PEERAGE
Last updated 13/12/2014
Date Rank Order Name Born Died Age
KILMAULE
1537 V[I] 1 Edmond Fitzmaurice,11th Baron Kerry 1541
Created Baron Odorney and Viscount
Kilmaule 1537
Peerages extinct on his death
KILMAURS
c 1469 B[S] 1 Alexander Cunningham 11 Jun 1488
Created Lord Kilmaurs c 1469 and
Earl of Glencairn 28 May 1488
See "Glencairn"
KILMAYDEN
23 Jun 1703 B[I] 1 Arthur St.Leger 1657 7 Jul 1727 70
Created Baron Kilmayden and Viscount
Doneraile 23 Jun 1703
See "Doneraile"
KILMOREY
8 Apr 1625 V[I] 1 Robert Needham 26 Nov 1631
Created Viscount Kilmorey 8 Apr 1625
26 Nov 1631 2 Robert Needham 12 Sep 1653
12 Sep 1653 3 Robert Needham Jan 1657
Jan 1657 4 Charles Needham 1660
1660 5 Robert Needham 1655 29 May 1668 12
29 May 1668 6 Thomas Needham c 1660 26 Nov 1687
26 Nov 1687 7 Robert Needham 4 May 1683 2 Oct 1710 27
2 Oct 1710 8 Robert Needham Oct 1702 19 Feb 1717 14
19 Feb 1717 9 Thomas Needham 29 Sep 1703 3 Feb 1768 64
3 Feb 1768 10 John Needham Jan 1711 29 May 1791 80
29 May 1791 11 Robert Needham 14 Nov 1746 30 Nov 1818 72
30 Nov 1818 12 Francis Needham 5 Apr 1748 21 Nov 1832 84
12 Jan 1822 E[I] 1 Created Viscount Newry and Morne and
Earl of Kilmorey 12 Jan 1822
MP for Newry 1806-1818
21 Nov 1832 2 Francis Jack Needham 12 Dec 1787 24 Jun 1880 92
MP for Newry 1819-1826
24 Jun 1880 3 Francis Charles Needham 3 Aug 1842 28 Jul 1915 72
MP for Newry 1871-1874.KP 1890
28 Jul 1915 4 Francis Charles Adelbert Henry Needham 26 Nov 1883 11 Jan 1961 77
Lord Lieutenant Down 1949-1959PC [NI] 1936
11 Jan 1961 5 Francis Jack Richard Patrick Needham 4 Oct 1915 12 Apr 1977 61
12 Apr 1977 6 Richard Francis Needham 29 Jan 1942
MP for Chippenham 1979-1983 and Wiltshire
North 1983-1997PC 1994
KILMUIR
20 Jul 1962 E 1 David Patrick Maxwell Fyfe 29 May 1900 27 Jan 1967 66
to†††† Created Viscount Kilmuir 19 Oct 1954 and
27 Jan 1967 Baron Fyfe of Dornoch and and Earl of Kilmuir
20 Jul 1962
MP for West Derby 1935-1954. Solicitor
General 1942-1945. Attorney General 1945.
Home Secretary 1951-1954. Lord Chancellor
1954-1962.PC 1945
Peerages extinct on his death
KILPATRICK
10 Jul 1606 B[S] 1 James Hamilton 23 Mar 1618
Created Baron of Abercorn 5 Apr 1603
and Lord Paisley,Hamilton,Mountcastell
and Kilpatrick,and Earl of Abercorn
10 Jul 1606
See "Abercorn"
KILPATRICK OF KINCRAIG
16 Feb 1996 B[L] 1 Robert Kilpatrick 29 Jul 1926
Created Baron Kilpatrick of Kincraig for life
16 Feb 1996
KILSYTH
17 Aug 1661 V[S] 1 James Livingston 25 Jun 1616 7 Sep 1661 45
Created Lord Campsie and Viscount of
Kilsyth 17 Aug 1661
7 Sep 1661 2 James Livingston 1706
1706 3 William Livingston 29 Mar 1650 12 Jan 1733 82
to†††† He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1716
KILTARTON OF GORT
15 May 1810 B[I] 1 John Prendergast-Smyth 1742 23 May 1817 74
Created Baron Kiltarton of Gort
15 May 1810 and Viscount Gort
22 Jan 1816
See "Gort"
KILWARDEN
30 Sep 1795 B[I] 1 Anne Wolfe 30 Jul 1804
Created Baroness Kilwarden 30 Sep 1795
30 Jul 1804 2 John Wolfe,2nd Viscount Kilwarden 11 Nov 1769 22 May 1830 60
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
22 May 1830
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
29 Dec 1800 V[I] 1 Arthur Wolfe 19 Jan 1739 28 Jul 1803 64
Created Baron Kilwarden 3 Jul 1798
and Viscount Kilwarden 29 Dec 1800
Solicitor General [I] 1789-1798. Chief
Justice of the Kings Bench [I] 1798-1803
PC [I] 1789
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
28 Jul 1803 2 John Wolfe,later [1804] 2nd Viscount Kilwarden 11 Nov 1769 22 May 1830 60
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
22 May 1830
KILWARLIN
3 Oct 1751 V[I] 1 Wills Hill
Created Viscount Kilwarlin and Earl of
Hillsborough [ I ] 3 Oct 1751,Baron
Harwich 17 Nov 1756 and Viscount
Fairford and Earl of Hillsborough [gb]
28 Aug 1772
He was subsequently created Marquess of
Downshire (qv) with which title these
peerages then merged
KILWORTH
14 Jul 1764 B[I] 1 Stephen Moore c 1695 1 Mar 1766
Created Baron Kilworth 14 Jul 1764 and
Viscount Mount Cashell 22 Jan 1766
See "Mount Cashell"
KIMBALL
9 May 1985 B[L] 1 Marcus Richard Kimball 18 Oct 1928 26 Mar 2014 85
to†††† Created Baron Kimball for life 9 May 1985
26 Mar 2014 MP for Gainsborough 1956-1983
Peerage extinct on his death
KIMBERLEY
1 Jun 1866 E 1 John Wodehouse,3rd Baron Wodehouse of Kimberley 7 Jan 1826 8 Apr 1902 76
Created Earl of Kimberley 1 Jun 1866
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1864-1866. Lord
Privy Seal 1868-1870. Secretary of State for
the Colonies 1870-1874 and 1880-1882.
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1882. Secretary of State for India 1882-
1885 and 1886.PC 1864KG 1885
8 Apr 1902 2 John Wodehouse 10 Dec 1848 7 Jan 1932 83
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
7 Jan 1932 3 John Wodehouse 11 Nov 1883 16 Apr 1941 57
MP for Norfolk Mid 1906-1910
16 Apr 1941 4 John Wodehouse 12 May 1924 26 May 2002 78
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
26 May 2002 5 John Armine Wodehouse 15 Jan 1951
KINCARDINE
6 May 1644 E[S] 1 James Graham 1612 21 May 1650 37
Created Lord Graham and Mugdock,
Earl of Kincardine and Marquess of
Montrose 6 May 1644
See "Montrose"
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
26 Dec 1647 E[S] 1 Edward Bruce 1662
Created Lord Bruce of Torry and Earl
of Kincardine 26 Dec 1647
1662 2 Alexander Bruce c 1629 9 Jul 1680
9 Jul 1680 3 Alexander Bruce 5 Jun 1666 10 Nov 1705 39
10 Nov 1705 4 Alexander Bruce c 1636 10 Oct 1706
10 Oct 1706 5 Robert Bruce 1718
1718 6 Alexander Bruce 19 jan 1662 1721 59
1721 7 Thomas Bruce 19 Mar 1663 23 Mar 1740 77
23 Mar 1740 8 William Bruce 8 Sep 1740
8 Sep 1740 9 Charles Bruce 26 Jul 1732 14 May 1771 38
He succeeded as 5th Earl of Elgin (qv) in 1747
with which title this peerage then became
united and so remains
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
3 Nov 1684 B[S] 1 George Gordon,4th Marquess of Huntly c 1643 7 Dec 1716
Created Lord Badenoch,Lochaber,
Strathavon,Balmore,Auchindoun,
Garthie and Kincardine,Viscount of
Inverness,Earl of Huntly and Enzie,
Marquess of Huntly and Duke of
Gordon 3 Nov 1684
See "Gordon" - extinct 1836
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
24 Apr 1707 E[S] 1 James Graham,4th Marquess of Montrose 1682 7 Jan 1742 59
Created Lord Aberruthven,Viscount of
Dundaff,Earl of Kincardine,Marquess
of Graham and Duke of Montrose
24 Apr 1707
See "Montrose"
KINCLEVEN
20 Aug 1607 B[S] 1 John Stewart 1652
Created Lord Kincleven 20 Aug 1607
and Earl of Carrick 22 Jul 1628
Peerages extinct on his death
KINDERSLEY
28 Jan 1941 B 1 Robert Molesworth Kindersley 21 Nov 1871 20 Jul 1954 82
Created Baron Kindersley 28 Jan 1941
20 Jul 1954 2 Hugh Kenyon Molesworth Kindersley 7 May 1899 6 Oct 1976 77
6 Oct 1976 3 Robert Hugh Molesworth Kindersley 18 Aug 1929 9 Oct 2013 84
9 Oct 2013 4 Rupert John Molesworth Kindersley 11 Mar 1955
KING OF BOW
26 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Oona Tamsyn King 22 Oct 1967
Created Baroness King of Bow for life
26 Jan 2011
MP for Bethnal Green & Bow 1997-2005
KING OF BRIDGWATER
9 Jul 2001 B[L] 1 Thomas Jeremy King 13 Jun 1933
Created Baron King of Bridgwater for life
9 Jul 2001
MP for Bridgwater 1970-2001. Minister for
Local Government 1979-1983. Sec of State for
the Environment 1983. Sec of State for
Transport 1983. Sec of State for
Employment 1983-1985. Sec of State for
Northern Ireland 1985-1989. Sec of State
for Defence 1989-1992. PC 1979CH 1992
KING OF LOTHBURY
19 Jul 2013 B[L] 1 Sir Mervyn Allister King 30 Mar 1948
Created Baron King of Lothbury for life
19 Jul 2013
Governor of the Bank of England 2003-2013
KG 2014
KING OF OCKHAM
29 May 1725 B 1 Peter King c 1669 22 Jul 1734
Created Baron King of Ockham
29 May 1725
MP for Beeralston 1701-1715. Chief
Justice of the Common Pleas 1714-1725.
