, he took command of the navy of Chile in its fight for independence from Spain and
was instrumental in achieving the independence of both Chile and Peru. In 1823, at a time when
Brazil was struggling for its independence from Portugal, he took command of the Brazilian navy
and was again an important factor in achieving Brazil's independence, being rewarded by 
Emperor Pedro I who created him Marquess of Maranhão, a title still held by his descendants.
He then went to Europe, where he fought for Greece against the Ottoman Empire.
After having succeeded to the Earldom of Dundonald in 1831, he was reinstated in the Royal
Navy as a Rear Admiral in 1832, and his knighthood was restored in 1847. His career as a naval
officer is almost certainly reflected to some extent in the fictional characters of Captain
Horatio Hornblower and of Jack Aubrey in Patrick O'Brian's series of nautical novels. In particular,
the eleventh novel of the Aubrey series, 'The Reverse of the Medal,' is based upon Cochrane's
trial.
A number of books have been written which debate the guilt or innocence of Lord Cochrane. 
In compiling this note, I have relied to a large extent on "A Matter of Speculation: The Case of
Lord Cochrane" by Henry Cecil [Hutchinson, London, 1965].
Thomas Barnes Cochrane, 11th Earl of Dundonald
Between June 1862 and June 1863, the Committee for Privileges of the House of Lords heard a
claim made by Thomas Barnes Cochrane to the Earldom of Dundonald. There was no doubt that
Cochrane was the eldest son of the 10th Earl of Dundonald, but the point at issue was whether
he was considered to be legitimate.
As mentioned in the note above relating to the 10th Earl, he and Miss Catherine Barnes were 
married in a secret ceremony in Scotland in August 1812, and were subsequently married
publicly in 1818. Their eldest son, the claimant, was born in April 1814. Initially, the claim was
opposed by Captain Leopold Cochrane, the eldest son born after the public marriage of 1818.
He subsequently withdrew his opposition to the claim, but the House of Lords appears to have
considered the case of sufficient importance to continue to hear evidence, probably because
the right of Lord Dundonald to vote at the election of Scottish representative peers would
depend upon the case's outcome.
The following is extracted from a report which appeared in the 'Birmingham Daily Post'  of 26
July 1862. I have taken the liberty of excising some of the less relevant portions of the report.
'Her ladyship [the Dowager Countess of Dundonald, widow of the 10th Earl and the mother of
the claimant] now appeared to give evidence. She stated that her maiden name was Catherine
Corbett Barnes, and that her parents died when she was very young. She was now 64 years of
age. [If this is true, she was only 14 when she married in 1812. Burke's Peerage states that she
was 69 when she died in 1865, which makes her 16 in 1812 - a more likely age to my mind]. She
was brought up by her aunt, Mrs. Jackson, who resided at 9, Bryanston Street, Bryanston 
Square. Whilst living in Bryanston Street, in 1811, she was introduced to her late husband, then
Lord Cochrane, by his cousin, Captain Nathaniel Day Cochrane, who was a friend of her aunt's.
He was then living with his uncle, Mr. Basil Cochrane, at 20, Portman Square. He made love to
and offered her marriage, which she at first refused, but eventually she accepted him. He asked
asked her to be privately married, and to keep the marriage secret, as his uncle had promised
him a large fortune if he married another lady. She refused, but on his being taken ill he sent to
her, begging her to walk opposite his uncle's house, as he was dying. She complied with the
request, and on his being lifted to the window the sight of his corpse-like form softened her
heart, and she consented to a private marriage.
'Her ladyship then proceeded to say that she and her late husband went to Scotland in a
carriage, attended by her maid and her husband's man, and, on their arrival at Annan, on the
8th of August, 1812, they went to the Queensberry Arms Hotel, where Lord Cochrane wrote
out a paper, and she copied out another, which they signed. They ran as follows:-
"I, Sir Thomas Cochrane, commonly called Lord Cochrane, of the kingdom of Scotland, being
desirous for particular reasons, to avoid a public marriage, do hereby acknowledge and receive
Catherine Corbett Barnes as my lawful wife.         COCHRANE"
"I, Catherine Corbett Barnes, of the parish of Marylebone, county of Middlesex, do accept and 
declare Sir Thomas Cochrane, commonly called Lord Cochrane, to be my lawful husband,
promising faithfully to keep secret this deed of marriage until I shall be permitted in writing under
the hand of my accepted husband to disclose the same.      CATHERINE CORBETT BARNES."
