PEERAGE
Last updated 06/12/2014
Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
EMLYN
5 Oct 1827 V 1 John Frederick Campbell,2nd Baron Cawdor 8 Nov 1790 7 Nov 1860 69
Created Earl Viscount Emlyn and
Earl Cawdor 5 Oct 1827
See "Cawdor"
EMMET OF AMBERLEY
8 Dec 1964 B[L] 1 Evelyn Violet Elizabeth Emmet 18 Mar 1899 10 Oct 1980 81
to     Created Baroness Emmet of Amberley
10 Oct 1980 for life 8 Dec 1964
MP for East Grinstead 1955-1964
Peerage extinct on her death
EMMOTT
2 Nov 1911 B 1 Alfred Emmott 8 May 1858 13 Dec 1926 68
to     Created Baron Emmott 2 Nov 1911
13 Dec 1926 MP for Oldham 1899-1911. First 
Commissioner of Works 1914-1915. PC 1908
Peerage extinct on his death
EMPEY
15 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Sir Reginald Norman Morgan Empey 26 Oct 1947
Created Baron Empey for life 15 Jan 2011
EMSLIE
11 Feb 1980 B[L] 1 George Carlyle Emslie 6 Dec 1919 21 Nov 2002 82
to     Created Baron Emslie for life 11 Feb 1980
21 Nov 2002 Lord Justice General of Scotland 1972-1989
PC 1972
Peerage extinct on his death
ENCOMBE
7 Jul 1821 V 1 John Scott,1st Baron Eldon 4 Jun 1751 13 Jan 1838 86
Created Viscount Encombe and Earl of
Eldon 7 Jul 1821
See "Eldon"
ENERGLYN
10 Jul 1968 B[L] 1 William David Evans 25 Dec 1912 27 Jun 1985 72
to    Created Baron Energlyn for life 10 Jul 1968
27 Jun 1985 Peerage extinct on his death
ENFIELD
10 May 1695 B 1 William Henry Nassau-de-Zulestein 7 Oct 1649 Jan 1709 59
Created Baron Enfield and Earl of
Rochford 10 May 1695
See "Rochford"
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18 Sep 1847 V 1 John Byng,1st Baron Strafford 1772 3 Jun 1860 87
Created Baron Strafford 12 May 1835
and Viscount Enfield and Earl of
Strafford 18 Sep 1847
See "Strafford"
ENGAINE
6 Feb 1299 B 1 John Engaine 28 Sep 1323
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
28 Sep 1323 Engaine 6 Feb 1299
Peerage extinct on his death
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25 Feb 1342 B 1 John Engaine 16 Feb 1358
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Engaine 25 Feb 1342
16 Feb 1358 2 Thomas Engaine 1336 29 Jun 1367 30
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
29 Jun 1367
ENNALS
9 Sep 1983 B[L] 1 David Hedley Ennals 19 Aug 1922 17 Jun 1995 72
to     Created Baron Ennals for life 9 Sep 1983
17 Jun 1995 MP for Dover 1964-1970 and Norwich
North 1974-1983. Minister of State,Health
and Social Security 1968-1970. Minister of
State,Foreign and Commonwealth Office
1974-1976. Secretary of State for Social
Services 1976-1979.  PC 1970
Peerage extinct on his death
ENNERDALE
16 Jun 1619 B 1 James Hamilton,2nd Marquess of Hamilton 1589 2 Mar 1625 35
Created Baron Ennerdale and Earl of
Cambridge 16 Jun 1619
See "Cambridge"
ENNISDALE
6 Jul 1939 B 1 Sir Henry Edward Lyons,1st baronet 29 Aug 1877 17 Aug 1963 85
to     Created Baron Ennisdale 6 Jul 1939
17 Aug 1963 Peerage extinct on his death
ENNISHOWEN AND CARRICKFERGUS
18 Aug 1841 B 1 George Hamilton Chichester,later [1844] 3rd 
to     Marquess of Donegall 10 Feb 1797 20 Oct 1883 86
20 Oct 1883 Created Baron Ennishowen and
Carrickfergus 18 Aug 1841
Peerage extinct on his death
ENNISKILLEN
18 Aug 1789 E[I] 1 William Willoughby Cole,2nd Baron 
Mountflorence 1 Mar 1736 22 May 1803 67
Created Viscount Enniskillen 20 Jul
1776 and Earl of Enniskillen 
18 Aug 1789
22 May 1803 2 John Willoughby Cole 23 Mar 1768 31 Mar 1840 72
Created Baron Grinstead 11 Aug 1815
MP for Fermanagh 1801-1803.  KP 1810
Lord Lieutenant Fermanagh 1831-1840
31 Mar 1840 3 William Willoughby Cole 25 Jan 1807 12 Nov 1886 79
MP for Fermanagh 1831-1840
12 Nov 1886 4 Lowry Egerton Cole 21 Dec 1845 28 Apr 1924 78
MP for Enniskillen 1880-1885  KP 1902
For information on his 3rd son,Galbraith Lowry
Egerton Cole,see the note at the foot of this page
28 Apr 1924 5 John Henry Michael Cole 10 Sep 1876 19 Feb 1963 86
Lord Lieutenant Fermanagh 
19 Feb 1963 6 David Lowry Cole 10 Sep 1918 30 May 1989 70
30 May 1989 7 Andrew John Galbraith Cole 28 Apr 1942
ENNISMORE
31 Jul 1800 B[I] 1 William Hare Sep 1751 13 Jul 1837 85
15 Jan 1816 V[I] 1 Created Baron Ennismore 31 Jul 1800,
Viscount Ennismore 15 Jan 1816 and
Earl of Listowel 5 Feb 1822
See "Listowel"
ENZIE
17 Apr 1599 E[S] 1 George Gordon c 1563 13 Jun 1636
Created Lord Gordon of Badenoch,
Earl of Enzie and Marquess of Huntly
17 Apr 1599
See "Huntly"
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3 Nov 1684 B[S] 1 George Gordon,4th Marquess of Huntly c 1643 7 Dec 1716
Created Lord Badenoch,Lochaber,
Strathavon,Balmore,Auchindoun,
Garthie and Kincardine,Viscount of
Inverness,Earl of Huntly and Enzie,
Marquess of Huntly and Duke of
Gordon 3 Nov 1684
See "Gordon" - extinct 1836
EPSOM
3 Jul 1911 B 1 Archibald Philip Primrose,5th Earl of Rosebery 7 May 1847 21 May 1929 82
Created Baron Epsom,Viscount
Mentmore and Earl of Midlothian 
3 Jul 1911
The peerages remain united with the
Earldom of Rosebery (qv)
ERDINGTON
22 Jan 1336 B 1 Henry de Erdington by 1345
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
by 1345 Erdington 22 Jan 1336
Peerage is presumed to have become extinct
on his death
ERLEIGH
20 Dec 1917 V 1 Rufus Daniel Isaacs,1st Viscount Reading 10 Oct 1860 30 Dec 1935 75
Created Viscount Erleigh and Earl of
Reading 20 Dec 1917
See "Reading"
ERNE
15 Jul 1768 B[I] 1 Abraham Creighton 31 Dec 1703 10 Jun 1772 68
Created Baron Erne 15 Jul 1768
10 Jun 1772 2 John Creighton 1731 15 Sep 1828 97
18 Aug 1789 E[I] 1 Created Viscount Erne 6 Jan 1781 and
Earl of Erne 18 Aug 1789
PC [I] 1804
15 Sep 1828 2 Abraham Creighton 10 May 1765 10 Jun 1842 77
10 Jun 1842 3 John Crichton 30 Jul 1802 3 Oct 1885 83
Created Baron Fermanagh of Lisnaskea
13 Jan 1876
Lord Lieutenant Fermanagh 1840-1885
KP 1868
3 Oct 1885 4 John Henry Crichton 16 Oct 1839 2 Dec 1914 75
MP for Enniskillen 1868-1880 and
Fermanagh 1880-1885. Lord Lieutenant
Fermanagh 1885-1914.  KP 1889. PC [I] 1902
2 Dec 1914 5 John Henry George Crichton 22 Nov 1907 23 May 1940 32
23 May 1940 6 Henry George Victor John Crichton 9 Jul 1937
Lord Lieutenant Fermanagh 1986-
ERNLE
4 Feb 1919 B 1 Rowland Edmund Prothero 6 Sep 1851 1 Jul 1937 85
to     Created Baron Ernle 4 Feb 1919
1 Jul 1937 MP for Oxford University 1914-1919.
President of the Board of Agriculture
1916-1919.  PC 1916
Peerage extinct on his death
ERRINGTON
8 Aug 1901 V 1 Evelyn Baring,1st Viscount Cromer 26 Feb 1841 29 Jan 1917 75
Created Viscount Errington and Earl of
Cromer 8 Aug 1901
See "Cromer"
ERRIS OF BOYLE
29 Dec 1800 B[I] 1 Robert Edward King 12 Aug 1773 20 Nov 1854 81
Created Baron Erris of Boyle 29 Dec 
1800 and Viscount Lorton 28 May 1806
See "Lorton"
ERROLL
12 Jun 1452 E[S] 1 Sir William Hay,2nd Lord Hay 1462
Created Lord Slains and Earl of Erroll
12 Jun 1452
1462 2 Nicholas Hay 1470
1470 3 William Hay 14 Jan 1506
14 Jan 1506 4 William Hay 9 Sep 1513
9 Sep 1513 5 William Hay 28 Jul 1522
28 Jul 1522 6 William Hay 1521 11 Apr 1541 19
11 Apr 1541 7 George Hay c 1575
c 1575 8 Andrew Hay 8 Oct 1585
8 Oct 1585 9 Francis Hay 30 Apr 1564 16 Jul 1631 67
16 Jul 1631 10 William Hay 7 Dec 1636
7 Dec 1636 11 Gilbert Hay Apr 1674
Apr 1674 12 John Hay c 1635 30 Dec 1704
30 Dec 1704 13 Charles Hay c 1680 16 Oct 1717
16 Oct 1717 14 Mary Falconer 19 Aug 1758
19 Aug 1758 15 James Hay 20 Dec 1726 3 Jul 1778 51
3 Jul 1778 16 George Hay 13 May 1767 14 Jun 1798 31
14 Jun 1798 17 William Hay-Carr 12 Mar 1772 26 Jan 1819 46
26 Jan 1819 18 William George Hay 21 Feb 1801 19 Apr 1846 45
Lord Lieutenant Aberdeen 1836-1846
PC 1831  KT 1834
Created Baron Kilmarnock 17 June 1831 (qv)
19 Apr 1846 19 William Harry Hay 2 May 1823 3 Dec 1891 68
3 Dec 1891 20 Charles Gore Hay 7 Feb 1852 8 Jul 1927 75
KT 1901
8 Jul 1927 21 Victor Alexander Sereld Hay 17 Oct 1876 20 Feb 1928 51
20 Feb 1928 22 Josslyn Victor Hay 11 May 1901 24 Jan 1941 39
24 Jan 1941 23 Diana Denyse Hay 5 Jan 1926 16 May 1978 52
16 May 1978 24 Martin Sereld Victor Gilbert Hay 20 Apr 1948
ERROLL OF HALE
19 Dec 1964 B 1 Frederick James Erroll 27 May 1914 14 Sep 2000 86
to     Created Baron Erroll of Hale 
14 Sep 2000 19 Dec 1964
MP for Altrincham and Sale 1945-1964.
Economic Secretary to the Treasury 1958-
1959. Minister of State,Board of Trade
1959-1961. President of the Board of Trade
1961-1963. Minister of Power 1963-1964
PC 1960
Created Baron Erroll of Kilmun for life
16 Nov 1999 (see below)
Peerage extinct on his death
ERROLL OF KILMUN
16 Nov 1999 B[L] 1 Frederick James Erroll,1st Baron Erroll of Hale 27 May 1914 14 Sep 2000 86
to     Created Baron Erroll of Kilmun for life
14 Sep 2000 16 Nov 1999
Peerage extinct on his death
ERSKINE
c 1426 B[S] 1 Sir Robert Erskine 1453
Created Lord Erskine c 1426
1453 2 Thomas Erskine c 1491
c 1491 3 Alexander Erskine c 1509
c 1509 4 Robert Erskine 9 Sep 1513
9 Sep 1513 5 John Erskine 1552
1552 6 John Erskine
He was created Earl of Mar (qv) in 1565
with which title this peerage then merged
ERSKINE OF ALLOA TOWER
19 Apr 2000 B[L] 1 James Thorne Erskine,14th Earl of Mar & Kellie 10 Mar 1949
Created Baron Erskine of Alloa Tower for life
19 Apr 2000
ERSKINE OF RERRICK
4 Sep 1964 B 1 Sir John Maxwell Erskine,1st baronet 14 Dec 1893 14 Dec 1980 87
Created Baron Erskine of Rerrick
4 Sep 1964
Governor of Northern Ireland 1964-1968
14 Dec 1980 2 Iain Maxwell Erskine 22 Jan 1926 7 Jun 1995 69
to     Peerage extinct on his death
7 Jun 1995 For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
ERSKINE OF RESTORMEL CASTLE
10 Feb 1806 B 1 Thomas Erskine 10 Jan 1750 17 Nov 1823 73
Created Baron Erskine of Restormel
Castle 10 Feb 1806
MP for Portsmouth 1783-1784 and 1790-
1806. Lord Chancellor 1806-1807.  PC 1806
KT 1815
17 Nov 1823 2 David Montague Erskine 1777 19 Mar 1855 77
MP for Portsmouth 1806
19 Mar 1855 3 Thomas Americus Erskine 3 May 1802 10 May 1877 75
10 May 1877 4 John Cadwallader Erskine 1804 28 Mar 1882 77
28 Mar 1882 5 William Macnaghten Erskine 7 Jan 1841 8 Dec 1913 72
8 Dec 1913 6 Montagu Erskine 13 Apr 1865 9 Feb 1957 91
9 Feb 1957 7 Donald Cardross Flower Erskine 3 Jun 1899 26 Jul 1984 85
He succeeded as 16th Earl of Buchan (qv) in 1960
with which title this peerage then merged
ESHER
11 Nov 1897 V 1 Sir William Baliol Brett 13 Aug 1815 24 May 1899 83
Created Baron Esher 24 Jul 1885 and
Viscount Esher 11 Nov 1897
MP for Helston 1866-1868. Solicitor
General 1868. Master of the Rolls 1883-
1897.  PC 1876
24 May 1899 2 Reginald Baliol Brett 30 Jun 1852 22 Jan 1930 77
MP for Penrhyn and Falmouth 1880-1885.  PC 1922
22 Jan 1930 3 Oliver Sylvain Baliol Brett 23 Mar 1881 8 Oct 1963 82
8 Oct 1963 4 Lionel Gordon Baliol Brett 18 Jul 1913
9 Jul 2004 5 Christopher Lionel Baliol Brett 23 Dec 1936
ESKDALE
20 Aug 1620 B[S] 1 Robert Maxwell after 1586 May 1646
Created Lord Maxwell,Eskdale and 
Carleill and Earl of Nithsdale 
20 Aug 1620
See "Nithsdale"
ESLINGTON
2 Apr 1874 B 1 Henry Thomas Liddell 10 Mar 1797 19 Mar 1878 81
Created Baron Eslington and Earl of
Ravensworth 2 Apr 1874
See "Ravensworth"
ESMOND
20 May 1632 B[I] 1 Sir Laurence Esmond 26 Mar 1646
to     Created Baron Esmond 20 May 1632
26 Mar 1646 Peerage extinct on his death
ESSENDON
20 Jun 1932 B 1 Sir Frederick William Lewis,1st baronet 25 May 1870 24 Jun 1944 74
Created Baron Essendon 20 Jun 1932
24 Jun 1944 2 Brian Edmund Lewis 7 Dec 1903 18 Jul 1978 74
to     Peerage extinct on his death
18 Jul 1978
ESSEX
c 1139 E 1 Geoffrey de Mandeville c 1090 14 Sep 1144
to     Created Earl of Essex c 1139
1144 The peerage was forfeited in 1144
c 1155 2 Geoffrey de Mandeville by 1130 21 Oct 1167
Restored to the peerage c 1155
21 Oct 1167 3 William de Mandeville c 1135 14 Nov 1189
to     On his death the peerage probably reverted
14 Nov 1189 to the Crown
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27 May 1199 E 1 Geoffrey Fitzpeter 1165 14 Oct 1213 48
Created Earl of Essex 27 May 1199
14 Oct 1213 2 Geoffrey de Mandeville c 1191 23 Feb 1216
23 Feb 1216 3 William de Mandeville c 1192 8 Jan 1227
to     On his death the peerage probably reverted
8 Jan 1227 to the Crown
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28 Apr 1228 E 1 Humphrey de Bohun,2nd Earl of Hereford by 1208 24 Sep 1275
Created Earl of Essex 28 Apr 1228
24 Sep 1275 2 Humphrey de Bohun,3rd Earl of Hereford 1251 30 Nov 1298 47
30 Nov 1298 3 Humphrey de Bohun,4th Earl of Hereford by 1280 16 Mar 1322
16 Mar 1322 4 John de Bohun,5th Earl of Hereford c 1307 20 Jan 1326
20 Jan 1326 5 Humphrey de Bohun,6th Earl of Hereford c 1311 15 Oct 1361
15 Oct 1361 6 Humphrey de Bohun,7th Earl of Hereford 1341 26 Jan 1373 31
to     Peerages extinct on his death
26 Jan 1373
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30 Jun 1461 E 1 Henry Bourchier,1st Viscount Bourchier 1406 4 Apr 1483 76
Created Earl of Essex 30 Jun 1461
Lord Treasurer 1455-1456,1461-1462 and
1471. Lord Keeper 1472.  KG 1452
4 Apr 1483 2 Henry Bourchier 1472 13 Mar 1540 67
to     KG 1496
13 Mar 1540 Peerage extinct on his death
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17 Apr 1540 E 1 Thomas Cromwell,1st Baron Cromwell  1485 28 Jul 1540 55
to     Created Earl of Essex 17 Apr 1540
28 Jul 1540 He was attainted and executed in 1540 when
the peerages were forfeited
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23 Dec 1543 E 1 William Parr,Baron Parr 14 Aug 1513 28 Oct 1571 58
to     Created Earl of Essex 23 Dec 1543
Aug 1553 He was later created Marquess of
Northampton (qv)
He was attainted in 1553 when the peerages
were forfeited
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4 May 1572 E 1 Walter Devereux,2nd Viscount Hereford 16 Sep 1541 22 Sep 1576 35
Created Earl of Essex 4 May 1572
Lord Lieutenant Stafford 1569  KG 1572
22 Sep 1576 2 Robert Devereux 10 Nov 1567 25 Feb 1601 33
to     Lord President of the Council 1593. Lord
25 Feb 1601 Lieutenant of Ireland 1599. KG 1588
He was executed for high treason and the
peerage forfeited
18 Apr 1604 3 Robert Devereux 22 Jan 1591 14 Sep 1646 55
to     Restored to the title 1604
14 Sep 1646 Lord Lieutenant Stafford 1612 and 
Yorkshire 1641-1642
Peerage extinct on his death
For information on his wife and her involvement in
the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury,see the note
at the foot of this page
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20 Apr 1661 E 1 Arthur Capell,2nd Baron Capell of Hadham 28 Jan 1632 13 Jul 1683 51
Created Viscount Malden and Earl of
Essex 20 Apr 1661
Lord Lieutenant Hertford 1660-1681 and
Wiltshire 1668-1672. Lord Lieutenant of 
Ireland 1672-1677. First Lord of the
Admiralty 1679  PC 1679
13 Jul 1683 2 Algernon Capell 28 Dec 1670 10 Jan 1710 39
Lord Lieutenant Hertford 1692-1710.  PC 1708
10 Jan 1710 3 William Capell 11 Jan 1697 8 Jan 1743 45
Lord Lieutenant Hertford 1722-1743.  KT 1725
PC 1735  KG 1738
8 Jan 1743 4 William Ann Holles Capell 7 Oct 1732 5 Mar 1799 66
Lord Lieutenant Hertford 1764-1771
5 Mar 1799 5 George Capell-Coningsby 13 Nov 1757 23 Apr 1839 81
MP for Westminster 1779-1780, Lostwithiel
1781-1784, Okehampton 1784-1790 and
Radnor 1794-1799. Lord Lieutenant
Hereford 1802-1817
23 Apr 1839 6 Arthur Algernon Capell 28 Jan 1803 11 Sep 1892 89
11 Sep 1892 7 George Devereux de Vere Capell 24 Oct 1857 25 Sep 1916 58
25 Sep 1916 8 Algernon George de Vere Capell 21 Feb 1884 8 Dec 1966 82
8 Dec 1966 9 Reginald George de Vere Capell 9 Oct 1906 18 May 1981 74
18 May 1981 10 Robert Edward de Vere Capell 13 Jan 1920 5 Jun 2005 85
5 Jun 2005 11 Frederick Paul de Vere Capell 29 May 1944
ESTCOURT
3 Aug 1903 B 1 George Thomas John Sotheron-Estcourt 21 Jan 1839 12 Jan 1915 75
to     Created Baron Estcourt 3 Aug 1903
12 Jan 1915 MP for Wiltshire North 1874-1885
Peerage extinct on his death
ETHIE
1 Nov 1647 E[S] 1 John Carnegie,1st Lord Lour c 1580 19 Jan 1667
Created Lord Lour and Egglismadie
and Earl of Ethie 1 Nov 1647
He exchanged these titles for those of
Earl of Northesk and Lord Rosehill in 1662
ETTRICK
16 Jul 1872 B 1 Francis Napier,10th Lord Napier of Merchistoun 15 Sep 1819 19 Dec 1898 79
Created Baron Ettrick [UK] 16 Jul 1872
See "Napier"
EURE
24 Feb 1544 B 1 Sir William Eure c 1483 15 Mar 1548
Created Baron Eure 24 Feb 1544
15 Mar 1548 2 William Eure 10 May 1530 12 Feb 1594 63
12 Feb 1594 3 Ralph Eure 24 Sep 1558 1 Apr 1617 58
1 Apr 1617 4 William Eure c 1587 28 Jun 1646
28 Jun 1646 5 William Eure 25 Jun 1652
25 Jun 1652 6 George Eure 24 Oct 1672
24 Oct 1672 7 Ralph Eure 27 Apr 1707
to     On his death the peerage is presumed to
27 Apr 1707 have become extinct
EUSTON
16 Aug 1672 E 1 Henry Fitzroy 2 Sep 1663 9 Oct 1690 27