Lord Chancellor 1725-1733PC 1715
22 Jul 1734 2 John King 13 Jan 1706 10 Feb 1740 34
MP for Launceston 1727-1735 and Exeter 1734
10 Feb 1740 3 Peter King 13 Mar 1709 22 Mar 1754 45
22 Mar 1754 4 William King 15 Apr 1711 16 Apr 1767 56
16 Apr 1767 5 Thomas King 19 Mar 1712 24 Apr 1779 67
24 Apr 1779 6 Peter King 6 Oct 1736 23 Nov 1793 57
23 Nov 1793 7 Peter King 31 Aug 1775 4 Jun 1833 57
4 Jun 1833 8 William King-Noel
He was created Earl of Lovelace (qv) in
1838 with which title this peerage then
merged
KING OF WARTNABY
15 Jul 1983 B[L] 1 John Leonard King 29 Aug 1918 12 Jul 2005 86
to†††† Created Baron King of Wartnaby for life
12 Jul 2003 15 Jul 1983
Peerage extinct on his death
KING OF WEST BROMWICH
22 Jul 1999 B[L] 1 Tarsem King 24 Apr 1937 9 Jan 2013 75
to†††† Created Baron King of West Bromwich
9 Jan 2013 for life 22 Jul 1999
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGARTH
14 Apr 1703 V[S] 1 Sir James Stuart 4 Jun 1710
Created Lord Mount Stuart,Cumra and
Inchmarnock,Viscount of Kingarth and
Earl of Bute 14 Apr 1703
See "Bute"
KING-HALL
15 Jan 1966 B[L] 1 William Stephen Richard King-Hall 21 Jan 1893 2 Jun 1966 73
to†††† Created Baron King-Hall for life 15 Jan 1966
2 Jun 1966 MP for Ormskirk 1939-1945
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGHORNE
10 Jul 1606 E[S] 1 Patrick Lyon,9th Lord Glamis 1575 1 Sep 1616 41
Created Lord Lyon and Glamis and
Earl of Kinghorne 10 Jul 1606
1 Sep 1616 2 John Lyon 13 Aug 1596 12 May 1647 50
12 May 1647 3 Patrick Lyon
On 1 July 1677 he received a new charter as
Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne,Viscount Lyon,
Lord Glamis, Tannadyce,Sidlaw and Stradichtie
with the original precedence
KINGSALE
For information on the right of members of the
de Courcy family to wear their hats in the presence
of the sovereign,see the note at the foot of
this page
29 May 1223 B[I] 1 Miles de Courcy c 1230
Created Baron Kingsale 29 May 1223
c 1230 2 Patrick de Courcy c 1260
c 1260 3 Nicholas de Courcy c 1290
c 1290 4 Edmund de Courcy c 1302
c 1302 5 John de Courcy c 1303
c 1303 6 Miles de Courcy c 1338
c 1338 7 Miles de Courcy 1358
1358 8 John de Courcy c 1387
c 1387 9 William de Courcy c 1410
c 1410 10 Nicholas de Courcy c 1430
c 1430 11 Patrick de Courcy c 1460
c 1460 12 Nicholas de Courcy Feb 1476
Feb 1476 13 James de Courcy c 1499
c 1499 14 Edmond de Courcy c 1505
c 1505 15 David de Courcy c 1520
c 1520 16 John de Courcy 1535
1535 17 Gerald de Courcy 1599
1599 18 John de Courcy 25 Jul 1628
25 Jul 1628 19 Gerald de Courcy c 1642
c 1642 20 Patrick de Courcy 1663
1663 21 John de Courcy 19 May 1667
19 May 1667 22 Patrick de Courcy c 1660 1669
1669 23 Almericus de Courcy c 1664 9 Feb 1720
9 Feb 1720 24 Gerald de Courcy 1700 1 Dec 1759 59
PC [I] 1744
1 Dec 1759 25 John de Courcy c 1717 3 Mar 1776
3 Mar 1776 26 John de Courcy 24 May 1822
24 May 1822 27 Thomas de Courcy 10 Jan 1774 25 Jan 1832 57
25 Jan 1832 28 John Stapleton de Courcy 17 Sep 1805 7 Jan 1847 41
7 Jan 1847 29 John Constantine de Courcy 5 Nov 1827 15 Jun 1865 37
15 Jun 1865 30 Michael Conrad de Courcy 21 Dec 1828 15 Apr 1874 45
15 Apr 1874 31 John Fitzroy de Courcy 30 Mar 1821 20 Nov 1890 69
20 Nov 1890 32 Michael William de Courcy 29 Sep 1822 16 Nov 1895 73
16 Nov 1895 33 Michael Constantine de Courcy 8 May 1855 24 Jan 1931 75
24 Jan 1931 34 Michael William Robert de Courcy 26 Sep 1882 7 Nov 1969 87
7 Nov 1969 35 John de Courcy 27 Jan 1941 15 Sep 2005 64
15 Sep 2005 36 Nevinson Mark de Courcy 11 May 1958
††††††††††††† **********************
2 Apr 1625 V[I] 1 Sir Dominick Sarsfield,1st baronet c 1570 Dec 1636
Created Baron of Barretts County and
Viscount Kingsale 2 Apr 1625
After his creation as Viscount Kingsale,the de
Courcy family,Barons Kingsale,complained that
the Kingsale title belonged to them,and the title
was therefore exchanged for that of Viscount
Sarsfield of Kilmallock 17 Sep 1627,with the
precedence of 2 Apr 1625 - see "Sarsfield"
KINGSBOROUGH
13 Jun 1748 B[I] 1 Robert King 18 Feb 1724 22 May 1755 31
to†††† Created Baron Kingsborough
22 May 1755 13 Jun 1748
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGSDOWN
28 Aug 1858 B 1 Thomas Pemberton-Leigh 11 Feb 1793 7 Oct 1867 74
to†††† Created Baron Kingsdown 28 Aug 1858
7 Oct 1867 MP for Rye 1831 and Ripon 1835-1843.
PC 1843
Peerage extinct on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
14 Jul 1993 B[L] 1 Robert Leigh-Pemberton 5 Jan 1927 24 Nov 2013 86
to†††† Created Baron Kingsdown for life 14 Jul 1993
24 Nov 2013 Governor of the Bank of England 1983-1993
PC 1987KG 1994Lord Lieutenant Kent 1982-2002
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGSLAND
7 Oct 1994 B[L] 1 Christopher James Prout 1 Jan 1942 12 Jul 2009 67
to†††† Created Baron Kingsland for life 7 Oct 1994
12 Jul 2009 PC 1994
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGSMILL
1 Jun 2006 B[L] 1 Denise Patricia Byrne Kingsmill 24 Apr 1947
Created Baroness Kingsmill for life 1 Jun 2006
KINGS NORTON
22 Jun 1965 B[L] 1 Harold Roxbee Cox 6 Jun 1902 21 Dec 1997 95
to†††† Created Baron Kings Norton for life
21 Dec 1997 22 Jun 1965
Peerage extinct on his death
KINGSTON (Ireland)
4 Sep 1660 B[I] 1 John King 1676
Created Baron Kingston 4 Sep 1660
1676 2 Robert King Dec 1693
Dec 1693 3 John King c 1664 15 Feb 1728
15 Feb 1728 4 James King 1693 28 Dec 1761 68
to†††† PC [I] 1729
28 Dec 1761 Peerage extinct on his death
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
25 Aug 1768 E[I] 1 Sir Edward King,5th baronet 29 Mar 1726 8 Nov 1797 71
Created Baron Kingston of Rockingham
13 Jul 1764, Viscount Kingston of Kingsborough
15 Nov 1766 and Earl of Kingston 25 Aug 1768
PC [I] 1794
8 Nov 1797 2 Robert King 1754 17 Apr 1799 44
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
17 Apr 1799 3 George King 28 Apr 1771 18 Oct 1839 68
17 Jul 1821 B 1 Created Baron Kingston of
Mitchelstown 17 Jul 1821
For further information on this peer's eldest
son, known by the courtesy title of Viscount
Kingsborough, see the note at the foot of
this page.
18 Oct 1839 4 Robert Henry King 4 Oct 1796 21 Jan 1867 70
2 MP for Cork Co. 1826-1832
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page.
21 Jan 1867 5 James King 8 Apr 1800 8 Sep 1869 69
to†††† 3 On his death the Barony of 1821 became
8 Sep 1869 extinct whilst the other peerages
passed to -
8 Sep 1869 6 Robert King, 2nd Viscount Lorton 17 Jul 1804 16 Oct 1869 65
MP for Roscommon 1826-1830
16 Oct 1869 7 Robert Edward King 18 Oct 1831 21 Jun 1871 39
21 Jun 1871 8 Henry Ernest Newcomen King-Tenison 31 Jul 1848 13 Jan 1896 47
Lord Lieutenant Roscommon 1888-1896
13 Jan 1896 9 Henry Edwyn King-Tenison 19 Sep 1874 11 Jan 1946 71
11 Jan 1946 10 Robert Henry Ethelbert King-Tenison 27 Nov 1897 17 Jul 1948 50
17 Jul 1948 11 Barclay Robert Edwin King-Tenison 23 Sep 1943 19 Mar 2002 58
19 Mar 2002 12 Robert Charles Henry King-Tenison 20 Mar 1969
KINGSTON (Scotland)
6 Feb 1651 V[S] 1 Alexander Seton 1621 21 Oct 1691 70
Created Viscount of Kingston 6 Feb 1651
21 Oct 1691 2 Archibald Seton 5 Oct 1661 1713 51
1713 3 James Seton c 1726
to†††† He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1715
KINGSTON UPON HULL
25 Jul 1628 E 1 Robert Pierrepont 6 Aug 1584 30 Jul 1643 58
Created Baron Pierrepont 29 Jun 1627,
and Viscount Newark and Earl of
Kingston-upon-Hull 25 Jul 1628
30 Jul 1643 2 Henry Pierrepont Mar 1607 1 Dec 1680 73
MP for Nottinghamshire 1628. Lord
Lieutenant Nottingham 1642.
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Pierrepont 11 Jan 1641.
Created Marquess of Dorchester (qv) in 1645
1 Dec 1680 3 Robert Pierrepont c 1660 Jun 1682
Jun 1682 4 William Pierrepont c 1662 17 Sep 1690
Lord Lieutenant Nottingham and E Riding
Yorkshire 1689-1690
17 Sep 1690 5 Evelyn Pierrepont 27 Feb 1667 5 Mar 1726 59
10 Aug 1715 D 1 Created Marquess of Dorchester
23 Dec 1706 and Duke of Kingston
upon Hull 10 Aug 1715
MP for East Retford 1689-1690. Lord Privy
Seal 1716-1718 and 1720-1726. Lord
President of the Council 1719-1720.