"Done at Queensberry Arms, in the town and parish of Annan, in the county of Dumfries, in the
kingdom of Scotland, the 8th day of August, 1812.    Anne Moxam : Richard Carter."
'Lord Cochrane told Carter that he had come there to be married. He also told her that the
marriage was legal. He left for London immediately, scarcely stopping for refreshment. She
returned on the 10th, when she went to her aunt's house, where she remained until the 18th,
when she went with Lord Cochrane to the Isle of Wight, where they stayed two months, and
she lived with him from that time until his death. They were afterwards married in England
and at Edinburgh.' [During Cochrane's subsequent naval career in the service of Chile, Brazil
and Greece, his wife was invariably aboard the ships he commanded].
Eventually, on 15 June 1863, the Committee allowed the claim of Thomas Barnes Cochrane
to the earldom. The Committee found that the Dowager Countess's evidence was true, and
that the papers signed by she and her late husband were genuine, and not forgeries as had
been suggested. In an early example of forensic detection, it was shown that the watermarks
contained in the papers proved that the paper had been manufactured in 1811, a year before
the secret marriage, and that it was extremely unlikely that, if the papers were forged, the
forger would have been able to obtain, or even think of obtaining, paper with such watermarks.
John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore
Dunmore has the dubious distinction of having a war named after him - Lord Dunmore's War.
After serving as Governor of New York in 1770 and 1771, he was appointed Governor of Virginia
in September 1771. He had no particular qualifications for the post, other than a soldierly
reputation and a determination to uphold the authority of British rule.
At first he was very popular, especially among the slave-owning plantation gentry whom he
entertained lavishly and who regarded him as a kindred spirit. But already trouble was brewing
as discontent with British taxation and trading restrictions spread from the northern colonies to
the previously loyal inhabitants of Virginia. In March 1773, Dunmore abruptly dissolved the 
Virginia Assembly because it dared to propose consultations with the other colonies about
their common grievances. A year later, the outbreak of a ferocious Indian war temporarily
shelved all political considerations.
The area south of the Ohio River had long been claimed by the Iroquois Confederacy. In 1768,
under the Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the British had acquired this land, but a number of other 
Indian nations, in particular the Shawnees and the Mingos, had refused to sign the treaty and 
continued to hunt in the area.
Following the 1768 Treaty, British explorers, surveyors and settlers began pouring into the 
region, but the Indian nations which were opposed to the Treaty increasingly attacked settlers,
killing the men and taking the women and children as slaves. One of the first events in Lord
Dunmore's War was the killing in October 1773 of James, the son of a then obscure hunter by 
the name of Daniel Boone.
Until April 1774, the Mingo nation, under its chief, known to the settlers as John Logan, had
been peaceful toward the settlers. This all changed on 30 April when a group of Indians who
were camped on the west bank of the Ohio at Yellow Creek crossed the river to a tavern at
Baker's Bottom. When the Indians all became intoxicated by rum, a group of settlers lying in
wait massacred all of the Indians. Collecting his surviving warriors, Logan took to the woods
and over the next few months swooped on every isolated settlement within reach, killing,
raping and burning in a frenzy of vengeance.
His men were few and might still have been easily crushed had not a further senseless outrage
by the white settlers against the brother of the chief of the Shawnees, an Indian named
Cornstalk, caused the Shawnees to join forces with Logan's tribe.
Early in May 1774, Dunmore received word of the Indian rising and immediately requested the
formation of a militia force. This force was split in two, Dunmore commanding one and Colonel
Andrew Lewis the other. The two forces moved along the Ohio valley, slaughtering every 
Indian they found, including women and children. The climax came on 10 October 1774 at the
Battle of Point Pleasant where Cornstalk's forces were defeated and peace negotiations were
commenced. Logan, however, refused to give up and he lived to become a bloodthirsty ally
of the British during the War of Independence, being eventually murdered by his own followers.