Created Baron Sudbury,Viscount
Ipswich,Earl of Euston 16 Aug 1672
and Duke of Grafton 11 Sep 1675
See "Grafton"
EVANS
1 Jul 1957 B 1 Horace Evans 1 Jan 1903 26 Oct 1963 60
to     Created Baron Evans 1 Jul 1957
26 Oct 1963 Peerage extinct on his death
EVANS OF BOWES PARK
12 Sep 2014 B[L] 1 Natalie Jessica Evans
Created Baroness Evans of Bowes Park for life
12 Sep 1914
EVANS OF CLAUGHTON
24 Apr 1978 B[L] 1 David Thomas Gruffydd Evans 9 Feb 1928 22 Mar 1992 64
to     Created Baron Evans of Claughton for life
22 Mar 1992 24 Apr 1978
Peerage extinct on his death
EVANS OF HUNGERSHALL
25 Aug 1967 B[L] 1 Benjamin Ifor Evans 19 Aug 1899 28 Aug 1982 83
to    Created Baron Evans of Hungershall for life
28 Aug 1982 25 Aug 1967
Peerage extinct on his death
EVANS OF PARKSIDE
10 Jun 1997 B[L] 1 John Evans 19 Oct 1930
Created Baron Evans of Parkside for life
10 Jun 1997
MP for Newton 1974-1983 and St.Helens
North 1983-1997
EVANS OF TEMPLE GUITING
11 May 2000 B[L] 1 Matthew Evans 7 Aug 1941
Created Baron Evans of Temple Guiting
for life 11 May 2000
EVANS OF WATFORD
28 Jul 1998 B[L] 1 David Charles Evans 30 Nov 1942
Created Baron Evans of Watford for life
28 Jul 1998
EVANS OF WEARDALE
3 Dec 2014 B[L] 1 Sir Jonathan Douglas Evans 1958
Created Baron Evans of Weardale for life
3 Dec 2014
EVERINGHAM
4 Mar 1309 B 1 Sir Adam Everingham 29 Aug 1279 May 1341 61
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Everingham 4 Mar 1309
May 1341 2 Adam Everingham 1307 8 Feb 1388 80
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
8 Feb 1388
EVERSHED
20 Jan 1956 B 1 Francis Raymond Evershed 8 Aug 1899 3 Oct 1966 67
to     Created Baron Evershed 20 Jan 1956
3 Oct 1966 Master of the Rolls 1949-1962. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1962-1965.  PC 1947
Peerage extinct on his death
EVERSLEY
11 Apr 1857 V 1 Charles Shaw-Lefevre 22 Feb 1794 28 Dec 1888 94
to     Created Viscount Eversley 11 Apr 1857
28 Dec 1888 MP for Downton 1830-1831, Hampshire 1831-
1832 and Hampshire North 1832-1857. 
Speaker of the House of Commons 1839-
1857.  PC 1839
Peerage extinct on his death
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16 Jul 1906 B 1 George John Shaw-Lefevre 12 Jun 1831 19 Apr 1928 96
to     Created Baron Eversley 16 Jul 1906
19 Apr 1928 MP for Reading 1863-1885 and Bradford
Central 1886-1895. First Commissioner of
Works 1880-1884 and 1892-1893. Postmaster
General 1882 and 1884-1885. President of
the Local Government Board 1894-1895
PC 1880
Peerage extinct on his death
EWART-BIGGS
22 May 1981 B[L] 1 Felicity Jane Ewart-Biggs 22 Aug 1929 8 Oct 1992 63
to     Created Baroness Ewart-Biggs for life
8 Oct 1992 22 May 1981
Peerage extinct on her death
EWING OF KIRKFORD
17 Jul 1992 B[L] 1 Harry Ewing 20 Jan 1931 9 Jun 2007 76
to     Created Baron Ewing of Kirkford for life
9 Jun 2007 17 Jul 1992
MP for Stirling & Falkirk 1971-1974, 
Stirling,Falkirk and Grangemouth 1974-1983 
and Falkirk East 1983-1992
Peerage extinct on his death
EXETER
29 Sep 1397 D 1 John Holand c 1355 15 Jan 1400
to     Created Earl of Huntingdon 2 Jun 
15 Jan 1400 1387 and Duke of Exeter 29 Sep 1397
KG 1381
He was degraded from the peerages 1399
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18 Nov 1416 D[L] 1 Thomas Beaufort,1st Earl of Dorset c 1377 30 Dec 1426
to     Created Duke of Exeter for life 18 Nov 1416
30 Dec 1426 KG 1400
Peerage extinct on his death
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6 Jan 1443 D 1 John Holand,2nd Earl of Huntingdon 1394 5 Aug 1447 53
Created Duke of Exeter 6 Jan 1443
KG c 1416
5 Aug 1447 2 Henry Holand 27 Jun 1430 Sep 1475 45
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
4 Nov 1461
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18 Jun 1525 M 1 Henry Courtenay,2nd Earl of Devon c 1498 9 Jan 1539
to     Created Marquess of Exeter 
9 Jan 1539 18 Jun 1525
He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
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4 May 1605 E 1 Thomas Cecil,2nd Baron Burghley 5 May 1542 8 Feb 1623 80
Created Earl of Exeter 4 May 1605
MP for Stamford 1562-1581, Lincolnshire
1585-1587 and Northamptonshire 1592-1593
Lord Lieutenant Yorkshire 1599-1603 and
Northamptonshire 1603.  KG 1601
8 Feb 1623 2 William Cecil Jan 1566 6 Jul 1640 74
Lord Lieutenant Northamptonshire 1623
KG 1630
6 Jul 1640 3 David Cecil c 1604 18 Apr 1643
MP for Peterborough 1640
18 Apr 1643 4 John Cecil 1628 18 Mar 1678 49
Lord Lieutenant Northampton 1660-1678
18 Mar 1678 5 John Cecil c 1648 29 Aug 1700
MP for Northamptonshire 1675-1678
29 Aug 1700 6 John Cecil 15 May 1674 24 Dec 1721 47
MP for Rutland 1695-1700. Lord Lieutenant
Rutland 1712-1715
24 Dec 1721 7 John Cecil c 1700 9 Apr 1722
9 Apr 1722 8 Brownlow Cecil 4 Aug 1701 3 Nov 1754 53
MP for Stamford 1722
3 Nov 1754 9 Brownlow Cecil 21 Sep 1725 26 Dec 1793 68
MP for Rutland 1747-1754. Lord Lieutenant
Rutland 1751-1779
26 Dec 1793 10 Henry Cecil 14 Mar 1754 1 May 1804 50
4 Feb 1801 1 Created Marquess of Exeter 4 Feb 1801
MP for Stamford 1774-1790
For further information on this peer's second wife,
see the note at the foot of this page.
1 May 1804 2 Brownlow Cecil 2 Jul 1795 16 Jan 1867 71
Lord Lieutenant Rutland 1826-1867 and
Northampton 1842-1867.  KG 1827  PC 1841
16 Jan 1867 3 William Alleyne Cecil 30 Apr 1825 14 Jul 1895 70
MP for Lincolnshire South 1847-1857 and
Northamptonshire North 1857-1867.
PC 1866
14 Jul 1895 4 Brownlow Henry George Cecil 20 Dec 1849 9 Apr 1898 48
MP for Northamptonshire North 1877-1895
PC 1891
9 Apr 1898 5 William Thomas Brownlow Cecil 27 Oct 1876 6 Aug 1956 79
Lord Lieutenant Northampton 1922-1952 
KG 1937
6 Aug 1956 6 David George Brownlow Cecil 9 Feb 1905 21 Oct 1981 76
MP for Peterborough 1931-1943. Governor
of Bermuda 1943-1945
21 Oct 1981 7 William Martin Alleyne Cecil 27 Apr 1909 12 Jan 1988 78
12 Jan 1988 8 William Michael Anthony Cecil 1 Sep 1935
EXMOUTH
10 Dec 1816 V 1 Sir Edward Pellew,1st baronet 19 Apr 1757 23 Jan 1833 75
Created Baron Exmouth 1 Jun 1814 and
Viscount Exmouth 10 Dec 1816
MP for Barnstaple 1802-1804
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
23 Jan 1833 2 Pownoll Bastard Pellew 1 Jul 1786 3 Dec 1833 47
MP for Launceston 1812-1830
3 Dec 1833 3 Edward Pellew 14 Feb 1811 11 Feb 1876 64
11 Feb 1876 4 Edward Fleetwood John Pellew 24 Jun 1861 31 Oct 1899 38
31 Oct 1899 5 Edward Addington Hargreaves Pellew 12 Nov 1890 16 Aug 1922 31
16 Aug 1922 6 Henry Edward Pellew 26 Apr 1828 4 Feb 1923 94
4 Feb 1923 7 Charles Ernest Pellew 11 Mar 1863 7 Jun 1945 82
7 Jun 1945 8 Edward Irving Pownoll Pellew 2 May 1868 19 Aug 1951 83
19 Aug 1951 9 Pownoll Irving Edward Pellew 28 May 1908 2 Dec 1970 62
2 Dec 1970 10 Paul Edward Pellew 8 Oct 1940
EYRE
16 Jul 1768 B[I] 1 John Eyre 1720 30 Sep 1781 61
to     Created Baron Eyre 16 Jul 1768
30 Sep 1781 Peerage extinct on his death
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page
EYTHIN
28 Mar 1642 B[S] 1 Sir James King 1589 9 Jun 1652 62
to     Created Lord Eythin 28 Mar 1642
9 Jun 1652 Peerage extinct on his death
EZRA
2 Feb 1983 B[L] 1 Derek Ezra 23 Feb 1919
Created Baron Ezra for life 2 Feb 1983
Galbraith Lowry Egerton Cole (8 March 1881-6 October 1929), 3rd son of the 
4th Earl of Enniskillen (and father of the 6th Earl)
Having joined the 10th Royal Hussars as a lieutenant in 1900, Cole went with his regiment to 
South Africa to fight in the Second Boer War. After being injured during the fighting, he made
his way to the British East Africa Protectorate [now Kenya], where he took up farming. In 1911
he was charged with the killing of a native, whom Cole suspected had stolen one of his sheep.
The following article appeared in the "West Gippsland Gazette" on 3 October 1911:-
'The charge against the Hon. Galbraith Lowry Cole, son of the Earl of Enniskillen, of killing a native
in East Africa, of which he was found not guilty, was referred to in the House of Commons on
Wednesday [9 August 1911] when Mr. [Thomas] Edmund Harvey [member for Leeds West] asked 
the Colonial Secretary:-
"Whether his attention had been called to the trial at the Nakuru High Court Sessions of the Hon.
Galbraith Cole for shooting and killing a native suspected of sheep stealing, and whether he would
publish as a White Paper the observations and report of the Judge and the report of the governor
on the trial."
'Mr. [Lewis] Harcourt [Secretary of State for the Colonies] replied "Yes, sir. The Governor of the 
East Africa Protectorate is sending a full report on the matter, and pending the receipt of his
despatch I think it would be premature to make any statement."
'According to evidence brought out at the hearing before the Nakuru High Court, May 31, Mr. 
Cole had been losing a number of sheep through native thieves. On the night of April 9 [1911] a
sheep was stolen. On the morning of the 11th he and his manager, Mr. Wright, and several boys
set out to follow a clue, which led them to a hut in the bush three miles away.
'There they found three natives picking wool from a sheepskin. Two of the natives jumped up and
ran into the forest. Mr. Cole fired at one and missed him, but hit him with the second shot. The
second native escaped, but a third was caught by the boys in the hut. Mr. Cole ordered them to
release the third native, and told him to look after the wounded man, whose name was Sionga.
'Inside the hut were found sheepskins and a quantity of wool. There were evidences of mutton
having been cooked. Neither he nor his manager saw any honey or honey boxes.
'The two natives declared that they cooked no mutton and that they had seen no mutton fat.
They admitted there was a quantity of wool in the hut, but insisted they had been collecting
honey.
'Mr. P.C. Hudson, stationed at Nakaru, stated that he had found mutton fat at the camp, and
also two places where sheep had been killed. He said that Mr. Cole had given him every assist-
ance in his watch. Dr. Bodecker, the protectorate medical officer, stated that he had found
bits of sheepskin in the hut.
'After a few minutes deliberation the [white] jury returned a verdict of not guilty and judgment
was entered accordingly.'
Notwithstanding his acquittal, Cole was deported from the colony a few months later. The
deportation order read as follows:-
"Whereas it has been shown to me, Sir Percy Cranwill Girouard, Governor of the East African
Protectorate, by evidence upon oath that the Hon. Galbraith Lowry Egerton Cole is conducting
himself so as to be dangerous to peace and good order in East Africa, now therefore I, Sir 
Edward Percy Cranwill Girouard, Governor of the East African Protectorate, under the authority
vested in me by Section 25 of the East African Order in Council, 1902, do hereby order that you,
the said Galbraith Lowry Egerton Cole, be deported from the Protectorate to the United Kingdom.
Given under my hand and official seal this 5th day of September 1911. (signed) E.P.C. Girouard."
At some point after his deportation Cole was permitted to return to Kenya, where he died "of a
fever" according to newspaper reports, although other sources say that he shot himself.
Iain Maxwell Erskine, 2nd and last Baron Erskine of Rerrick
After his death from prostate cancer, the 2nd Baron Erskine of Rerrick was the subject of one of 
the more interesting obituaries to have been published in "The Times" (on 10 June 1995):-
'Little can be asserted with any great confidence about the life of the 2nd Lord Erskine of
Rerrick. To take him at (his own) face value as "professional photographer, management 
consultant and director of companies" would involve being at odds with the known career of a
man whose photographic oeuvre is, to say the least, less than widely-known and whose 
consultancies and directorships were held against a background of debt, bankruptcy and other
tangible evidences of indigence.
'His "admitted links" to British intelligence inhabited a similar factual penumbra. To be sure, his
name was often cropping up min circumstances suggesting profound and subtle depths of inter-
national espionage: Greville Wynne, Adil Nasir and Saddam Hussein were figures with whose 
affairs his name was linked in press stories from time to time. But when pushed, neither 
government spokesmen or leaders of the intelligence community ever seemed anxious to
acknowledge their alleged servant. [Greville Wynne was a British spy arrested by the Russians 
in 1963 and later released in exchange for the Russian spy Gordon Lonsdale. Adil Nasir is a 
Turkish Cypriot, who was chief executive of Polly Peck, a textile company which collapsed in 
1990 with debts of £1.3 billion. Nasir later fled to Cyprus, but returned to the UK in 2010 where
he was subsequently sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment.]
'What can be stated with certainty is that Iain Maxwell Erskine was born the son of John
Maxwell Erskine, who was to be created 1st Lord Erskine of Rerrick in 1964 after a distinguished
career with the Commercial Bank of Scotland. Erskine senior was subsequently Governor of
Northern Ireland, 1964-68.
'Iain Erskine was educated at Harrow. In 1944 he was commissioned into the Grenadier Guards
with whom he was to serve for the remainder of the war and thereafter in peacetime until 1963,
retiring as a major.
'In that time his posts included that of Comptroller to the Governor-General of New Zealand, 
1960-1962. Immediately after his retirement he took up the newly-created post of public 
relations officer to the Household Brigade and when this appointment ended in 1965 went into 
public relations with the firm of CS Services.
'Thereafter, in the plethora of jobs which made up his CV, it was never possible quite to pinpoint
where the thrust of his activities was. He was apparently involved in setting up the Advertising
Standards Authority in 1965 and later emerged in such varied posts as Managing Director of
Lonrho Iran, 1972-73; chairman of Erskine Associates 1979-82; and chairman of DK Financial
Services (Dai-Ichi Kangyo), 1988-89. He succeeded his father as Lord Erskine of Rerrick in 1980,
though in the next 15 years he never took his seat in the House of Lords.
'Indeed, the 2nd Lord Erskine of Rerrick's life took on an increasingly itinerant quality. His habitual
state was penury, though the casual observer, seeing his chalk stripe suits and otherwise
immaculate turnout, would never have guessed this. Before the Gulf War he had apparently been
used as an unofficial Foreign Office emissary to Saddam Hussein, with a view to extracting from
the Iraqi dictator important details of the supergun. In 1993 after Asil Nadir fled from Britain to
Cyprus, Erskine's name cropped up in connection with an alleged MI6 "dirty tricks" campaign 
against the Polly Peck tycoon.
'Erskine was by that time living in Cyprus himself. He had moved there, having been made 
bankrupt two years earlier after refusing to pay a £28,000 overdraft to the Royal Bank of 
Scotland. He always claimed the Bank (of which the Commercial Bank of Scotland, run by his
father, had some years before become a part) was holding secret trusts worth half a million
pounds which his father had established in his favour.
'He subsequently altered his will to specify that although his body was to be left for medical
scientific purposes: "to the Royal Bank of Scotland I leave my balls, as they appear to have none
of their own."
'In Cyprus he became further insolvent, running up a £2,000 overdraft and deciding to return to
Britain after bailiffs closed in on his possessions in the island.
'A proposed new career as a photographer never amounted to much, but Erskine had sat on the
]committees of a number of institutions, notably the De Havilland Aircraft Museum. He was also a
trustee of the RAF Museum (Bomber Command) and of the David Tolkein Trust, Stoke Mandeville
Hospital.
'He was three times married, to Marie Elisabeth Allen in 1955 (dissolved 1964); to Maria Josephine
Klupt, in 1974 (dissolved 1989); and, in 1993, to Debra, daughter of Gordon Knight. She survives 
him with the three daughters of the second marriage. There is no heir to the title.'
Frances Howard, Countess of Essex (1604-1613) and later Countess of Somerset
(1613-1632) (31 May 1590-23 August 1632)
The following biography of Frances Howard and her role in the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury
appeared in the October 1956 issue of the Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
 