PC 1708KG 1719
5 Mar 1726 2 Evelyn Pierrepont 1711 23 Sep 1773 62
to†††† Lord Lieutenant Nottingham 1763-1765
23 Sep 1773 KG 1741
Peerages extinct on his death
KINGSTON UPON THAMES
22 Jan 1621 B 1 John Ramsay,1st Viscount of Haddington c 1580 28 Feb 1626
to†††† Created Baron of Kingston upon
28 Feb 1626 Thames and Earl of Holdernesse
22 Jan 1621
Peerages extinct on his death
KINLOSS
2 Feb 1602 B[S] 1 Edward Bruce 14 Jan 1611
Created Lord Kinloss 2 Feb 1602
14 Jan 1611 2 Edward Bruce Aug 1613
Aug 1613 3 Thomas Bruce,later [1633] 1st Earl of Elgin 2 Dec 1599 21 Dec 1663 64
21 Dec 1663 4 Robert Bruce,2nd Earl of Elgin 19 Mar 1626 20 Oct 1685 59
20 Oct 1685 5 Thomas Bruce,3rd Earl of Elgin 1656 16 Dec 1741 85
16 Dec 1741 6 Charles Bruce,4th Earl of Elgin 29 May 1682 10 Feb 1747 64
10 Feb 1747 7 James Brydges,later [1771] 3rd Duke of Chandos 16 Dec 1731 29 Sep 1789 57
29 Sep 1789 8 Anne Elizabeth Temple-Nugent-Brydges-
Chandos-Grenville 27 Oct 1779 15 May 1836 56
15 May 1836 9 Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-Brydges-
Chandos-Grenville,later [1839] 2nd Duke of
Buckingham and Chandos 11 Feb 1797 29 Jul 1861 64
29 Jul 1861 10 Richard Plantagenet Temple-Nugent-
Brydges-Chandos-Grenville,3rd Duke of
Buckingham and Chandos 10 Sep 1823 26 Mar 1889 65
26 Mar 1889 11 Mary Morgan-Grenville 30 Sep 1852 17 Oct 1944 92
17 Oct 1944 12 Beatrice Mary Grenville Freeman-Grenville 18 Aug 1922 30 Sep 2012 90
30 Sep 2012 13 Teresa Mary Nugent Grenville Freeman-Grenville 20 Jul 1957
KINNAIRD
28 Dec 1682 B[S] 1 George Kinnaird 29 Dec 1689
Created Lord Kinnaird 28 Dec 1682
29 Dec 1689 2 Patrick Kinnaird 18 Feb 1701
18 Feb 1701 3 Patrick Kinnaird 31 Mar 1715
31 Mar 1715 4 Patrick Kinnaird 1710 Oct 1727 17
Oct 1727 5 Charles Kinnaird 16 Jul 1758
16 Jul 1758 6 Charles Kinnaird 2 Aug 1767
2 Aug 1767 7 George Kinnaird 1754 11 Oct 1805 51
11 Oct 1805 8 Charles Kinnaird 8 Apr 1780 12 Dec 1826 46
MP for Leominster 1802-1805
12 Dec 1826 9 George William Fox Kinnaird 14 Apr 1807 7 Jan 1878 70
1 Sep 1860 1 Created Baron Rossie (qv) 20 June 1831 and
Baron Kinnaird 1 Sep 1860
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Barony of 1860,see the note at the
foot of this page
PC 1840KT 1857. Lord Lieutenant Perth
1866-1878
7 Jan 1878 10 Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird 8 Jul 1814 26 Apr 1887 72
2 MP for Perth 1837-1839 and 1852-1878
26 Apr 1887 11 Arthur Fitzgerald Kinnaird 16 Feb 1847 30 Jan 1923 75
3 KT 1914
30 Jan 1923 12 Kenneth Fitzgerald Kinnaird 31 Jul 1880 5 Jul 1972 91
4 Lord Lieutenant Perthshire 1942-1960
KT 1957
5 Jul 1972 13 Graham Charles Kinnaird 15 Sep 1912 27 Feb 1997 84
to†††† 5 Peerages extinct on his death
27 Feb 1997
KINNEAR
5 Feb 1897 B 1 Alexander Smith Kinnear 3 Nov 1833 20 Dec 1917 84
to†††† Created Baron Kinnear 5 Feb 1897
20 Dec 1917 PC 1911
Peerage extinct on his death
KINNOCK
28 Jan 2005 B[L] 1 Neil Gordon Kinnock 28 Mar 1942
Created Baron Kinnock for life 28 Jan 2005
MP for Bedwellty 1970-1983 and Islwyn 1983-1995
PC 1983. Leader of the Labour Party 1983-1992
KINNOCK OF HOLYHEAD
30 Jun 2009 B[L] 1 Glenys Elizabeth Kinnock 7 Jul 1944
Created Baroness Kinnock of Holyhead
for life 30 Jun 2009
KINNOULL
25 May 1633 E[S] 1 George Hay 1572 16 Dec 1634 62
Created Lord Hay of Kinfauns and
Viscount Dupplin 4 May 1627,and Lord
Hay of Kinfauns,Viscount Dupplin and
Earl of Kinnoull 25 May 1633
Chancellor of Scotland 1622-1634
16 Dec 1634 2 George Hay 5 Oct 1644
5 Oct 1644 3 George Hay 20 Nov 1649
20 Nov 1649 4 William Hay 28 May 1677
28 May 1677 5 George Hay 1687
1687 6 Thomas Hay 10 May 1709
10 May 1709 7 Thomas Hay c 1669 Jan 1719
Created Viscount Dupplin 31 Dec 1697
Jan 1719 8 George Hay after 1683 29 Jul 1758
Created Baron Hay of Pedwardine
31 Dec 1711
MP for Fowey 1710-1711
29 Jul 1758 9 Thomas Hay 4 Jun 1710 27 Dec 1787 77
MP for Cambridge 1741-1758. Chancellor
of the Duchy of Lancaster 1758-1762
PC 1758
27 Sep 1787 10 Robert Auriol Hay-Drummond 18 Mar 1751 12 Apr 1804 53
PC 1796
12 Apr 1804 11 Thomas Hay-Drummond 5 Apr 1785 18 Feb 1866 80
Lord Lieutenant Perthshire 1830-1866
18 Feb 1866 12 George Hay 15 Jul 1827 31 Jan 1897 69
31 Jan 1897 13 Archibald Fitzroy George Hay 20 Jun 1855 7 Feb 1916 60
7 Feb 1916 14 George Harley Hay 30 Mar 1902 18 Mar 1938 35
18 Mar 1938 15 Arthur William George Patrick Hay 26 Mar 1935 7 Jun 2013 78
7 Jun 2013 16 Charles William Harley Hay 20 Dec 1962
KINRARA
13 Jan 1876 E 1 Charles Henry Gordon-Lennox,6th Duke 27 Feb 1818 27 Sep 1903 85
of Richmond
Created Earl of Kinrara and Duke of
Gordon 13 Jan 1876
See "Richmond"
KINROSS
15 Jul 1902 B 1 John Blair Balfour 11 Jul 1837 22 Jan 1905 67
Created Baron Kinross 15 Jul 1902
MP for Clackmannan 1880-1899. Solicitor
General for Scotland 1880. Lord
Advocate 1881-1885, 1886 and 1892-1895.
PC 1883
22 Jan 1905 2 Patrick Balfour 23 Apr 1870 28 Jul 1939 69
28 Jul 1939 3 John Patrick Douglas Balfour 25 Jun 1904 4 Jun 1976 71
4 Jun 1976 4 David Andrew Balfour 29 Mar 1906 20 Jul 1985 79
20 Jul 1985 5 Christopher Patrick Balfour 1 Oct 1949
KINTORE
20 Jun 1677 E[S] 1 John Keith 12 Apr 1715
Created Lord Keith of Inverury and
Earl of Kintore 20 Jun 1677
12 Apr 1715 2 William Keith 5 Dec 1718
5 Dec 1718 3 John Keith 21 May 1699 22 Nov 1758 59
22 Nov 1758 4 William Keith 5 Jan 1702 22 Nov 1761 59
to†††† On his death the peerage became dormant
22 Nov 1761
28 May 1778 5 Anthony Adrian Keith-Falconer 30 Aug 1804
Right to peerage recognized in 1778. He had
previously [1776] succeeded as 8th Lord Falconer
Lord Lieutenant Kincardine 1794-1804
30 Aug 1804 6 William Keith-Falconer 11 Dec 1766 6 Oct 1812 45
6 Oct 1812 7 Anthony Adrian Keith-Falconer 20 Apr 1794 11 Jul 1844 50
5 Jul 1838 B 1 Created Baron Kintore 5 Jul 1838
11 Jul 1844 8 Francis Alexander Keith-Falconer 7 Jun 1828 18 Jul 1880 52
2 Lord Lieutenant Kincardine 1856-1863 and
Aberdeen 1863-1880
18 Jul 1880 9 Algernon Hawkins Thomond Keith-Falconer 12 Aug 1852 3 Mar 1930 77
3 Governor of South Australia 1889-1895
PC 1886KT 1923
3 Mar 1930 10 Arthur George Keith-Falconer 5 Jan 1879 25 May 1966 87
to†††† 4 On his death the Barony became extinct
25 May 1966 whilst the Earldom passed to -
25 May 1966 11 Ethel Sydney 20 Sep 1874 21 Sep 1974 100
21 Sep 1974 12 James Ian Keith,2nd Viscount Stonehaven 25 Jul 1908 1 Oct 1989 81
1 Oct 1989 13 Michael Canning William John Keith 22 Feb 1939 30 Oct 2004 65
30 Oct 2004 14 James William Falconer Keith 15 Apr 1976
KINTYRE
12 Feb 1626 B[S] 1 James Campbell c 1610 1645
to†††† Created Lord Kintyre 12 Feb 1626 and
1645 Lord Lundie and Earl of Irvine
28 Mar 1642
Peerages extinct on his death
KINTYRE AND LORN
23 Jun 1701 M[S] 1 Archibald Campbell,10th Earl of Argyll 21 Oct 1703
Created Lord of Inverary,Mull,Morvern
and Tirie,Viscount of Lochow and
Glenlya,Earl of Campbell and Cowall,
Marquess of Kintyre and Lorn and Duke
of Argyll 23 Jun 1701
See "Argyll"
KIRKCALDY
8 Apr 1690 B[S] 1 George Melville,4th Lord Melville 1636 20 May 1707 70
Created Lord Raith,Monymaill and
Balwearie,Viscount of Kirkcaldy and
Earl of Melville 8 Apr 1690
See "Melville"
KIRKCUDBRIGHT
25 Jun 1633 B[S] 1 Sir Robert Maclellan,1st baronet 1641
Created Lord Kirkcudbright 25 Jun 1633
1641 2 Thomas Maclellan May 1647
May 1647 3 John Maclellan 1664
1664 4 William Maclellan 1669
1669 5 John Maclellan c 1678
c 1678 6 James Maclellan 1661 6 Sep 1730 69
6 Sep 1730 7 William Maclellan 1762
1762 8 John Maclellan 1729 24 Dec 1801 72
24 Dec 1801 9 Sholto Henry Maclellan 15 Aug 1771 16 Apr 1827 55
16 Apr 1827 10 Camden Gray Maclellan 20 Apr 1774 19 Apr 1832 57
to†††† On his death the peerage became either
19 Apr 1832 extinct or dormant
KIRKETON
14 Aug 1362 B 1 John de Kirketon 20 Feb 1367
to†††† Summoned to Parliament as Lord
20 Feb 1367 Kirketon 14 Aug 1362
Peerage extinct on his death
KIRKHAM
23 Jul 1999 B[L] 1 Sir Graham Kirkham 14 Dec 1944
Created Baron Kirkham for life 23 Jul 1999
KIRKHILL
17 Jul 1975 B[L] 1 John Farquharson Smith 7 May 1930
Created Baron Kirkhill for life 17 Jul 1975
Minister of State,Scotland 1975-1978
KIRKLEY
21 Jan 1930 B 1 Sir William Joseph Noble,1st baronet 13 Jan 1863 11 Sep 1935 72
to††††† Created Baron Kirkley 21 Jan 1930
11 Sep 1935 Peerage extinct on his death
KIRKWALL
3 Jan 1696 V[S] 1 Lord George Hamilton 9 Feb 1666 29 Jan 1737 70
Created Lord Dechmont,Viscount of
Kirkwall and Earl of Orkney 3 Jan 1696
See "Orkney"
KIRKWOOD
22 Dec 1951 B 1 David Kirkwood 8 Jul 1872 16 Apr 1955 82
Created Baron Kirkwood 22 Dec 1951
MP for Dumbarton Burghs 1922-1950 and
Dumbartonshire East 1950-1951.PC 1948
16 Apr 1955 2 David Kirkwood 15 Oct 1903 9 Mar 1970 66
9 Mar 1970 3 David Harvie Kirkwood 24 Nov 1931
KIRKWOOD OF KIRKHOPE
10 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Archibald Johnstone Kirkwood 22 Apr 1946
Created Baron Kirkwood of Kirkhope for life
10 Jun 2005
MP for Roxburgh and Berwick 1983-2005
KISSIN
27 Jun 1974 B[L] 1 Harry Kissin 23 Aug 1912 22 Nov 1997 85
to†††† Created Baron Kissin for life 27 Jun 1974
22 Nov 1997 Peerage extinct on his death
KITCHENER OF KHARTOUM
1 Nov 1898 B 1 Horatio Herbert Kitchener 24 Jun 1850 5 Jun 1916 65
to†††† Created Baron Kitchener 1 Nov 1898,
5 Jun 1916 Viscount Kitchener 11 Jul 1902 and
27 Jul 1914 E 1 Baron Denton,Viscount Broome and Earl
Kitchener of Khartoum 27 Jul 1914
For details of the special remainders included in the
creations of 1902 and 1914,see the note at the
foot of this page
Governor General of the Sudan 1899.