For the moment, however, Dunmore was the hero of Virginia, but the honeymoon was brief. In
early 1775, Dunmore again dissolved the Virginia Assembly while mobs in the streets threatened
to drag him from his house and hang him. On the night of 20 April 1775, he ordered his British
troops to move all of the gunpowder and shot from the Williamsburg magazine to a Royal Navy
warship in the James River. A fresh outburst of rioting followed and the Assembly resumed its
sittings in defiance of the governor's command.
In June came the sensational news from far-off Boston of the Battle of Bunker Hill; the War of
Independence had begun. Dunmore knew he had no hope of holding Williamsburg and resistance
might lead to a massacre of loyalists. With his handful of soldiers and every man who would
follow him, he fled overland, reaching Yorktown. Lying in the harbour he found a British man-of-
war, the 74-gun Fowey, and on board her he set up the shadow of the last loyalist government
of Virginia. Dunmore now commenced a ruthless guerrilla campaign to drive the colonists back to
their proper allegiance.
Although Dunmore's campaign was a mere sideshow in the whole of the War of Independence,
it was fought with a bitterness that made his name more hated than many a more famous
British commander. He set to work to collect a flotilla of ships manned by loyalist seamen and
with them he sailed up the rivers, burning farms and villages and trying vainly to stir up a mass
counter-rising against the 'traitors' in Williamsburg. Within a few months his depredations were
so serious that the rebel Assembly appointed a Committee of Public Safety to organise defence
of the colony's coastal regions.
At first the patriot forces were little more than an undisciplined rabble who fled at the first 
rattle of musketry from Dunmore's small army, but gradually resistance stiffened. On 25 October 
1775 Dunmore was repulsed from Hampton and six weeks later he suffered a heavier and 
bloodier defeat at the Battle of Great Bridge, near Norfolk. Still the war dragged on, stained by
atrocities on both sides. Dunmore routinely hanged captured officers as traitors, while the 
rebels retorted by shooting redcoat prisoners as looters and arsonists.
By early 1776 Dunmore had established a new base on Gwynn's Island in Chesapeake Bay, from
where he made his last desperate throw of the dice. He issued a proclamation promising freedom
and arms to all Negro slaves who ran away from their plantations and joined the royalist forces.
Even the remotest prospect of a slave revolt was enough to goad Virginians into a supreme
effort and on 8 July 1776, a rebel army led by his former comrade in the Indian campaign, 
Colonel Lewis, landed on Gwynn's Island, forcing Dunmore to flee.
Dunmore's loyalty did not go unrewarded. For nearly 10 years he was Governor of the Bahamas,
making the islands a haven for royalist refugees who fled across the water from the newly-
founded United States of America. His daughter, Augusta, married the Duke of Sussex, sixth
son of King George III, although the marriage was considered to be void since it was made in
contravention of the Royal Marriages Act of 1772. For further information, see the note at the
foot of the page containing details of the Sussex peerage.
Charles Adolphus Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore
On 8 November 1861, during the American Civil War, Captain Charles Wilkes, commander of the
sloop San Jacinto arrested two Confederate delegates who were on board the British ship
Trent. Because the arrests had taken place on the high seas, Wilkes created a diplomatic
incident that endangered relations between the Union and the neutral United Kingdom. The
President of the Confederate States, Jefferson Davis, had selected James M Mason and John
Slidell to ask the UK and France for material aid and diplomatic recognition. After running the
Union blockade, Mason and Slidell took passage on the Trent in Havana, Cuba. The next day,
while in international waters, Wilkes stopped the Trent, removed Mason and Slidell and then
allowed the Trent to continue on its way.
Although Wilkes was merely following the orders of the Secretary of the Navy, Gideon Welles,
Wilkes had violated accepted maritime behaviour. International law would have dictated that
the Trent be taken to the nearest harbour where a prize court would have decided whether
the Trent had violated neutrality. Wilkes' act of arresting Mason and Slidell without taking the
Trent as a prize was considered to be an illegal act.
The British immediately protested this act and demanded the release of the prisoners. When it
became clear that the British were preparing to go to war with the Union over this affair and
had begun to transfer troops to Canada, the two prisoners were released.
One of the soldiers who was sent with his regiment to Canada as a result of the Trent Affair
was Charles Murray, 7th Earl of Dunmore. After Mason and Slidell had been released and the
prospect of war between Britain and the Union averted, Dunmore sought a little recreation.