'The woman whose existence is bounded by an overwhelming, unreasoning, ruthless love, crops
up time and again in history, trailing clouds of a half-poisonous enchantment, drawing a
reluctant sympathy as well as horror from ordinary mortals. Such a one was Frances Howard,
Countess of Essex, a Messalina by temperament if not in enterprise, who so madly loved a king's
favourite in the early 17th century that she killed another to possess him.
'The years of this extraordinary woman's life from the age of 16 to 20 compose a blood-curdling
story of passion, occultism, conspiracy and intrigue. Having failed to murder her first husband,
the Earl of Essex, she divorced him by treachery, then went on to murder Sir Thomas Overbury,
the best friend of her lover, Robert Carr. Her life was virtually over at 25, when, after two years
of marriage to Carr, she was found guilty of murder. Her remaining 17 years were spent in prison
and banishment with her love for Carr, and his for her, turned to such bitter black hatred that
they loathed the sight of each other, and though condemned to share the same roof, lived as
strangers.
'The personal accomplishments of Robert Carr which caused Frances Howard to abandon all
restraints of decency or shame were those that endeared him to dour King James I, who elevated
him in less than 10 years from an obscure position in the English court as the upstart son of a 
Scots knight to virtual dictatorship of England. He was a long, blond, lissom young man with all
the social graces, all the attributes to turn a woman's head - and no brains at all. Not a little of
his success was due to his friend, the brilliant lawyer, poet and essayist, Thomas Overbury.
 