Secretary of State for War 1914. OM 1902
KP 1911 PC 1914KG 1915.Field Marshal 1909
On his death the Barony became extinct, but
the Viscountcy and Earldom passed to -
5 Jun 1916 2 Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener 5 Oct 1846 27 Mar 1937 90
27 Mar 1937 3 Henry Herbert Kitchener 24 Feb 1919 16 Dec 2011 92
to†††† Peerages extinct on his death
16 Dec 2011
KNAPTON
10 Apr 1750 B[I] 1 Sir John Denny Vesey,2nd baronet 25 Jul 1761
Created Baron Knapton 10 Apr 1750
25 Jul 1761 2 Thomas Vesey 13 Oct 1804
He was created Viscount de Vesci (qv) in
1776 with which title this peerage then
merged
KNARESBOROUGH
26 Dec 1905 B 1 Sir Henry Meysey Meysey-Thompson, 30 Aug 1845 3 Mar 1929 83
to†††† 2nd baronet
3 Mar 1929 Created Baron Knaresborough
26 Dec 1905
MP for Knaresborough 1880, Brigg 1885-
1886 and Handsworth 1892-1905.
Peerage extinct on his death
KNEBWORTH
28 Apr 1880 V 1 Edward Robert Lytton Bulwer-Lytton, 8 Nov 1831 24 Nov 1891 60
2nd Baron Lytton
Created Viscount Knebworth and Earl
of Lytton 28 Apr 1880
See "Lytton"
KNIGHT OF COLLINGTREE
23 Sep 1997 B[L] 1 Joan Christabel Jill Knight 9 Jul 1924
Created Baroness Knight of Collingtree
for life 23 Sep 1997
MP for Edgbaston 1966-1997
KNIGHT OF WEYMOUTH
23 Jun 2010 B[L] 1 James Knight 6 Mar 1965
Created Baron Knight of Weymouth for life
23 Jun 2010
MP for Dorset South 2001-2010.PC 2008
KNIGHTLEY
23 Aug 1892 B 1 Sir Rainald Knightley,3rd baronet 22 Oct 1819 19 Dec 1895 76
to†††† Created Baron Knightley 23 Aug 1892
19 Dec 1895 MP for Northamptonshire South 1852-1892
Peerage extinct on his death
KNIGHTS
22 Jul 1987 B[L] 1 Philip Douglas Knights 3 Oct 1920 11 Dec 2014 94
to†††† Created Baron Knights for life 22 Jul 1987
11 Dec 2014 Peerage extinct on his death
KNOLLYS
18 Aug 1626 B 1 William Knollys c 1547 25 May 1632
to†††† Created Baron Knollys 13 May 1603,
25 May 1632 Viscount Wallingford 7 Nov 1616 and
Earl of Banbury 18 Aug 1626
On his death the peerage was considered
to be extinct,although there were
legitimate heirs
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
4 Jul 1911 V 1 Sir Francis Knollys 16 Jul 1837 15 Aug 1924 87
Created Baron Knollys 21 Jul 1902
and Viscount Knollys 4 Jul 1911
PC 1910
15 Aug 1924 2 Edward George William Tyrwhitt Knollys 16 Jan 1895 3 Dec 1966 71
3 Dec 1966 3 David Francis Dudley Knollys 12 Jun 1931
KNOVILL
23 Jun 1295 B 1 Bogo de Knovill 1306
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Knovill 23 Jun 1295
1306 2 Bogo de Knovill 1276 Oct 1338 62
Oct 1338 3 John de Knovill 1315 after 1338
Of whom nothing further is known
KNUTSFORD
3 Aug 1895 V 1 Sir Henry Thurstan Holland,2nd baronet 3 Aug 1825 29 Jan 1914 88
Created Baron Knutsford 23 Feb 1888
and Viscount Knutsford 3 Aug 1895
MP for Midhurst 1874-1885 and Hampstead
1885-1888. Financial Secretary to the
Treasury 1885. Secretary of State for
Colonies 1887-1892.PC 1885
29 Jan 1914 2 Sydney George Holland 19 Mar 1855 27 Jul 1931 76
27 Jul 1931 3 Arthur Henry Holland-Hibbert 19 Mar 1855 16 Jan 1935 79
16 Jan 1935 4 Thurstan Holland-Hibbert 19 Jun 1888 17 Feb 1976 87
17 Feb 1976 5 Julian Thurstan Holland-Hibbert 3 May 1920 8 Mar 1986 65
8 Mar 1986 6 Michael Holland-Hibbert 27 Dec 1926
KNYVET DE ESCRICK
4 Jul 1607 B 1 Thomas Knyvet 27 Apr 1622
to†††† Summoned to Parliament as Lord
27 Apr 1622 Knyvet de Escrick 4 Jul 1607
Peerage extinct on his death
KRAMER
22 Dec 2010 B[L] 1 Susan Veronica Kramer 21 Jul 1950
Created Baroness Kramer for life 22 Dec 2010
MP for Richmond Park 2005-2010
KREBS
28 Mar 2007 B[L] 1 Sir John Richard Krebs 11 Apr 1945
Created Baron Krebs for life 28 Mar 2007
KYLSANT
14 Feb 1923 B 1 Sir Owen Crosby Philipps 25 Mar 1863 5 Jun 1937 74
to†††† Created Baron Kylsant 14 Feb 1923
5 Jun 1937 MP for Pembroke and Haverfordwest
1906-1910 and Chester 1916-1922. Lord
Lieutenant Haverfordwest 1924-1931
Peerage extinct on his death
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
KYME
23 Jun 1295 B 1 Philip de Kyme 1323
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Kyme 23 Jun 1295
1323 2 William de Kyme c 1283 1338
to†††† Peerage extinct on his death
1338
KYNNAIRD
31 Dec 1660 V[S] 1 James Levingston,1st Viscount of Newburgh c 1622 6 Dec 1670
Created Lord Levingston,Viscount of
Kynnaird and Earl of Newburgh
31 Dec 1660
See "Newburgh"
Arthur Wolfe, 1st Viscount Kilwarden
Wolfe was the son of John Wolfe, a wealthy man from Forenaughts in county Kildare. From
an early age, he demonstrated a hatred of persecution and injustice. Rising through the
legal ranks, he was appointed Solicitor General for Ireland in 1789.
In one case, in 1795, he was called upon to prosecute a number of young boys who were
charged with high treason and who would be hanged if found guilty. The presiding judge was
Lord Carleton of Clare, who had the reputation of being merciless, to the extent that he once
sentenced two brothers to death, even though he was their guardian under the will of their
father.
Carleton opened the trial by asking Wolfe, 'are you ready to go on with the trial of these
traitors?' Wolfe was incensed that the judge appeared to thus condemned the prisoners
before the trial had begun, and thereupon did everything in his power to fight against his own
case, to the extent that the accused were all pardoned on condition they left Ireland forever.
One of the accused refused to give such an undertaking and was duly hanged.
In 1798, Wolfe fought what was perhaps his greatest battle when he tried to save Theobald
Wolfe Tone from being hanged for treason. Tone had been captured aboard a French ship and,
at a subsequent court-martial, was sentenced to be hanged. Wolfe tried desperately to free
Tone, arguing that, because he was not a member of the English forces, he was not subject
to court-martial. Three times he attempted to serve a writ of habeas corpus, but each time the
authorities refused to act upon it - they were determined that Tone would hang. In the end,
Tone took the matter out of their hands by committing suicide.
Notwithstanding Wolfe's efforts on Tone's behalf, Tone's death raised the anger of the rebels
to a frenzy and Wolfe began to worry about assassination. For a period he deserted his home
and lived in Dublin under constant armed protection. Eventually, he tired of this life and resumed
living in his own house.
In July 1803, after failing to seize Dublin Castle, Robert Emmet's rebels rioted in the Thomas
Street area of Dublin. As the riot grew, a coach containing Wolfe (who had now been created
Viscount Kilwarden), his daughter and his nephew, the Rev. Henry Wolfe, turned into Thomas
Street. With a wild howl, the mob surged towards it. Kilwarden was dragged from the carriage
to the ground where rebels stabbed him repeatedly with a pike. The Rev. Henry Wolfe sought to
escape, but he too was piked to death. Fortunately, one man in the mob was able to rescue
Wolfe's daughter, who ran to Dublin Castle to raise the alarm. When the soldiers arrived to
disperse the rebels, Kilwarden was still alive, but died soon after. He was true to his principles
even in death, his dying words being, 'Murder must be punished, but let no man suffer for my
death but by the laws of his country.'
John Wodehouse, 2nd Earl of Kimberley
Prior to his succession to the earldom in 1902, the 2nd Earl of Kimberley was known by the
courtesy title of Lord Wodehouse. Based on his actions during the general election of 1895,
he seems to have been quite a robust political campaigner, and a rabid anti-Conservative.
During that general election, the candidates for the constituency of the Eastern Division of
Norfolk were Robert John Price in the Gladstonian Liberal interest and the famous author,
Henry Rider Haggard, in the Conservative interest. The electors of the constituency returned
Price with a majority of 198 votes (4606 to 4408), but not before a number of violent incidents
had occurred, as is illustrated in the following report, which appeared in the 'Manchester Times'
of 2 August 1895:-
'A number of summonses were heard at Smallburgh Police-court, on Tuesday, in the petty
sessional division of Tunstead and Happing, Norfolk, arising out of the proceedings at the East
Norfolk election. The principal case was one in which Lord Wodehouse, eldest son of the Earl of
Kimberley, was charged with assaulting John Gaymer, builder, of North Walsham, on July 17, and
William Saul, a drover, was charged with aiding and abetting him. There were also charges
against 15 other persons of throwing stones and assaulting the police at Ludham and Stalham,
on July 19. There were summonses against two other persons, who had absconded.