He obtained leave from his regiment and, travelling under the name of Mr Murray, he ran the
Union blockade and entered the Confederate states, being feted in Richmond and
Charleston. While he was in the Confederate states, the Confederate ship Nashville broke
through the Union blockade and Dunmore was presented with the Nashville's flag, which he
wrapped around his body beneath his shirt. Dunmore then took passage aboard an outward-
bound blockade runner but the ship was captured by the Union navy. When the flag was
found upon him, Dunmore was imprisoned at Fort Lafayette (in New York Harbour) as a 
'secessionist sympathiser.' It was only after a great deal of difficulty than Dunmore was 
eventually released, largely because the commander of Fort Lafayette denied that the Earl
of Dunmore was being held there, not realising that Mr Murray and the Earl were the same 
person.
The 7th Earl was probably the leading member of the Christian Science religion in the United
Kingdom.
Alexander Edward Murray VC, 8th Earl of Dunmore
Dunmore (at that time known by the courtesy title of Viscount Fincastle) was a recipient of
the Victoria Cross, awarded during the Tirah Campaign of 1897-1898. The Tirah Campaign
was directed against the Afridi tribesmen near the Khyber Pass between modern-day
Pakistan and Afghanistan.
On 17 August 1897, Fincastle, a lieutenant in the 16th Lancers, together with two other
officers, Robert Bellew Adams and Hector Lachlan Stewart MacLean, and five men, went to
the rescue of a lieutenant of the Lancashire Fusiliers who had been injured by a bullet wound
and was now surrounded by enemy swordsmen. In spite of heavy fire, the wounded officer
was brought under cover but was killed by an enemy bullet. MacLean was also killed in this
rescue attempt. Fincastle, Adams and MacLean (posthumously) were all awarded the Victoria
Cross for their bravery.
Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron Dunsany
In "Brewer's Rogues, Villains Eccentrics" by William Donaldson, there is a story relating to
Dunsany's well-known hobby of hunting big game.  According to the story, in the 1930s the
proprietors of Lobb & Co., the gentlemen's shoe shop in St James's, advertised their premises
by means of a trap drawn by two zebras. Never having bagged a zebra, Dunsany took up a 
position between Fortnum and Mason and Hatchard's, the bookshop, and shot them both dead
as they trotted down Piccadilly. Although to my mind this seems highly unlikely (and I have
never seen any corroborating evidence), it's a great story.
The Lambton Worm
The legend of the Lambton Worm is one of north-east England's most famous items of folklore.
There are many versions of the legend, each slightly different from the rest, but they all agree
on the essential details. This version is taken from "English Fairy and other Folk Tales" selected
and edited by Edwin Sidney Hartland, published as part of the Camelot Series in 1890. Bram
Stoker's 1911 novel "The Lair of the White Worm" draws heavily upon the legend. It is also 
worth noting that, in Old English, "wyrm" meant dragon, or serpent.
  
'The park and manor-house of Lambton lie on the banks of the Wear, to the north of Lumley.
The family is a very ancient one, much older, it is believed, than the twelfth century, to which
date its pedigree extends. The old castle was dismantled in 1797, when a site was adopted for
the present mansion on the north bank of the swiftly-flowing Wear, in a situation of exceeding
beauty. The park also contains the ruins of a chapel, called Brugeford or Bridgeford, close to 
one of the bridges which span the Wear.
'Long, long ago - some say about the fourteenth century - the young heir of Lambton led a 
careless, profane life, regardless alike of his duties to God and man, and in particular neglecting
to attend mass, that he might spend his Sunday mornings in fishing. One Sunday, while thus
engaged, having cast his line into the Wear many times without success, he vented his
disappointment in curses loud and deep, to the great scandal of the servants and tenantry as
they passed by to the chapel at Brugeford.
'Soon afterwards he felt something tugging at his line, and trusting he had at last secured a 
fine fish, he exerted all his skill and strength to bring his prey to land. But what were his horror
and dismay on finding that, instead of a fish, he had only caught a worm of most unsightly
appearance! He hastily tore the thing from his hook, and flung it into a well close by, which is 
still known by the name of the Worm Well.