'Far from being the innocent peaches-and-cream beauty she seemed, Frances was selfish and
unbalanced, and almost from childhood had traffic with the charlatans who in her day and age
combined the trades of panderer, poisoner and astrologer. Frances' poisoning of Overbury seems
a futile act. But possibly his knowledge of her attempts to kill her husband, the young Earl of 
Essex, or the fear that he would be a hostile witness in the divorce suit she was bringing when
the poison failed, drove her to this otherwise stupid murder, which was to drag her and Carr into
lifelong misery. 
'Overbury did not know the whole truth before he died in agony in The Tower, but he knew that
Carr was a false friend. His bitter dying prophecy of retribution came true and was carried into
succeeding generations of the offspring of the guilty couple. The daughter of Carr and Frances
[Lady Anne Carr 1615-1684] was brought up in ignorance of her parents' crime, and at 21
married the Earl of Bedford, who knew of the tragedy but shielded her from knowledge of it.
Not long after her own son [William, Lord Russell] died on the scaffold [21 July 1683] she
discovered a time-worn account of the trial of her parents. The reading of it broke her heart.
'Frances Howard belonged to the powerful Howard family, being the daughter of the Earl and 
Countess of Suffolk. In 1606 when Frances was 16 her mother married her off to Robert 
Devereux, 15-years-old third Earl of Essex, son of Queen Elizabeth's favourite. The marriage
was a business bargain, designed to set the seal on property. Bride and groom parted
immediately afterwards, the groom to travel abroad to complete his education. Frances of the
long-lashed dark eyes and red-gold hair stayed at Court completing hers, under the guidance of 
thoroughly immoral mother. 
 