'The prosecution against Lord Wodehouse was conducted by Mr. Poyser, and Mr. F. Lowe
appeared for the defendant. Mr. Poyser dwelt on the fact that Lord Wodehouse was on the
commission of the peace [i.e. he was a Justice of the Peace], and had absolutely forgotten what
was due to his position, affording an example which had been followed, to the lasting disgrace
of Norfolk. Counsel then proceeded to detail the circumstances of the assault, and said when
Mr. Gaymer was standing on a chair at North Walsham, and speaking, Lord Wodehouse ordered
him to come down, called him a liar, a hound, and a coward, and then challenged him to fight
for £50. Subsequently he pulled him off the chair.
'John Gaymer, the complainant, said he was presiding at a meeting being held in the North
Walsham Market-place. While he was standing on a chair, making a speech, Lord Wodehouse,
pushing himself up to the front, said, "Come down, you miserable hound; if you donít I will pull
you down;" adding, "I never say a thing I donít mean."Witness dared him to do it, and
continued speaking. Lord Wodehouse then seized him by the coat and pulled him down from
the chair. Had it not been that he fell on the shoulders of the man standing near he must have
been hurt. On remounting the chair, witness said, "I shall not run away, as Sir William Harcourt
did from Derby, and I shall continue my speech." Lord Wodehouse then went murmuring and
growling away. After a minute or two he came back, and offered to fight prosecutor for £50.
Having finished his address Mr. Gaymer said that if Lord Wodehouse would get on the chair
and apologise, nothing more would come of the incident, but if not, there would be a
prosecution. Defendant merely replied, "I shall not apologise."
'Several witnesses were called to corroborate Mr. Gaymer's statement. They added that Saul
was with Lord Wodehouse, and said, "Now's the time, my lord; go in," whereupon Lord
Wodehouse pulled Mr. Gaymer off the chair. Mr. Lowe, in defence, said the assault, if an
assault, was only a technical one, and not of an aggravated nature, and ought to be buried in
oblivion after the election. If an expression of regret would end the case, he would be glad to
offer it.
'A magistrate suggested that the case should be sent to the Quarter Sessions. The magistrates,
after consulting half-an-hour, said they had decided to convict. The redeeming feature of the
case was the fact that no actual violence was committed, but it might have led to considerable
violence. Lord Wodehouse would be fined £3 7s. 6d. and costs (£1 12s. 6d.) and Saul was fined
1 and costs (£1 12s. 6d.). On hearing the decision Saul said, "I will do time." Lord Wodehouse:
"No; I will pay for you."
Not surprisingly, the 'Pall Mall Gazette' reported on 9 September 1895 that Lord Wodehouse had
been "removed from the bench, which, as he has so lately shown so marked a preference for the
dock, appears a very natural and considerate attention."
John Wodehouse, 4th Earl of Kimberley
Kimberley was very proud of his title as Britain's "most married peer." He commenced his
campaign in October 1945 when he married Diana Legh, whose father, Sir Piers Legh, was
Master of the Household to King George VI. They were divorced in 1949. Next, he married
in February 1949, Carmel June Dunnett (nee Maguire), but they were divorced in 1952.
In September 1953, there followed Cynthia Abdy Collins; this marriage lasted until they
were divorced in 1961. He married his fourth wife, Margaret Simons in July 1961, the marriage
ending in divorce in 1965. He then waited a further five years before marrying again, this time
to Gillian Ireland-Smith, in August 1970. Once again, this marriage ended in divorce in 1982.
As his sixth, and last, wife he married Sarah Consett in August 1982.
He had children by his second, third and fourth wives.
His wife count enabled to him to stay in front of his close rivals for the title, the 7th Baron
Lilford and the 6th Baron Waterpark, both of whom had a mere five wives.
The Barony of Kingsale and their privilege of leaving on their hats in the presence of
the sovereign
According to tradition, the Barons of Kingsale have the right to remain covered in the presence
of the sovereign - i.e. they are allowed to wear their hats when everyone else has to remove
theirs. Some sources treat this story as being apocryphal, but it appears that the right was
exercised until at least the time of George III. There are a number of versions of the story as to
how the family earned this prerogative, and the stories also differ as to when it was first
granted, although all of the stories place the event either in the reigns of Henry II or John. The
following version of the story appeared in 'The Royal Cornwall Gazette' on 11 December 1890:-
'During the reign of Henry II, tradition says that on some difference breaking out between the
courts of England and France, a French champion arrived in London to demand satisfaction. The
far-famed prowess of this hero of the lance and plume spread an unusual terror; the English
people were panic-stricken, and the alarm of the court was not only increased by this panic, but
by the difficulty of providing a knight to accept the challenge. England had no St. George to
encounter this Hector of France. The dilemma in which the court found itself having transpired,
the challenger lost all respect for the country, and the heart of Henry II was agonised at the
insolence of his exultation.
'While France and her champion chuckled at England's embarrassment, one of the nobles of Henry
recollected that a knight named De Courcy, who resided in Ireland, was reputed of amazing
courage and strength, and of infinite skill both at the lance and sword. He hastened to his royal
master with the information; the matter was proposed and discussed in council, and, more from
curiosity than from expectation, De Courcy was sent for. Shortly after, without knowing for what
he was summoned, he arrived at the palace of Henry II in his native habiliments, without heraldic
bearings or retinue, John De Courcy, of Kingsale, a man endowed by nature with a fine athletic
person, and a noble and commanding countenance. When he was told what was expected of
him, with a modest cautiousness, he requested to see the hero of France, who was accordingly
introduced to him bedecked with all the splendour of his court, thus forming a singular contrast
to the plainness of his proposed antagonist. The Frenchman conducted himself with an insulting
hauteur, the Irishman himself with the greatest indifference. Each took the other's dimensions
and the parties adjourned "for further consultation."
'When De Courcy was asked in confidence if he would accept the challenge, he declined giving
an answer until he should procure from home a certain sword. The King sent for it forthwith,
De Courcy remaining at the palace of Henry, being entertained with all due respect. At length
arrived this sword of expectation; it was to all appearance no more than the unornamental,
simple sword of a warrior. But the moment this talismanic weapon was presented to its owner,
he requested that an immense block of wood should be placed in the tilt yard, and that the
champion of France should be summoned forthwith. As before, the knight of Gaul could scarcely
forbear rudeness and ridicule; the Hibernian was polite, reserved, and composed. Expectation
was now excited to see the mystical preparations of De Courcy unriddled.
When all was arranged and silent he drew forth his sword from the scabbard, and with one
tremendous blow he wedged it into the block like a thunderbolt. "The man," said he - looking
significantly on the King - "The man who shall with one hand draw out that sword I will
acknowledge as conqueror." Then, turning to the champion of France, politely requested him
to hand him his sword. The boaster was confounded - stammered, stepped forward towards
the block - and retreated. A laugh broke forth from the spectators. All cried, "Draw forth the
sword." Overwhelmed with shame and confusion, the glittering knight not only refused to do so,
but declined a single combat with John De Courcy. An universal shout of joy and exultation rent
the square. John De Courcy was declared to be champion of England. When the submission of
the foreigner was complete, for the gratification of his curiosity he did attempt with one hand
to extricate the blade from the block. He might as easily have drawn the poles through the
earth, but to the consternation and amazement, and to the delight of Henry and his nobles,
De Courcy drew it out with the greatest ease.
'The grateful monarch instantly conferred upon this champion of England he title of Baron of
Kingsale, and bid him name the reward that should be appended to his dignity; when this
extraordinary man, with romantic disinterestedness, claimed, instead of a pecuniary
compensation, to be distinguished above other noblemen. He requested permission that the
De Courcys should wear their hats in the King's presence. The privilege was granted and it is
enjoyed by the family to this day.
'In proportion as this noble-minded man was proud, generous, Henry was liberal and
condescending. His munificence was not to be counteracted by the delicate pride of his subject.
On the departure of Lord Kingsale, his Majesty, in private conference, commanded him, when he
should arrive at his home, to mount his horse some morning at sunrise and to take possession
of so much land as he could ride round before sunset. When the Baron returned, comformably
to the King's command, he did mount his horse at sunrise, on a certain day, for the purpose of
measuring an estate, but too convivial to be provident, he stopped at the house of a friend,
staying to dine, and, instead of thinking of acres and of watching the sand of time, chatted over
the bottle till darkness told him that the sun and the fortune of De Courcy had set together.'
Edward King, Viscount Kingsborough (courtesy title of the Earldom of Kingston)
Edward King was the son of George King, 3rd Earl of Kingston. He was born 16 November 1795
and, after a boyhood spent in Ireland, was educated at Exeter College, where he gained a
degree in classics. He immediately entered Parliament as MP for county Cork, serving between
1818 and 1826. He then gave up politics and every sort of pleasure and pastime, including
marriage, in order to devote himself to the proposition that the lost tribes of Israel were to be
found in Mexico.
His interest had been aroused in Oxford when he came across a manuscript called the Mendoza
Codex. Not long after the Spanish conquest of Mexico, this manuscript had been captured at
sea by the French and had foundits way to Paris, where it had been purchased by the
chaplain to the English embassy. Two hundred years later, it turned up in the Bodleian Library
in Oxford, where the sight of it fired Kingsborough with enthusiasm for Mexico and its past.
Although he never visited the country, he was inspired to undertake the colossal task which
was to last his lifetime. He decided that he would trace other Mexican documents that had
found their way to Europe, and to assemble them in a self-published series of volumes.
Thereafter, his researches turned up material in the royal libraries of Paris, Berlin and Dresden,
in the Imperial Library in Vienna, in the Borgia museums and in the Vatican. However, his
compilation was always going to be sadly incomplete, since he never went to the country that
would have been his richest source - Spain. This, however, was not a problem, since he never
intended that his work should be one of scholarship. It could not be, by definition, since he had
no knowledge of the languages in which the documents were written, nor did he have any
knowledge of the background which the documents described. All he cared about was to
demonstrate his passionate belief that a colony of Jews had been settled in America long before
the age of Columbus.
The first of the massive volumes entitled Antiquities of Mexico appeared in 1830, followed by
another seven equally massive volumes at yearly intervals, concluding with two volumes
published posthumously. The enterprise, which cost Kingsborough £32,000, was not a
commercial success. His obsession cost him his fortune, and perhaps his life. After spending all
his money on the project, debts began to accrue and he was arrested for debt and thrown into
the Sheriff's Prison in Dublin, where he died of typhus. Had he lived another couple of years, he
would have succeeded to the Earldom of Kingston, with its income of £40,000 a year.
Elizabeth Chudleigh, Countess of Bristol and Duchess of Kingston (1720-26 August 1788)
The following biography of Elizabeth Chudleigh appeared in the January 1956 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade":-
"There was a maid,
A Maid-of-Honour,
And strange, 'tis said,
Of this strange maid,
She was no maid,
She had no honour."