'The young heir had scarcely thrown his line again into the stream when a stranger of venerable
appearance, passing by, asked him what sport he had met with; to which he replied: "Why, 
truly, I think I have caught the devil himself. Look in and judge." The stranger looked, and
remarked that he had never seen the like of it before; that it resembled an eft [i.e. a young 
newt], only it had nine holes on each side of its mouth; and, finally, that he thought it boded
no good.
'The worm remained unheeded in the well till it outgrew so confined a dwelling-place. It then
emerged, and betook itself by day to the river, where it lay coiled round a rock in the middle
of the stream, and by night to a neighbouring hill, round whose base it would twine itself,
while it continued to grow so fast that it soon could encircle the hill three times. This eminence
is still called the Worm Hill. It is oval in shape, on the north side of the Wear, and about a mile
and a half from old Lambton Hall.
'The monster now became the terror of the whole countryside. It sucked the cows' milk, 
worried the cattle, devoured the lambs, and committed every sort of depredation on the
helpless peasantry. Having laid waste the district on the north side of the river, it crossed the
stream and approached Lambton Hall, where the old lord was living alone and desolate. His son 
had repented of his evil life, and had gone to the wars in a distant country. Some authorities
tell us he had embarked as a crusader for the Holy Land.
'On hearing of their enemy's approach, the terrified household assembled in council. Much was
said, but to little purpose, till the steward, a man of age and experience, advised that the large
trough which stood in the courtyard should immediately be filled with milk. This was done 
without delay; the monster approached, drank the milk, and, without doing further harm, 
returned across the Wear to wrap his giant form around his favourite hill. The next day he was 
seen recrossing the river; the trough was hastily filled again, and with the same results. It was 
found that the milk of "nine kine" was needed to fill the trough; and if this quantity was not 
placed there every day, regularly and in full measure, the worn would break out into a violent 
rage, lashing its tail round the trees in the park, and tearing them up by the roots.
'The Lambton Worm was now, in fact, the terror of the North Country. It had not been left 
altogether unopposed. Many a gallant knight had come out to fight with the monster, but all to
no purpose, for it possessed the marvellous power of reuniting itself after being cut asunder, 
and thus was more than a match for the chivalry of the North. So, after many conflicts, and
much loss of life and limb, the creature was left in possession of its favourite hill.
'After seven long years, however, the heir of Lambton returned home, a sadder and wiser man -
returned to find the broad lands of his ancestors waste and desolate, his people oppressed and
well-nigh exterminated, his father sinking into the grave overwhelmed with care and anxiety. He
took no rest, we are told, till he crossed the river and surveyed the Worm as it lay coiled round
the foot of the hill; then, hearing how its former opponents had failed, he took counsel in the
matter from a sibyl or wise woman.
'At first the sibyl did nothing but upbraid him for having brought this scourge upon his house and
neighbourhood; but when she perceived that he was indeed penitent, and desirous at any 
cost to remove the evil he had caused, she gave him her advice and instructions. He was to 
get his best suit of mail studded thickly with spear-heads, to put it on, and thus armed to take
his stand on the rock in the middle of the river, there to meet his enemy, trusting the issue to
Providence and his good sword. But she charged him before going to the encounter to take a 
vow that, if successful, he would slay the first living thing that met him on his way homewards. 
Should he fail to fulfil this vow, she warned him that for nine generations no lord of Lambton 
would die in his bed.
'The heir, now a belted knight, made the vow in Brugeford chapel. He studded his armour with 
the sharpest spear-heads, and unsheathing his trusty sword took his stand on the rock in the 
middle of the Wear. At the accustomed hour the worm uncoiled its "snaky twine," and wound its
way towards the hall, crossing the river close by the rock on which the knight was standing 
eager for the combat. He struck a violent blow upon the monster's head as it passed, on which 
the creature, "irritated and vexed," though apparently not injured, flung its tail round him, as if 
to strangle him in its coils.
'Now was seen the value of the sibyl's advice. The closer the Worm wrapped him in its folds, 
the more deadly were its self-inflicted wounds, till at last the river ran crimson with its gore. Its
strength thus diminished, the knight was able at last with his good sword to cut the serpent in
two; the severed part was immediately borne away by the swiftness of the current, and the 
Worm, unable to reunite itself, was utterly destroyed.