She blossomed early into maturity, and rumour had it that her first lover was James I's elder son,
Henry, Prince of Wales. A year or so later she fell in love with Robert Carr. He had been a page
boy in the service of the Earl of Dunbar in Edinburgh when Thomas Overbury, then a law student
of London's Middle Temple on a visit to Scotland, persuaded him to return with him to London. His
good looks and charming manner were brought under the notice of the King at a tilting match
when a spill from his horse tumbled him at the King's feet with a broken limb. James immediately
made the boy his protégé, gave him lessons in Latin - to the court's derisive amusement - and
undertook the advancement of his fortunes.
 
'He was about 21 and well on the way up as King James' "Sweet Robin," when his intrigue with
Frances Howard, Countess of Essex, began. Carr and his lady began to meet secretly at secluded
lodgings in London while Overbury lent his talents to writing Carr's love letters for him. By the 
time Essex returned to claim his bride after an absence of four years, she and Carr were irretriev-
ably in love. At first, however, Carr resigned the lady to her husband, but Essex had inherited 
none of the lively qualities of his father, Queen Elizabeth's courtier. He was a solid, serious, 
virtuous young man, and while Frances had never liked him, she now began to loathe him. At her
mother's insistence, she went to live with him in the country, but only to receive his endeavours 
to please with reproaches of "cow," "beast" and "coward." 
 