......so runs a ditty chanted by ballad-mongers and street urchins outside Westminster Hall when
Elizabeth Chudleigh - "The Incomparable Chudleigh" of the Georgian society she entranced for
half a century - was discharged by the Lords after one of the most ludicrous and sensational
trials in the annals of English law. What the peers of the realm of His Majesty King George III had
been called on to determine in that Spring of 1776 was the burning, scandalous question: Was
Elizabeth Chudleigh, one-time Maid of Honour and daily associate of the Princess of Wales, the
Duchess of Kingston or the Countess of Bristol - was she, in short, guilty of bigamy?
'The famous Elizabeth Chudleigh's story is of a piece with the coarse, full-blooded Georgian era
she lived in. She was born of a distinguished Devonshire family in 1720 during the closing years
of the reign of George I. Her father, Colonel Thomas Chudleigh, died when she was six. When
Elizabeth was in her 'teens it was obvious she was going to be a beauty, so Mrs. Chudleigh
gathered herself together, rented a small house in Bloomsbury which she christened Chudleigh
House, and launched the girl upon London society in search of a husband. Naturally witty,
supremely lovely, with nerves of steel and tireless energy that found an outlet in riding, hunting
shooting, Elizabeth had no mean appreciation of her own assets. Though still a girl, she soon
acquired all the poise and polish ≠ and the malice - of a woman of the fashionable world of her
day.
'Among the gay set that gathered in the Chudleighs' little drawing-room was William Pulteney,
later to become the Earl of Bath, a friend of Frederick, Prince of Wales. He first called shortly
after Elizabeth's 17th birthday. On this occasion Pulteney was received by Mrs. Chudleigh, who
sweetly asked him to favour her by "saying a kind word" to her daughter, who was anxious for his
good opinion. As the highly-gratified Pulteney was promising to do his best, a rustle of silks
proclaimed the presence of the girl in the doorway. Pulteney's mouth fell open in astonishment.
When this tall goddess with the clear blue eyes curtsied - so low and with such grace - his eyes
gazed entranced upon the tiny dark curls tendrilling upon her smooth white neck. Pulteney was
Elizabeth's first conquest, and through his influence she was appointed Maid of Honour to
Augusta, Princess of Wales - an honour which, it is said, made her mother swoon with joy.
'The girl's course seemed set fair for a triumphant voyage across the social sea, until, at the
age of 23, she made her first mistake by falling genuinely in love. The young man was James
Douglas, sixth Duke of Hamilton and Brandon, then just 20 and seeing the sights of London before
departing on the Grand Tour to complete his education. He and Elizabeth became secretly
engaged before he left England when Elizabeth went to stay with her aunt, a Mrs. Hanmer.
Among the other house≠guests there was the Honourable Augustus John Hervey, 20-years-old
junior naval lieutenant and second son of the Earl of Bristol. He was one of the lean, spitefully
witty family of whom his aunt, the famous Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, had commented: "The
world is divided into men, women and Herveys." It became obvious the Augustus Hervey was Mrs.
Mrs. Hanmer's choice of husbands for "the incomparable Chudleigh." But that damsel remained
true to her duke and treated Augustus to the heartless tantrums of a woman in love with some-
one else. As time went by and she received no word from her true love, Elizabeth became first
anxious, then sad, then angry. Unknown to her, her aunt had intercepted the letters the Duke of
Hamilton had faithfully written and - for reasons best known to herself - destroyed them. In a fit
of pique, fostered by the belief that the absent young duke had slighted her, Elizabeth began to
to smile on the dazzled Augustus and to accompany him on walks in the orchard. Emboldened, he
asked her to marry him; she accepted and became his wife on August 4, 1744, in a secret
midnight ceremony at Hampshire parish church.
Long before the honeymoon ended the young couple had quarrelled. Elizabeth decided she valued
her position as Maid of Honour far more than she did her husband and she left him, their marriage
still kept a secret from the world. Then the Duke of Hamilton returned, eager to see his beloved
and demanding explanations as to why she had not answered his letters. He was bewildered at
Elizabeth's attitude, for that young lady was between anguish and despair and had literally
thrashed her aunt for spoiling her life.
'The situation resolved itself by the unhappy Hervey being posted to the West Indies, by
Elizabeth returning - apparently still maiden - to her Court duties, and by the Duke taking himself
angry and mystified. Elizabeth still kept her marriage a secret. Hervey had little more than his
naval pay and if Elizabeth disclosed her matronly status she stood to lose her Maid of Honour
pension, her position, and her estates, the control of which would pass to her husband.
'When Hervey returned to England in 1746 he secretly lived with her, but after six or seven
months of marriage they parted finally and in anger. Elizabeth gave birth to a son in the following
year but the baby died. The old Earl of Bristol took ill soon after and was thought to be dying. In
this eventuality Hervey had excellent prospects of becoming a belted earl, in which case
Elizabeth would acquire the right to wear a countess's coronet. She was accordingly on the point
of announcing her marriage when old Bristol recovered.
'At this disappointment Elizabeth's patience with the Bristols gave out. And what was more to the
point, she met just then - and conquered - Evelyn Pierrepont, second Duke of Kingston, and the
prospect he held out to her seemed infinitely more attractive. As waspish Horace Walpole put it,
she "lived very publicly" for nearly 25 years with the Duke, who was nine years her senior and
whose bounty enabled her to give very sumptuous entertainments; at one there were "pyramids
and temples of strawberries and cherries: you would have thought she was kept by Vertumnus"
(Roman pagan god of the seasons with special interest in trade and barter).
'All went well with Elizabeth during the remaining years of George II's reign and for several years
of George III's. She furnished the Court with all manner of means of gossip, including many tales
concerning the "violent passion" that the Prince of Wales was said to have had for her, and the
great interest taken in her by George II himself, who hated his son but had a "hankering" after
the lovely object of his son's affections. Miserly George II when nearly 70 bestowed on her a
watch which cost him 35 guineas out of his own purse, and he appointed her mother housekeeper
at Windsor. This was a most lucrative office and when the old King announced the appointment
in the drawing room at the Palace he expressed the hope that Elizabeth "would not think a kiss
too great a reward for his obeying her commands."
'Few women were able to so boldly face the world with such daring costumes as did Elizabeth.
At one subscription masquerade attended by Royalties she was dressed as "Iphigenia but so
naked you would have taken her for Andromeda," a chronicler of the event records. "The high
priest might easily inspect the entrails of the victim," said another contemporary writer of the
occasion: "the Maids of Honour (not of maids the strictest) were so offended that they would
not speak to her."
'As the years passed, the Duke of Hamilton, Elizabeth's first love, married the beautiful Miss
Elizabeth Gunning and her absent husband Hervey distinguished himself at sea under Admiral
Byng. Elizabeth continued of her merry, maidenly way, becoming involved in more scandals, and
added to the gossip by making public parade of her grief at her Duke's occasional infidelities,
though she had no legal right, title or interest in him. In 1767 she was 47 but still "keeping off
age by sticking roses and sweet peas in her hair."
'Two years later, however, Augustus Hervey returned to her life. For some years he had been
Lord of the Admiralty. In 1769 he fell in love with a physician's daughter at Bath and so he
contacted Elizabeth to suggest that he institute proceedings against her for divorce. This did
not suit Elizabeth's book, and in her coarse and caustic way she told him so. She discovered it
was possible for her to institute suit herself for jactitation of the marriage - an ancient
proceeding under which she might launch complaint that Hervey had boasted he was married to
her and call on him to produce proofs of the marriage; if these were not forthcoming he would be
obliged to drop his claim - lapse into "perpetual silence" - and then Elizabeth would be
pronounced a spinster.
'She had already used her influence to have the parish marriage records doctored and after the
execution of some legal legerdemain the Ecclesiastical Courts pronounced her a "spinster free
from all matrimonial contracts and espousals." A month later, on March 8, 1769, Elizabeth ("this
fair, injured innocent who is but 50," derided Walpole) was married to her Duke of Kingston in
white satin trimmed with Brussels lace and pearls. After the ceremony at St. George's Hanover
Square she was installed, as the Duchess of Kingston, at her faithful lover's mansion in
Knightsbridge.
'For nearly five years Elizabeth enjoyed her eminence as a duchess, she and her now doddering
duke spending much of their time abroad. Then in 1773 she found herself a widow. She
proceeded to London from Bath in a slow and solemn cavalcade, swathed in a "thousand yards"
of black crepe veiling and dramatising her grief for the benefit of the public. However, on arrival,
she learned that the Duke's son-in-law, Evelyn Meadows, had decided to contest the validity of
the Duke's will. Meadows and his wife and children had been totally disregarded in his will - which
Elizabeth had helped her late husband to make, and which left her for life his entire real and
personal estate worth £17,000 a year. Gossip had it that the Duke had alluded to her in his will
as "my dearest wife, Elizabeth, Duchess of Kingston, alias Elizabeth Chudleigh, alias Elizabeth
Hervey." When the case came on the satirical Horace Walpole queried: "Did you ever hear of a
Duchess described in a will as a street-walker being indicted at the Old Bailey?"
'Elizabeth entered a defence to the suit, then went serenely travelling on the Continent. In Rome
news came like a bolt from the blue that she had been indicted for bigamy. Meadows, it
appeared, had tracked down Lady Hanmer's former maid who had stood guard at the church on
that fateful wedding day nearly 30 years before, and bought the whole story from her. Elizabeth
was apparently born under a lucky star, for by the time she reached England old Lord Bristol had
died at last and Hervey had inherited the title, so that if she were declared in court not to be the
Duchess of Kingston she was assured of the title of Countess of Bristol, and vice versa. The fact
that she would thus be a member of the peerage in any case saved her from being tried as a
commoner and permitted her to claim judgment of the case by the House of Lords.
'She pleaded "not guilty" when the trial opened at Westminster Hall on April 15, 1776, before the
King (George III), the Queen and assembled lords. At the end of four days she knew she stood
convicted despite the brilliant speech she had made discrediting Meadows and tearing his
character to shreds. The peer who pronounced the verdict was the junior baron, Lord Sundridge,
who was also the great Duke of Argyll in Scotland. By a quirk of fate he had married the widow
of Elizabeth's first love, the Duke of Hamilton. Upon being brought before the bar for sentence
(the penalty for bigamy then being to be branded on the hand), Elizabeth handed a slip of paper
to the Clerk of the Crown. On it was written: "I plead the privilege of the peerage." The Lords
allowed the plea, and satisfied themselves by reducing her to the rank of Countess of Bristol and
allowing her to quietly withdraw from the public eye.
'Elizabeth left England immediately. She was wealthy, for the Duke's will was confirmed by the
courts, but she managed to get through every penny of her £17,000 a year in the capitals of
Europe. In the spring of 1788 Elizabeth settled in Paris. She was nearly 70 but still beautiful. On
August 26, however, when summer was giving way to autumn, she was dozing in an armchair
alone in front of the fire after dinner when the curious career of "the Incomparable Chudleigh"
came suddenly to an end.'
Robert King, 2nd Earl of Kingston and his son Robert Edward King, later
Viscount Lorton
From 'The Times' of 18 December 1797:-
'The conduct of Col. Fitzgerald in seducing his relative, and the consequent duel with her
brother, are fresh in the memory of the Public; we shall therefore limit our observations to the
circumstances which immediately preceded and occasioned his death.