'During this long and desperate conflict the household of Lambton had shut themselves within-
doors to pray for their young lord, he having promised that when it was over he would, if 
conqueror, blow a blast on his bugle. This would assure his father of his safety, and warn them
to let loose the favourite hound, which they had destined as the sacrifice on the occasion,
according to the sibyl's requirements and the young lord's vow. When, however, the bugle-
notes were heard within the hall, the old man forgot everything but his son's safety, and 
rushing out of doors, ran to meet the hero and embrace him.
'The heir of Lambton was thunderstruck; what could he do? It was impossible to lift his hand
against his father; ye how else to fulfil his vow?  In his perplexity he blew another blast; the
hound was let loose, it bounded to his master; the sword, yet reeking with the monster's gore,
was plunged into its heart; but all in vain. The vow was broken, the sibyl's prediction fulfilled,
and the curse lay upon the house of Lambton for nine generations.'
For further reading on the folklore of such creatures, I recommend "Dragons and Dragon 
Slayers" by Frederick W. Hackwood, published by the Religious Tract Society in 1923.
The legend of the supposed curse was revived by the newspapers in 1941 after a number of
untimely deaths within the Lambton family. Foremost among these was the suicide of Lord
Lambton, son and heir of the 5th Earl of Durham, who killed himself in February 1941. This
led 'The Washington Post' to speculate whether the curse was still active. The paper pointed
out that Lord Lambton's cousin, Gervase Lambton, had disappeared from a liner while passing
through the Red Sea in October 1937. Another cousin, D'Arcy Lambton, died following a car
crash in November 1938. Further, Beatrix, Dowager Countess of Durham and widow of the 4th
Earl, fell while shopping for a grand-daughter's wedding present in April 1937 and died a week
later, on the day of the wedding.
Antony Claud Frederick Lambton, 6th Earl of Durham
When his father, the 5th Earl, died in 1970, Lambton disclaimed the peerage for life so that he
could continue to sit in the House of Commons as MP for Berwick upon Tweed. In spite of a 
ruling made by the House of Lords Privileges Committee, he continued to use the style of Lord
Lambton. Married with one son and five daughters, he sat in the House of Commons for Berwick 
upon Tweed between 1951 and 1973, being appointed as a junior minister in the Department of
Defence in 1970.
In 1972, he was making regular use of a high-class call-girl service run by Mrs Jean Horn. 
Among her girls his favourite was an ex-dancer named Norma Levy, whom he visited once a 
week in her Maida Vale apartment. Mrs Levy was often partnered on these occasions by one or
more of her girlfriends, and cannabis was sometimes smoked.
On one occasion Lambton grew careless and paid Mrs Levy for her services by cheque. Mrs
Levy's husband, Colin, installed a camera and microphone in his wife's bedroom and was able to 
film Lambton in bed with his wife. In May 1973, he offered the film to the News of the World for
£30,000. The paper thought that the quality of the film was too poor to use, so they installed
their own equipment, including a teddy bear whose nose was a concealed microphone. They 
also fitted a two-way mirror to a wardrobe in which a photographer was concealed, enabling 
photos to be taken of Lambton, Mrs Levy and a friend of hers. For some reason, however, the 
paper decided not to use the story and handed their evidence over to Levy, who then offered 
it to the Sunday People for £45,000, but accepted £750. The paper gave the evidence straight
to the police.
The whole matter would possibly have blown over had it not happened that Mrs Levy mentioned
the matter to the proprietor of a club where she worked as a 'hostess'. The proprietor's wife
contacted James Prior, then leader of the House of Commons, who in turn advised his Prime
Minister, Edward Heath. Lambton immediately resigned as a minister and from the House.
A security inquiry was held due to fears that the prostitution scandal may have involved an 
actual or potential security breach, given Lambton's role in the Department of Defence, but the
inquiry concluded that the risk of such a breach was negligible. After he resigned, he re-located
to Italy, but not before appearing on a television programme where he remarked that he 
couldn't ''think what all the fuss was about; surely all men visit whores?'
Elizabeth Tollemache, Countess of Dysart in her own right and Duchess of Lauderdale
Elizabeth was the daughter of William Murray, who was created Earl of Dysart in the peerage
of Scotland in 1643. Murray was a Royalist who went into exile after the execution of Charles I.