'Secretly, through the assistance of a notorious charlatan, Mrs. [Anne] Turner [1576-1615], she
she began a double scheme for winning back her lover, Carr, and getting rid of her husband, 
Essex. She won her lover back by a combination of natural means and the introduction of some
"magic" nutmeg as a love potion into his wine. But in spite of repeated doses of poisoned 
powders and the burning of images and incantations, her spouse refused to be spirited out of
the world.
'Overbury had continued to aid the liaison, but it had never occurred to him that Carr, now 
elevated to the title of Viscount Rochester, could be serious about Frances Howard, whom
Overbury had never liked and who had always disliked and resented him. When Carr told him he
was considering engineering a divorce for Frances so that he might marry her, Overbury was 
dumbfounded. He feared it would not only bar their friendship but, in view of James' strict views
on women and matrimony, mean the loss of James' favour for them both. The two friends
quarrelled. Overbury, always insolent, now grew overbearing. He insulted Frances, sneering to
Carr that if "that filthy woman....went on in that business he should do well to look to his 
standing." To which Carr arrogantly replied that his "legs were strong enough to bear him up
and that he should make him repent those speeches."
'The next string of events bears the hallmark of Frances' intriguing. Carr patched up his quarrel
with Overbury, then, unknown to the unfortunate friend, engineered his commitment to the
Tower on a trumped­up charge of disrespect to the King. With Overbury out of the way, Frances
instituted divorce proceedings to rid herself of her husband Essex, on the score of his non-
consummation of their marriage. A special committee of doctors and divines was appointed to
was appointed to adjudicate in the disgraceful proceedings. But still full of malice for the 
defeated Overbury kept in ignorance of these proceedings in the Tower, Frances set about
encompassing his death. The conscienceless Carr was her ally.
'Pretending to be Overbury's good friend working to secure his release from confinement, he
sent him a powder which he said would make him sick and that the sickness would be made a
pretext for his release. Physicians sent him by Carr, however, then put Overbury on a diet of
specially planned food, and Frances kindly took over the feeding of the invalid. Cook was Mrs.
Mrs. Turner, and the inspiration for the seasoning a quack named Dr. Thomas Franklin. The
white salt used was arsenic; cantharides took the place of pepper, and the pork was spiced
with a variety of poisons. A gaoler named Weston was employed to serve the poisoned food to
the prisoner. The doses, however, were too small and Overbury's powerful constitution stood up
remarkably to seven different kinds of poison constantly administered.
 
'At the end of two months of this treatment, by June, 1613, he was merely weak and ailing.
Moreover, he was now bitterly hostile to Carr, who he at last realised was playing him false
as regards his promises of release. He became threatening, reminding Carr that it was to him he
owed both his fortune and reputation, while Carr had shown him no more human affection than
"a colt in the park." "So then if you will deal thus wickedly with me I have provided that whether
I die or live your name shall never die nor you cease to be the most odious man alive," Overbury
wrote.
'On September 14, 1613, an apothecary's apprentice visited the sick prisoner and delivered the
coup de grace - an enema of some corrosive sublimate so violent that it even blistered the skin.
Overbury died the same day in agony. Three days later Frances got her divorce. It had been a
long and sordid business. Essex admitted he had not been able to consummate their marriage, 
but claimed he was quite normal in his physical relations with other women. The Commissioners 
disagreed and it was decided to have the Lady Frances examined by a committee of noble ladies
and midwives. Some reports say that the Countess under a pretence of modesty, having 
obtained leave to put on a veil when she was inspected, caused a young woman of her age and 
stature, dressed in her clothes, to stand the search in her place. At any rate, the examining 
midwives informed the Commission that the Lady Frances was fitted to bear children and was "a 
virgin uncorrupted."
'When notified by his "Sweet Robin" of his intention to wed the lovely Lady Essex, James 
suspected nothing and rather rejoiced that the most powerful family in the kingdom which had so
often called his favourite an "upstart Scot" would now be embracing him as a kinsman. So that
Carr's dignity should match his bride's, James created him Baron of Brancepeth and Earl of 
Somerset. The happy young couple were married at Christmas time, Frances in silver with her
hair streaming over her shoulders as a symbol of her "maidenhood." The list of gorgeous wedding
presents, topped by a gift of £10,000 from the king, was enormous, for there was not a man in
London who could afford to offend the king's favourite and his bride. In the following June, James
appointed Carr his Lord Chamberlain, with Suffolk, Frances' father, as Lord Treasurer. But despite
this tremendous access of power, prestige and wealth, the newly-married Somersets did not 
seem to be happy. 
'James began to notice that his favourite's ready smile had begun to fade and his temper to fray.
He did not know that his favourite's wife was continually receiving letters and visits from strange
individuals who complained of her debts to them, that she was becoming a nervous wreck and
that her neuroticism was inducing a similar state in her husband. By the following summer there
vague underground whisperings about the Somersets, and there suddenly rocketed to Royal 
favour a new young nobody, George Villiers [later Duke of Buckingham]. Away in France an
apothecary's boy, about to die of fever, had confessed to having accepted a bribe to administer
an injection of poison to Sir Thomas Overbury.
'When James heard the news he appointed a Commission of Inquiry. On October 17, 1615, the
Commission requested the presence in London of Carr and his Countess. Carr was lodged in the
Tower, while Frances, who was in the eighth month of her pregnancy, was ordered to remain at
home in strict retirement. On November 15, the accomplices, Mrs. Turner, Weston the gaoler, Dr.
Franklin and the Lieutenant of the Tower, were hanged at Tyburn. A month later Frances' 
daughter was born, and in March Frances, a thin, miserable wreck of a beauty, was moved into
the Tower. 
'Two months later, on May 24, 1616, Frances, Countess of Somerset, wearing a black wool gown,
a black cap and ruff of white lawn, was tried in the Great Hall, Westminster. She pleaded guilty
and in frozen silence heard the sentence of death pronounced. The next day Carr stood his trial.
His plea of not guilty was unavailing, and he, too, was condemned to death. King James, fearful
perhaps of what Carr might reveal on the gallows of the scandals of his court, commuted the
sentences to life imprisonment in the Tower. They spent nearly eight weary years there, but in
January, 1624, shortly before James died, he pardoned them both on condition they confined
themselves to a house in the country. 
 