'The deceased feeling no remorse for the dishonour in which he had involved an illustrious
family, had the hardihood to follow the young Lady to Ireland, it is supposed with a view to
wrest her by violence from her parents, and took lodgings at an inn in Kilworth. He had been
there some days before his arrival at Kilworth was known, or the object of his expedition was
discovered. He was observed to walk out in the night, and conceal himself in the day, and the
servants at length noticed him lurking about Mitchelstown-house, at unseasonable hours.
'The intelligence having reached Lord Kingsborough [courtesy title of the Earls of Kingston -
although the use of this title in The Times report does not appear to be correct], who had had
the duel with the Colonel, and resolved to defeat his antagonist's project, he left his father's
house, and repaired to Kilworth, where having enquired for the Colonel, he was directed to the
apartment in which he was lodged. Lord Kingsborough rapped at the door, requiring admittance;
the other, knowing his voice, replied that he was locked in, and could not open the door, but if
he had anything to say to him, he would receive it in writing under the door.
'This enraged the young Nobleman, and he forced open the door, and running to a case of
pistols in the room, desired the Colonel to take one and defend himself, for he was resolved to
have satisfaction for the scheme the deceased had formed against his sister, and which he
came to this place to put in execution. On both seizing the pistols, they grappled with each
other, and were struggling, when the Earl of Kingston, who had been apprised of his son's
departure in pursuit of the Colonel, and quickly followed the young Lord, entered the room, and
finding them in the contest, and that his son must lose his life from the situation the deceased
had him in, the Earl fired and the Colonel fell.'
The Earl was later tried by his peers for the murder of Colonel Henry Fitzgerald, but no prosec-
ution witnesses took the stand. In addition, it was clear that the Earl had the public's support
and he was found not guiltyon 18 May 1798. The son [the young Nobleman referred to in The
Times report], was also tried [at the Cork Assizes, since he was a commoner at the time] and
he too was found not guilty. The son was later created Baron Erris of Boyle on 29 December
1800 and Viscount Lorton on 28 May 1806, both in the peerage of Ireland.
†††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††††† **********************
A more detailed account of the affair appeared in the Australian monthly magazine "Parade" in
its issue for December 1955:-
'Though Ireland was aflame with civil war, Dublin society gaily put aside its troubles in May, 1798,
to enjoy to the full an astounding story of seduction and murder. Robert, Earl of Kingston, head
of one of the proudest families, was on trial for his life for slaying the man who betrayed his
daughter. Claiming his right to be tried by his peers, Lord Kingston had demanded to be arraigned
before the Irish House of Lords. The trial, the last to be heard by the Irish Lords and staged in a
blaze of mediaeval pomp, climaxed the greatest scandal of the century.
'For a year the affairs of the Earl of Kingston had provided sensational tit-bits for gossips and
scandal sheets of England and Ireland. The Earl's trial was the cause celebre of his generation.
Public opinion was overwhelmingly on his side. The House of Lords acquitted him after scarcely a
pretence of a hearing. He died a year later from the shock of the scandal.
'Robert King, second Earl of Kingston, was born in 1754. Until his father died late in 1797, he was
known as Viscount Kingsborough. In 1769, he increased his already vast family estates in County
Cork by marrying the heiress of Richard Fitzgerald, of Mount Offaly, County Kildare. The
Kingsboroughs had six sons and five daughters of their own. In an evil moment, the Viscount
agreed to rear also young Henry Gerard Fitzgerald, an illegitimate son of Lady Kingsborough's
brother, who no doubt thought that but for the stain on his name much of the vast estates
would have been his.
'In 1797, Henry Fitzgerald was a colonel in the British Army, a handsome, dissolute ne'er-do-well,
married but openly unfaithful. He was an inveterate gambler, continually rescued from the threat
of a debtor's prison by his adopted father, Lord Kingsborough. Among the Kingsborough daughters
Lady Mary Elizabeth King, 19-years-old, romantically-minded and fascinated by her dashing army
cousin. Fitzgerald, with an eye on part of the family estates, paid court to her. Despite the stain
on his birth and the fact that he was already married, Mary fell passionately in love with him.
Viscount Kingsborough at first suspected nothing. Colonel Fitzgerald, gorgeous in his braided
Hussar uniform, continued to be a welcome guest at the family's London home near Richmond.
'In June, 1797, Lady Mary disappeared, leaving a note that she intended to throw herself into the
Thames. Her bonnet and shawl, found on the muddy tow-path by the river, suggested she had
carried out her threat. Lord Kingsborough, however, was suspicious. He thought it curious that
the gallant colonel had also disappeared. His doubts were strengthened when a postboy reported
he had seen a young woman resembling Lady Mary King with a military gentleman in a carriage
bound for London.
'Kingsborough hurried to London, Through the newspapers, he offered a large reward for
information about his missing daughter. The offer quickly bore fruit. A servant from a Kennington
lodging house called to say she believed Lady Mary was staying under an assumed name at the
house, where she was visited frequently by an army officer. In the midst of this recital,
Fitzgerald coolly walked into Kingsborough's house to inquire solicitously about the missing girl.
He was immediately recognised by the lodging-house servant, and fled without attempting to
justify himself.
'Kingsborough, seething with rage, dashed in his carriage to Kennington to recover his daughter.
Despite her tearful protests, she was dragged from the house and packed off hastily to
Mitchelstown, the palatial Kingston family mansion in County Cork. The scandal of the fake
suicide and elopement was soon buzzing round the clubs, salons and coffee houses of London.
Colonel Fitzgerald, dunned by creditors and furious at being baulked of his prey, outraged his
fellow-officers by drunken threats and bragging. He talked wildly of plots to rescue Mary from her
"prison" in Ireland, and swore vengeance on her "tyrannical" father, Lord Kingsborough.
'In September,1797, Lady Mary's brother, Captain Robert King, decided that family pride could
stand no more. By his friend, Robert Wood, he sent a challenge to Fitzgerald demanding a duel
with pistols near the magazine in Hyde Park, at dawn on October 1. When Robert King and Wood
arrived at the park, they found Fitzgerald waiting, without a second. The colonel explained angrily
that he had been unable to find a friend to accompany him "because of the odium cast on his
name." Wood insisted that no duel could take place unless each party had a second. Robert and
Fitzgerald wrangled bitterly until the surgeon, Dr. Browne, reluctantly agreed to act for Fitzgerald.
'By now, the duellists were so excited that, though they stood only 10 paces apart, they each
blazed away six shots without hitting the other. Fitzgerald flung his pistol angrily to the ground,
declaring he had no more powder and shot. Robert offered to lend him some, but Wood forbade
this as a grave breach of duelling etiquette. The opponents agreed to meet again at the same
time and place the following morning. Meanwhile, news of the "duel" had reached high quarters.
There were reports that the Prince of Wales himself was scandalised. Both Robert and Fitzgerald
were warned that they would be arrested the moment they set foot in Hyde Park next morning.
They abandoned the duel temporarily.
'With amazing effrontery, Fitzgerald then planned to swoop on Ireland and abduct his discons-
olate mistress from her prison in County Cork. He had made a confidant of Lady Mary's personal
maid in London. He wrote to her offering bribes if she would smuggle letters between Mary and
himself. Before long, one of Fitzgerald's letters was intercepted. The maid was dismissed in
disgrace. She returned to London, where she told Fitzgerald that Lady Mary was eagerly awaiting
her "deliverer." The love-sick girl would fly to his arms as soon as he arrived in the neighbourhood
of Mitchelstown.
'Fitzgerald, however, was completely penniless and hardly dared to stir from his lodging for fear of
his creditors. Finally, on the pretence of "making a tour of Dorsetshire," he wheedled 10 guineas
from his neglected wife - sufficient to pay for the journey to Ireland. Travelling in mufti under an
assumed name, Fitzgerald landed in Dublin early in December, 1797. A week later he was lodged
in the village inn at Mitchelstown, reconnoitring the outskirts of the great house and trying to
bribe the servants to take messages to Lady Mary.
'His midnight prowling aroused the suspicions of the innkeeper, who informed Lord Kingsborough,
just elevated to the title of Earl of Kingston by the death of his father. The Earl and his son,
Robert, convinced that the mysterious stranger was the persistent Fitzgerald, galloped to the inn
to investigate. They found Fitzgerald had already left for Kilworth, 10 miles away. Determined
that the seducer should not escape again, Robert King set off in hot pursuit, leaving the Earl to
follow in his carriage. Just before midnight on December 11, Robert tethered his foam-flecked
horse in the inn courtyard at Kilworth.
'The landlord confirmed that a horseman had arrived from Mitchelstown earlier in the evening, but
had gone to bed with instructions that he was not to be disturbed. Brushing the innkeeper aside,
Robert ran up the stairs and pounded on Fitzgerald's door, shouting he had come to avenge his
sister's honour. Fitzgerald refused to open the door. Contemptuously he told Robert to write what
he had to say on a sheet of paper and push it under the door. Infuriated by this, Robert burst
the lock with his shoulder, to find Fitzgerald staggering from his bed towards a case of pistols on
the dressing-table. Robert seized one of the pistols and challenged Fitzgerald to fight a duel to
the death there and then in the bedroom. The more powerful Colonel flung himself on Robert and
tried to wrench the weapon from his grasp.
'While the innkeeper and his wife crouched trembling on the stairs, listening to the trampling and
crash of splintered furniture, the Earl of Kingston's carriage drew up in the courtyard. He flung
open the bedroom door to find his son and Fitzgerald still locked in a desperate grapple.
Snatching the remaining pistol from the case on the dressing-table, the Earl shot Fitzgerald
through the head at point-blank range.
'Next day the landowning gentry of County Cork were stunned to hear that the Earl of Kingston
and his son had both been arrested on charges of murder. Kingston made no attempt to deny
the shooting. "The villain deserved to die," he said defiantly, "but I wish it had been by some
other hand than mine!"
'Robert King was tried at Cork Assizes on April 11, 1798, and acquitted after a hearing that lasted
less than an hour. He left the court amid wild cheering from a sympathetic mob. The Earl
exercised the ancient right of a nobleman to be tried by his peers. The trial took place before the
Irish House of Lords in Dublin on May 18, 1798. As the Lords' Chamber in the Dublin Parliament
House was too small, the peers gathered in the Commons Chamber to hear the Earl of Kingston
stand trial for his life.
'Resplendent in their crimson and ermine robes, they sat on benches beneath the domed roof,
while hundreds of spectators packed the colonnaded galleries surrounding the room. The Earl
himself, dressed in black, was flanked by a herald bearing his ancestral coat of arms and the
Deputy Constable of Dublin Castle bearing a glittering axe with the edge turned away from the
prisoner. The result of the trial was almost foregone. No witnesses appeared for the Crown after
the Sergeant-at-Arms had summoned them three times. Asked to give their verdict, the peers
rose one after another in their seats and, with hands on hearts, answered: "Not guilty, upon
mine honour."