Having no sons, the Letters Patent creating the Earldom of Dysart provided that the title
could descend in the female line.
Elizabeth did not accompany her father into exile, but remained in England where she was raised
by relatives. Since her father had bankrupted himself in the Royalist cause, she knew that her
future depended upon making a good match. In 1647, she married Sir Lionel Tollemache, 3rd
baronet, by whom she had eleven children.
After her father drank himself to death in exile, Elizabeth became Countess of Dysart in 1651.
Before long, scandalmongers fastened on her lifestyle. It was rumoured that one of her lovers
was Oliver Cromwell, although most historians seem to have ridiculed this story. Whatever the
truth, it is apparent that Sir Lionel Tollemache had plenty of other reasons to suspect his
wife's fidelity.
When the Restoration occurred in 1660, Elizabeth at last found a stage worthy of her talents.
The collapse of the Puritan Commonwealth and the return of Charles II ushered in the most
immoral court in English history, which attracted large numbers of drunken spendthrift parasites.
Among them was the Countess of Dysart, now virtually separated from her husband, and who
already had a reputation for the large number of lovers she had taken and her ability to extract
rich rewards from them.
It was during this period that she met John Maitland, Earl of Lauderdale. He had been imprisoned
in the Tower under Cromwell and had now restored his fortune by becoming one of Charles II's
favourites. He was one of the 'cabal', so-named after the initials of Charles' ministers - Clifford,
Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley and Lauderdale. Even in the tolerant atmosphere of Court, 
Lauderdale's excesses were notorious, and Elizabeth, who was by now his mistress, became
detested due to her arrogance and avarice. She decided that the only way to secure her
position was by marrying Lauderdale, despite the fact that both parties were already married.
Sir Lionel died in March 1669, leaving Elizabeth the mistress of Ham House on the banks of the
Thames near Richmond (now owned by the National Trust and reputedly one of the most 
haunted houses in England). There she wasted no time in useless grief. With Lauderdale at her
side, she gave herself up to a hectic life of pleasure that quickly drained her inheritance.
In November 1671, the final obstacle was removed when Lauderdale's wife died in Paris. 
Elizabeth and Lauderdale were married in February 1672, and the next few years saw her at
the height of her remorseless money-grasping activities. Within three months of the marriage
Lauderdale had been promoted to Duke of Lauderdale and virtual dictator of Scottish affairs.
All the patronage of Scotland went through his hands or, more often, through the even more
greedy hands of his wife. Official appointments and titles were sold to the highest bidder and
huge bribes were extorted to 'protect' the estates of former anti-Royalists from confiscation.
Not even Lauderdale's influence could protect Elizabeth from the flood of mockery, bitter
lampoons or scurrilous abuse that blackened her name. Broadsheets were scattered around
the coffee houses and once a hooting mob surrounded her coach until she was rescued by a
detachment of soldiers. In the Restoration comedy, 'The Plain Dealer' written by William
Wycherley, audiences were delighted to find that the greedy harpy, Widow Blackacre, appeared
to have been based on the Duchess of Lauderdale. 
In 1680, Elizabeth's influence began to decline, following her husband's resignation from office
due to ill-health. She now attempted to persuade her husband to disinherit his heir, his younger
brother, and leave her his entire fortune. When Lauderdale died in August 1682 the Dukedom
became extinct and the Earldom of Lauderdale was inherited by his brother. At once, a bitter
battle over his estate began. Elizabeth opened the campaign by giving her husband the most
extravagant funeral possible and paying for it out of money that legally belonged to Lauderdale's
brother. She then refused to surrender to the new Earl the family estates in Scotland.
For years the litigation dragged on, the Duchess using bribes and various devious ruses until
the Earl was reduced to near ruin. But with the death of Charles II in 1685, her once all-
powerful influence disappeared. The new King, James II, hated her, and when she made the
mistake of secretly backing the Duke of Monmouth's rebellion, she was forced to retire into
obscurity for the rest of the reign. The advent of William III and Mary did nothing to restore
her fortunes and she lived on for a further nine years, an embittered harridan, as arrogant and
hated as ever. When she died in June 1698, there were very few who mourned her.