'They lived beneath the same roof for another nine years, but their former love had turned to 
such hatred that they never spoke to each other again, even when Frances, after a long,
lingering illness, died in 1632. Carr lived on as a semi-recluse for 13 years, dying in 1645 and
finding a burial ground in St. Paul's, while Essex, the husband Frances had despised, became a
distinguished Roundhead commander in the Civil War.'
Robert Edward de Vere Capell, 10th Earl of Essex (creation of 1661)
The 10th Earl succeeded his third cousin once removed, the 9th Earl, in 1981, but he did not
successfully prove his claim until 1989. The following article appeared in 'The Times' of 30 May
1989. The article consistently refers to the earl as Lord Capell, whereas his correct title was
Earl of Essex - the barony of Capell is merely a subsidiary title.
'A retired grocer will travel to London from Lancashire next month to take his seat in the House
of Lords.
'It ends a ten-year search by Lord Capell, of Morecambe, who became curious when he found
he shared the same name as the first Earl of Essex. Enquiries at Debrett's led Lord Capell and
Mr. Hugh Montague-Smith, the late editor, on a quest to uncover his ancestors.
'Lord Capell, a former Civil Servant and Royal Air Force flight sergeant, who, as Mr. Arthur [sic]
Capell, was once employed by the Sainsbury grocery chain and was more recently a self-
employed grocer, will be sworn in as the tenth Earl of Essex, Viscount Malden [and] Baron Capell.
'Lord Capell, aged 69, who retired eight years ago, said he was "very sensitive" about taking
his seat on the independent cross-benches. "It is quite a thing to face. After all, I am just an
ordinary man. But I am steeling myself to take my seat later this summer. Whether I shall attend
regularly or not I do not know since I am retired and it is a long way to go."
'He said: "I have been to the House of Lords once as a guest of Lord Ingleby, who is a relative.
But that was eight years ago when I knew I was likely to be the heir." Lord Capell will meet Lady
Hylton-Foster, convenor of the independent cross-benches, and Sir John Sainty, Clerk of the
Parliaments.
'After a tour of Parliament, he will hand in his writ of summons and take the oath at the Dispatch
Box.
'Lord Capell's hunt involved tracing all the lines of heirs from the sixth earl, who died in 1892. It
included contacting distant relatives throughout the world and collecting 80 signed documents.
'The line is not descended from Robert Devereux, second Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth I's
favourite who was executed in the Tower of London. The title was revived in 1661 when Arthur
Capell was created first Earl of Essex. However, the first Earl and his father, the first Baron
Capell, suffered a similar fate. The first Earl, who was accused of involvement in the Rye House
plot of 1683, was found in the Tower with his throat cut. His father had been taken to his
execution from the same apartments.
'Lord Capell said: "I found about 15 males separated me from my title. But I found nobody left an
heir who was entitled to the claim."
After the 10th Earl's death in 2005, the following obituary appeared in "The Telegraph" of 18
June 2005:-
'The 10th Earl of Essex, who died on June 5 aged 85, was a Lancashire grocer so bemused by his 
success in confirming his claim to the earldom in 1981 after years of research that he was initially
uncertain as to whether he would take his seat.
'Admitting that he was not politically minded, and that he could not see himself formulating laws
his first reaction was to say: "I doubt if it would be right." He then took his wife for a drive in the
country to see how she felt about taking up the title; but the new peer coped with the rush of
publicity, leaving the bacon-slicer to take a call from Robin Day on The World at One and 
granting interviews to a stream of reporters with all the aplomb of one brought up in the rank.
'A month later, he descended on the House from his bungalow at Morecambe to a particularly 
warm welcome from the many hereditary members who were his distant kin. When the Crown
Office officially accepted the claim eight years later, the new Lord Essex duly took his seat and
became a regular attender until his wife became seriously ill; but he never cared to make a 
maiden speech.
'Robert Edward de Vere Capell was descended from the 2nd Lord Capel of Hadham, who became
Earl of Essex in 1661 in recognition of his executed father's loyalty to the Crown; the title had
been first created in 1140, and had then been created anew another seven times, on the last
occasion for the dashing favourite of Queen Elizabeth I executed for treason in 1600 [1601].
'The earl created by Charles II became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and First Lord of the Treasury
in 1679, before making the mistake of becoming involved in the Rye House Plot to assassinate the
king; he was committed to the Tower of London, where he was found with his throat cut.
'His descendants proved more cautious, if less distinguished, bearers of the earldom, the 
viscountcy of Malden and the barony of Capell, whose family motto is Fide et fortitudine (By
fidelity and fortitude).
'The second Earl was a soldier, Constable of the Tower and Gentleman of the Bedchamber under 
King William III. The 5th Earl was Recorder and High Steward of Leominster; the 7th Earl served in
the Boer War and was ADC to King Edward VII; and the 9th Earl, educated at Eton and 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, was a farmer who commanded the 16th Airborne Division Signals
Regiment of the T[erritorial] A[rmy] in 1948.
'Bob Capell was born on January 13 1920. His father, head parcel porter with the London and 
South Western Railway at Wimbledon, died when his son was three. Young Bob spent a brief
period in an orphanage where he was bewildered to be told by the head that he would one day 
be Earl of Essex. But, as he remarked more than 50 years later when this was confirmed, he did 
not know what the life of an aristocrat was all about, and he never gave the matter much 
thought.
'As a boy his greatest interest was sport; he enjoyed gymnastics and boxing, was a keen Arsenal
supporter and might have pursued a career in football had he not sustained an ankle injury.
'As a young man he worked at Sainsbury's first shop in Bournemouth, and then served during the
war as an RAF physical training instructor with the rank of flight sergeant. It was while stationed
at Morecambe that he met and married Doris Tomlinson, the daughter of a local grocer. 
'On coming out of the service, he worked as a clerk in the Post Office savings department for 25
years, and then became a partner with his brother-in-law in the family grocery store. He retained
his lithe figure into old age by playing badminton and tennis and tending his beloved garden.
'Bob Capell's interest in the peerage was stirred afresh when a friend sent a newspaper cutting 
claiming that the heir lived in America. Encouraged by his wife and son, he began his own 
inquiries in the belief that his claim was better.
'It involved him in a long correspondence with numerous, previously unknown, distant cousins in 
Britain, America and Australia; a breakthrough came when he obtained a formal declaration that 
none of the eight children of a great uncle - who had been sent to join the Indian Navy and then
settled in Australia after running up debts at Oxford - had any heirs.
'Capell also discovered that he could claim kinship with seven holders of the title in the previous 
creations; the exception was its briefest holder, Henry VIII's minister, Thomas Cromwell.
'The 9th Earl died in 1981, and the editor of Burke's Peerage, Patrick Montague-Smith, declared 
that Bob Capell, as a third cousin once removed, was the rightful successor through descent from
the sixth Earl of Essex - though it took a further eight years before he was permitted to take his
seat. No money came with the title, but the widow of the 8th Earl gave him some family silver.
'Viscount Malden, born in 1944, who was known as plain Mr Capell when he was deputy head-  
master of Skerton County primary School, Lancashire, succeeds to the peerage. The heir is now
William Jennings Capell of Yuba City, California, son of the American whose supposed claim 
started the 10th Earl on his quest for the title. He, too, is a retired grocer.'
Sarah, 2nd wife of the 10th Earl and 1st Marquess of Exeter
Henry Cecil married, for the first time, on 23 May 1776, Emma Vernon, a rich heiress of the
Vernons of Hanbury, Worcestershire. After an unhappy marriage, the union finally ended in
divorce. Cecil was reputed to have been totally disillusioned by the failure of his marriage
and he sold off or carried away all of his possessions which were not Vernon family
heirlooms.
He resolved to cut himself off from the artificial attractions of his wealth and rank and took
himself off to a remote corner of Shropshire, to a small village near Newport named Bolas. Here
he took up residence in the local inn. Because of the obscurity of his background and his 
possession of ample money, local gossip soon had it that he was connected with smugglers
and that he had come by his money by dishonesty. Tiring of such gossip, he left the inn and
became a tenant of a local farmer, Mr Hoggins. He also purchased some land and began to
build a house, but, given the local suspicions, it was only by offering to pay the workmen up
front that they would agree to undertake the work.
While the house was being built, Cecil fell deeply in love with Sarah, the daughter of his landlord.
He resolved to make her his wife and asked her parents for their consent, which was duly given.
After the marriage, Cecil arranged for various masters to instruct his new wife in all manner of
subjects and within a year she was an accomplished woman.
When he heard that he had succeeded his uncle to the Earldom of Exeter in late 1793, he 
set off for the family home. During the journey, he called at the seats of several noblemen,
where he was, to his wife's astonishment, welcomed in the most friendly manner. At last,
they reached Burleigh, the magnificent home of the Cecils. On approaching the house, Cecil
nonchalantly asked his wife whether she would like to live there. 'Oh yes,' exclaimed Sarah, 'it is
indeed a lovely spot, exceeding all I have seen, and making me almost envy its possessors.'
'Well then', said the Earl, 'it is yours.'
As soon as the Earl had settled his affairs, he returned to Bolas where he revealed his real
rank and wealth to Sarah's parents, gave them the house that he had built and settled an
income of £700 a year upon them.
Unfortunately, Sarah, who was known as the "Peasant Countess', died in January 1797, having
given Cecil two sons and a daughter. She died shortly after the birth of her second son, and
would only have been about 23 at the time of her death. The story of the marriage of the
Earl and Sarah forms the subject of Lord Tennyson's poem "The Lord of Burleigh" which can be
found online.
Edward Pellew,1st Viscount Exmouth
Exmouth was a naval officer who rose to the rank of Admiral. He entered the Royal Navy in 1770,
at the age of 13, and saw action during the American Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic 
Wars, rising steadily through the ranks until he was appointed Commander in Chief of the
Mediterranean Fleet in 1814. In the same year, he was created Baron Exmouth, and in 1816 was
appointed to lead a naval expedition to suppress slavery and to free Europeans who had been
captured by the Barbary pirates. His expedition was successful in freeing more than 3000 slaves 
and, for a brief time, Christian slavery along the Barbary Coast was suppressed.
The following account of the bombardment of Algiers appeared in the March 1959 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
  'On the sultry evening of August 27, 1816, British Consul McDonell lay half-naked in a pit near
the palace of the ferocious Dey of Algiers. He was heavily loaded with chains which were riveted
to the walls. For companions he had two murderers, similarly pinioned, with whom he had been 
assured he would be ceremonially beheaded on the following day, if he survived. There was great
doubt whether any of them would see the dawn for the whole of Algiers was shaking under the
most remorseless naval bombardment in history. Ten thousand dwelling houses were falling into
rubble while over all was the fierce glare of fire from the burning arsenal. 
'The bombardment was the vengeance of Britain for an atrocious massacre and a sign of her
determination to put down forever the noxious trade of Christian slavery. For centuries, the
pirates of the Barbary Coast had plundered Mediterranean countries at will, seizing Christian 
slaves for harems and galleys. At one time, there were 25,000 Christian slaves in Algiers alone.
They were driven like cattle for sale in the market. 
'As soon as the Napoleonic wars ended, Britain decided to persuade the pirates by gold and
diplomacy, if possible, to release their Christian slaves and abandon slavery. She chose for the
delicate mission Edward Pellew, Baron Exmouth, Naval Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean. Lord
Exmouth went straight to the most blood­thirsty potentate on the coast, Omar, Dey of Algiers,
who, despite Exmouth's squadron of 14 ships, including five battleships, received him insolently.
After hours of haggling, Exmouth was forced to pay the Dey 1000 Spanish dollars each for 357
Sicilian and Neapolitan slaves and 500 dollars each for 51 Sardinians. The condition of the slaves,
as they were taken to the transport, sickened and shocked Exmouth. Men and women of all ages,
and even children, bore the scars of cruel floggings. Weak and emaciated, they could hardly
hobble, while most had festering sores on wrists and legs where iron chains had bitten deeply
into the flesh. As one man, they fell on their knees in prayer before their embarrassed British
deliverers and tried to kiss their hands.
'Convinced that sooner or later outright war would be needed to smash the Dey of Algiers,
Exmouth ordered Captain Warde, of the Banterer, to make a secret survey of the port. Every gun
was plotted. Soundings were made at night. Exmouth sailed Algiers on April 7 for Tunis to ransom
more Christians. He found the Tunis Bey more amiable than the Algerian Omer Dey, for he was 
made comfortable on a divan and regaled with coffee and sherbet. The Bey was a fat Turk, 
noted for his gluttony and his huge harem of beautiful slave girls. It was said that the only time
he ever exerted himself was when he got out of bed to strangle his predecessor. He willingly
ransomed 524 slaves and freed a further 257 without ransom, including Christian girls from his
harem. Finally he signed a pact abolishing slavery within his jurisdiction. The Bey of Tripoli was
equally obliging. He released 414 Neapolitans and Sicilians for a gift of 50,000 dollars, and also
signed an anti-slave pact. 
 