'After the last peer had spoken, the Lord High Steward solemnly broke his white wand, signifying
that the proceedings had ended. The Earl was ushered to a waiting carriage through a cheering
crowd. The Earl never recovered from the shock of the scandal. He shunned all society and
retired to his mansion of Mitchelstown, which he began rebuilding on an even more grandiose
scale. It was still unfinished when he died on April 17, 1799.'
Robert Henry King, 4th Earl of Kingston
King was one of the members of the House of Commons for county Cork between 1826 and
1832. After he succeeded his father as 4th Earl in 1839, his life began a downward spiral.
His estates were forfeited and sold to pay his debts, and he made frequent appearances in
the Courts on charges of assault and drunkenness. In 1860, he was committed to an
asylum following events that took place in Chester, as reported in 'The Times' of 12
September 1860:-
'The Earl of Kingston was brought up at the Police Court, Chester, on Monday, under the
following circumstances. On Sunday morning he went to the Holyhead Railway, and persisted
in walking through the tunnel. The policeman there would not allow him, and took him to the
police-office. After being kept there for a few hours he was released, and in the afternoon
went to the Cathedral. Here he would not take his hat off, and main force was obliged to be
resorted toget him out. He was then given into the custody of a policeman and taken to the
Royal Hotel, where he remained all night. The first thing on Monday morning he got out in the
streets naked, and was again made captive. About 12 o'clock he went to the Bishop of Chester's
palace, and so annoyed his Lordship that he requested the police to take charge of him. Upon
coming into court the Earl went right up to the bench and seated himself with his hat on. He
commenced a long rambling statement, and said that the Bishop of Chester had insulted the
House of Lords through him. He would bring his lordship to justice at the bar of the House in
the next session, and deprive him of his living. He intended to write to his friends, Messrs
Bright and Cobden, to bring the matter before the House of Commons.Bishops had no right
to be seated in the House of Lords, and he would see that it should be altered. He was going to
write to his lawyer, Lord Chelmsford, to enter an action against the Holyhead Railway Company
for £100,000 for insulting him. He then went on to say that his brother wanted to be married,
and he had perpetrated a fraud upon him in taking possession of his estates, worth about
£50,000 a year, and settled upon him a miserable pittance. It was enough, he said, to make
any man insane. Two medical gentlemen of the city having certified that he was of unsound
mind, the magistrates signed an order for his removal to the County Asylum.'
In April 1861, a Commission of Lunacy found that the Earl was of unsound mind, and not
competent to manage his own affairs.
The special remainder to the Barony of Kinnaird created in 1860
From the "London Gazette" of 24 August 1860 (issue 22416, page 3121):-
"The Queen has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal,
granting the dignity of a Baron of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, unto The
Right Honourable George William Fox Baron Kinnaird, K.T., and the heirs male of his body
lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron Kinnaird, of Rossie, in the county of
Perth, with remainder, in default of such heirs male, to his brother, The Honourable Arthur
FitzGerald Kinnaird, and the heirs male of his body, lawfully begotten."
The special remainders to the Viscountcy of Kitchener of Khartoum created in 1902
and the Barony of Denton, Viscountcy of Broome and Earldom of Kitchener of Khartoum
created in 1914
From the "London Gazette" of 29 July 1902 (issue 27459, page 4834):-
"The King has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, granting the dignity of a Viscount of the said United
Kingdom unto Horatio Herbert, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, Knight Garnd Cross of the Most
Honourable Order of the Bath, Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint
Michael and Saint George, Member of the Order of Merit, General in the Army, lately Commander-
in-Chief of His Majesty's Forces in South Africa, by the name, style, and title of Viscount
Kitchener of Khartoum, and of the Vaal in the Colony of the Transvaal, and of Aspall in the
county of Suffolk, with remainder to the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, and in default
of such issue with remainder to the first daughter of the said Horatio Herbert, Lord Kitchener of
of Khartoum, lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Viscountess Kitchener of
Khartoum, and of the Vaal in the Colony of the Transvaal, and of Aspall in the county of Suffolk,
and after her decease with remainder to the heirs male of her body, lawfully begotten, by the
name, style, and title of Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum, and of Vaal in the Colony of Transvaal,
and of Aspall in the county of Suffolk, and in default of such issue with remainder to second,
third, fourth, and every other daughter of the said Horatio Herbert, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum,
lawfully begotten, and the heirs male of the body and respective bodies of such daughters
severally, and successively one after another as they shall be in seniority of age and priority of
birth, and in default of such issue with remainder to Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener, Esquire,
Colonel in the Army, brother of the said Horatio Herbert, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, with
remainder to the heirs male of his body, lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue with
remainder to Frederick Walter Kitchener, Esquire, Major-General in the Army, another brother of
the aforesaid Horatio Herbert, Lord Kitchener of Khartoum, with remainder to the heirs male of
his body lawfully begotten."
From the "London Gazette" of 28 July 1914 (issue 28852, pages 5865 and 5866):-
"The King has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 27th instant, to grant the dignities
of Baron, Viscount and Earl of the said United Kingdom unto Field Marshal Horatio Herbert,
Viscount Kitchener of Khartoum and of the Vaal in the Colony of the Transvaal and of Aspall in
the County of Suffolk, Baron Kitchener of Khartoum and of Aspall in the County of Suffolk, K.P.,
G.C.B., O.M., G.C.S.I., G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E., His Majesty's Agent and Consul-General in Egypt and
Minister Plenipotentiary in His Majesty's Diplomatic Service, by the names, styles and titles of
Baron Denton, of Denton, in the County of Kent. Viscount Broome, of Broome, in the said
County of Kent, and Earl Kitchener of Khartoum and of Broome aforesaid, to hold to him and the
heirs male of his body lawfully begotten and to be begotten, with remainder in default of such
issue to his first, second, third, fourth and every other daughter lawfully begotten, and to the
heirs male of the body and respective bodies of such daughters severally and successively one
after another as they shall be in seniority of age and priority of birth, and in default of such issue
and after the death of every such daughter to Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener, Esquire, Colonel
on the retired list of the Army, a brother of the said Horatio Herbert, Viscount Kitchener of
Khartoum, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten and to be begotten, and in default of
such issue and after the decease of the said Henry Elliott Chevallier Kitchener to the heirs male
of the body lawfully begotten of Sir Frederick Walter Kitchener, K.C.B., late Lieutenant-General
in the Army, deceased, another brother of the said Horatio Herbert, Viscount Kitchener of
Khartoum."
Owen Crosby Philipps, Baron Kylsant
Kylsant was born Owen Cosby Philipps, the 3rd son of Sir James Philipps, 12th baronet. His
older brother John was created Viscount St. Davids in 1918. At the age of 25, Philipps founded
his first shipping concern, the King Line, based on the Clyde River in Scotland. Thereafter, he
began to forge a large network of shipping companies. In 1902, he was invited to take control
of the long-established but languishing Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, which operated a
large merchant fleet trading along the Atlantic coast of South America. Philipps breathed new
life into the company and soon turned its losses into profits.
Philipps then saw the chance for expansion into the trade on the other side of South America
and for £1,500,000 snapped up the Pacific Steam Navigation Company. Other companies soon
fell into his net. He bought up competitors, including Lamport and Holt and Nelson Co., which
had a virtual monopoly of the frozen meat trade with Argentina, and welded them into his ever-
growing shipping empire. Philipps had a mania for expansion, which was not always profitable.
Not satisfied with control of most of the rich South American trade, he began snapping up
shipping lines trading with South and West Africa and the Far East. By buying Moss and
Hutchinson Limited, Philipps also achieved a large interest in the Continental and the
Mediterranean trades.
As early as 1911 he was pestering the British Admiralty for permission to arm his ships. In
1912, the government gave way and provided two guns for each ship of his merchant fleet.
Soon after, he was a passenger on one of his own ships when a naval captain who was also
on board ridiculed the armaments. When the naval captain questioned the ability of the
sailors to use the guns, he was amazed when the ship's crew leapt to their posts with the
speed of highly-trained gunners and let fly accurately with real shells. Philipps had not been
content with merely mounting the guns - he had also taken on his staff a large number of
retired naval officers to turn merchant seamen into skilled gunners.
After the war, Philipps was created Baron Kylsant in 1923 and had continued to forge ahead
with further expansion. In 1924 he gained control of Harland and Wolff, the Belfast shipbuilders.
In 1927, he paid £7,000,000 for the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, which operated the
famous White Star Line. He also purchased a controlling interest in Shaw Savill and Albion, and
purchased the fleet of the Commonwealth Line from the Australian government.
Kylsant was now at the peak of his career. His ships plied all over the world, with a total
tonnage of 2,800,000 tons. He owned a 6000-acre estate in south Wales and each of his
three daughters married into the peerage.
Underneath, however, all was not well with Kylsant's great shipping empire. He controlled
around 40 famous and highly regarded companies, but many were hard-hit by the post-war
shipping slump of the 1920s. Rather than admit his business fallibility, Kylsant attempted to
conceal the losses in the accounts of his parent company, the Royal Mail Steam Packet
Company until, in 1929, the Company had to ask for an extension of time to repay certain
loans made to it by the Government.
The British Treasury called in an independent accountant, Sir William McClintock, to examine
and report upon the company's financial position. McClintock's report revealed that the Royal
Mail Steam Packet Co. had shown enormous losses over a number of years, yet it had
continued to pay out millions in dividends. The losses had been concealed in the accounts
by drawing on reserves accumulated during earlier prosperous years. There was nothing
wrong with drawing on such reserves - that is their purpose and to do so is a perfectly
normal practice. Kylsant, however, had erred by calmly announcing a straight-out profit,
with no mention of transfers from reserves. Thus, for example, in 1926, the company's
accounts and report to shareholders showed a supposed trading profit of £439,000. In
reality, the company had lost £300,000 but had turned it into a profit by transferring £750,000
from reserves.
Following Sir William McClintock's report, questions were asked in the House of Commons, which
led to an investigation by the Attorney General. As a result, criminal proceedings were begun
against the company's chairman, Lord Kylsant, and its auditor, Harold John Morland. On 20 July
1931 their trial began in the Old Bailey. Both Kylsant and Morland were charged with falsifying
balance sheets and Kylsant was further charged with making false statements in a prospectus
which had raised £2,000,000 from the public.
The case against Morland was very weak. It was shown that he had no financial motive and
that, when presented with the draft accounts, he had noted on the balance sheet that the
profits included 'adjustment of taxation reserves.' It was successfully argued that such words
were commonly used and understood in the accounting profession and were sufficient notice
to the public that the company had not made the stated profit wholly as a result of trading.
A stronger financial motive was attributed to Lord Kylsant. He received special commission on
the profits of the company that varied with the rate of dividend declared. Thus in 1926, when
the company's dividend was 4%, he received £3,000. The next year, the dividend was raised to
5% (on the strength of the 'profit' shown in the accounts). Kylsant's commission jumped to
£27,000.
After nine days, Kylsant and Morland were acquitted on the balance sheet charges, but Kylsant
was found guilty on the charge of making a false statement in the prospectus and sentenced
to 12 months' imprisonment. Although an appeal against the sentence was immediately
launched, Kylsant's conviction was upheld. After serving his sentence, Kylsant retired to his
Welsh estates. When he died in 1937, the obituaries were generally kind and mostly agreed that
he had acted without criminal intent.
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