The Dysart peerage claim of 1881
Lionel William John Tollemache (or Talmash), succeeded as the 8th Earl of Dysart in 1840.
When he died in 1878, he was succeeded by his grandson, William John Manners Tollemache.
The reason why the grandson succeeded is that the 8th Earl's son, William Lionel Felix
Tollemache, who went by the courtesy title of Lord Huntingtower, had pre-deceased his father.
Huntingtower was born 4 July 1820 and was married on 26 September 1851 to his cousin, 
Catherine Elizabeth Camilla Burke, daughter of Sir Joseph Burke of Glinsk, 11th baronet. He died,
aged 52, on 21 December 1872, leaving an only son who became 9th Earl of Dysart on the 
death of his grandfather in 1878.
When the 9th Earl reached his majority in 1880, he petitioned the Crown, in the normal way, to
admit his succession to the dignities of Earl of Dysart and Lord Huntingtower in the peerage of
Scotland. However, his petition was opposed by Elizabeth Tollemache (née Acford), who 
claimed to have been the wife, and to be now the widow, of Lord Huntingtower. She was 
acting on behalf of her son, Albert Edwin Tollemache, and she claimed that the dignities were
rightfully his.
The case occupied large amounts of print in contemporary newspapers, and to provide verbatim
reports from the newspapers would expand this note to an unmanageable size. I have therefore
contented myself with providing a summary of the case which appeared in the Hobart 'Mercury'
on 30 April 1881:-
'The Dysart peerage case, which has been under the notice of the Committee for Privileges of
the House of Lords for some considerable time, has ended in a way on the whole satisfactory.
The question to be decided was which of the claimants to the earldom of Dysart was the
rightful heir, and this turned on the question [of] which of the two was the legitimate son of
the late Lord Huntingtower, the son of the sixth earl [actually the eighth earl, since there had
also been two Countesses of Dysart in their own right], who predeceased his father. That both
William John Manners Tollemache and Albert Edwin Acford were his sons was indisputable; and 
it was also common ground that the former was born after his father and mother had publicly
gone through the form of marriage. The real question in issue was whether Lord Huntingtower
had not previously contracted a marriage with Elizabeth Acford, the mother of the second
claimant. She was lady's maid to Lady Dysart, Lord Huntingtower's mother, in 1840, and it was
not denied that she was seduced by his mistress' son.
'According to her account, the intimacy was commenced by a breach of the criminal as well as
the moral law, but this is not very important as affecting the main question. Miss Acford's story
was that in 1844, when travelling in Scotland with Lord Huntingtower, and before the birth of
the second claimant, he acknowledged himself to be her husband in the presence of witnesses;
and, if that were so, they clearly would have been married according to the very unsatisfactory
marriage law which then existed in Scotland. In 1851 Lord Huntingtower went through the form
of marriage with Miss Burke, the mother of William Tollemache, the first claimant, but of course
if what took place in 1844 amounted to a legal marriage, this second one was bigamous and the
issue of it illegitimate. 
'This, then, was the question the Committee had to decide; and it took the Law Lords many 
prolonged sittings to sift the matter to the bottom. On the one hand it was shown that Lord
Huntingtower had on one occasion pleaded in an action that he was the husband of Miss 
Acford, with whom he continued to live intermittently long after his subsequent marriage with
Miss Burke. On the other hand, there was a letter from Miss Acford to her "husband," in which
she offered to marry somebody else if Lord Huntingtower would give her £1,000. This letter she
alleged to have been written "in joke," an explanation which, however, did not recommend
itself to the Judges who had to decide the case; and ultimately they came to the conclusion
that Miss Acford was never anything more than Lord Huntingtower's mistress. 
'Accordingly they decreed that the son born of the subsequent marriage was legitimately 
entitled to the rights and dignities of the earldom of Dysart, thus upholding the public marriage,
about which there was no doubt.
'Scotch marriages are proverbial for the crimes, romances, and litigations they have given rise 
to. At present the parties must have lived in the country for some three weeks before a mutual
avowal can bind them together as man and wife, but the element of secrecy still remains. It is
still possible for a man to marry in Scotland and for the fact to be kept a secret from all but 
two or three dependents and any libertine may thus do today what, as it happens, Lord 
Huntingtower is found not to have done in 1851.'
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