'Flushed with success, Exmouth returned to Algiers with the intention of bluffing or bullying the
Dey into a similar treaty and forcing him to surrender the slaves he still held. He ran straight
into a hornet's nest. The Dey and his ministers laughed and jeered at his angry threats to 
destroy the port. When he announced that Britain would break off diplomatic relations and made
for the docks with the British Consul, Mr. McDonell, the Dey construed it as a declaration of war.
He called out the mob, who surrounded the British party and seized the Consul. Two of Exmouth's
officers were dragged from horses, robbed, and marched through the streets with their hands
tied behind them. Exmouth himself and the Consul were saved by a last-minute order of the Dey
that they be allowed to proceed unharmed.
'Only an unfavorable wind prevented the irate Exmouth from opening fire on Algiers at once, while
the Dey put the city on a war footing, called in troops from district outposts, and sent horsemen
to Oran and Bona with instructions to gaol all Britons. Then he took the wind out of Exmouth's
sails by offering to send an ambassador to London to discuss the whole slave question. Exmouth
accepted. Consul McDonell returned to his consulate. Hardly had the British squadron cleared
port, however, than the Algerines turned savagely on all Britons and British interests.
 
'For years Britain had held a charter to exploit the coral fisheries off Buna. The leases were 
worked by Corsicans, Sardinians and Sicilians, who enjoyed British protection. On Ascension Day
(May 23), about 600 of the fishermen went to church ashore. While they were at worship, the
Dey's horsemen arrived with false news of war with Britain. With a ferocity rarely paralleled, the
Moors turned on the Christian worshippers. They hacked and murdered in a frenzy of hatred until
more than 200 of the fishermen had been massacred and scores more wounded.
 
'News of the massacre reached England as Exmouth was paying off his crews. He was ordered
to return at once to exact vengeance. Though offered the entire Mediterranean fleet, Exmouth
insisted that he needed only five great battleships and their supporting frigates. The British
  Admiralty were staggered by these modest demands, for Nelson had estimated a few years earlier
that a fleet of at least 25 great ships would be needed to burn the pirates from Algiers. 
Exmouth's survey, however, had convinced him that too many ships would hamper operations. He
chose the Queen Charlotte (100 guns) as his flagship, supported by the Impregnable (98 guns),
three 74-gun ships, one 50, with frigates and supply ships - in all 470 guns.
'Algiers, a walled city on a hillside, facing the Mediterranean, bristled with 500 heavy guns. The
most formidable were on a concrete mole about 300 yards offshore on the end of a T-shaped
artificial harbour. Inside the harbour were four Algerine frigates, five large corvettes and 37 gun-
boats with additional cannon. Forty thousand troops manned the defences, while as a reserve
Omar Dey ordered every able­bodied man to take part in the defence on pain of death.
 
'At Gibraltar, the commander of a Dutch squadron [Vice-Admiral Theodorus Frederik van Capellen
1762-1824] asked permission to join in the attack, Exmouth accepted, thus adding five frigates
and a corvette to his strength. Meanwhile, the sloop Prometheus, which had gone to Algiers to
evacuate McDonell and his family, returned with the news that McDonell and 18 members of
Prometheus' crew had been arrested and thrown into dungeons. McDonell's wife and daughter
had escaped to the ship disguised as midshipmen. The 18 men had been arrested while trying to
smuggle McDonell's baby aboard in a fruit case. The Dey restored the baby to its mother, but 
held the men, whom it had betrayed by crying.
 
'Exmouth arrived off Algiers at daybreak on August 27. At 11 a.m. he sent a party ashore under
a flag of truce to demand the surrender of the Consul and the men of the Prometheus before 2
p.m. When there was no reply, the squadron sailed into Algiers harbour. Without a shot being
fired by either side, Exmouth sailed the Queen Charlotte to within 50 yards of the big guns on the
mole and calmly dropped anchor. They were so close that the British gunners could see the 
swarthy faces of the enemy peering over the muzzles of their guns. Not a shot was fired as the
British vessels warped themselves into position at point­blank range.
'Curiously, thousands of Algerines milled on the mole to watch the spectacle, presenting an ideal
target. They were entranced when they heard the British, as was their habit before action, give
  three cheers for the enemy. Then a nervy Algerine gun crew fired a shot through the Charlotte's
rigging. With a roar that could be heard 60 miles away, every ship and every gun ashore belched 
fire. Before Queen Charlotte opened fire, Lord Exmouth himself waved to the milling crowd to take
cover. They did not heed him, and it is estimated that the first few broadsides killed 300 of them
and maimed 200 more. 
 
'For eight hours the bombardment continued. Abandoning any order of fire the British gunners
loaded and reloaded as fast as they could work their guns. They burned up 118 tons of gun-
powder, fired 50,000 shot weighing 500 tons, as well as 1000 shells and hundreds of rockets. At
the height of the battle, the portly Lord Exmouth ran about the deck with a white handkerchief
tied round his waist, a little round hat on the back of his head, and a telescope under his arm,
bawling orders and skipping about like a middy. He suffered only two slight wounds, which was 
considered miraculous, for "his coat was slit by musket balls as if someone had been slashing at 
it with a pair of scissors."
'When at last he called a halt to conserve his rapidly dwindling ammunition, Algiers was in a
pitiful condition. The mole was wrecked; its guns silent. Ships in the harbour, arsenals and store
houses were ablaze. Ten thousand dwelling houses had been smashed to rubble or were in flames,
while 6000 Moors and Algerines had been slain. Of the 6500 men under Exmouth's command, 128
had been killed arid 690 wounded. The Dutch lost 13 killed and 52 wounded.
 
'While the smoke of many fires still hung over the city, Exmouth called on the Dey to surrender.
His terms, presented by an intrepid Egyptian interpreter named Salami, were the release of
Christian slaves still held in Algiers, total abolition of slavery, and the return of 400,000 dollars
Exmouth had paid for ransom some months before. Sitting cross-legged on a divan at the palace,
sullenly smoking a pipe and stroking his beard, the Dey contemplated defiance till his counsellors
reminded him that his defences were a mass of rubble and twisted iron. Then he yielded. 
Immediately the chains were struck from 1642 Christian slaves, bringing the total liberated by
Exmouth to more than 3000. McDonell was the first to be freed from his pit. Exmouth forced the
Dey to apologise to the Consul before his Ministers and pay him 30,000 dollars. It was about the 
public act of the Dey. A few weeks later, he was strangled by his generals.'
 
John Eyre, Baron Eyre
The following is extracted from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
Lord Eyre…….lived in a castle with windows that did not open, owned not one book, and
presided at table every day from early afternoon to bedtime, working his way through great
quantities of food and claret. The food, which never varied, was presented in a way that
discouraged some guests; a slaughtered ox was hung up whole and diners were expected 
to help themselves.
Copyright @ 2003-2014  Leigh Rayment