PEERAGE
Last updated 17/10/2014
Date Rank Order Name Born Died Age
MANCE
3 Oct 2005 B[L] 1 Jonathan Hugh Mance 6 Jun 1943
Created Baron Mance for life 3 Oct 2005
Lord Justice of Appeal 1999-2005. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 2005-2009. Justice of the
Supreme Court 2009- PC 1999
MANCHESTER
5 Feb 1626 E 1 Henry Montagu c 1563 7 Nov 1642
Created Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
and Viscount Mandeville 19 Dec 1620
and Earl of Manchester 5 Feb 1626
MP for Higham Ferrers 1591-1593, 1597-
1598 and 1601-1603 and London 1604-1611.
Chief Justice of the Kings Bench 1616-1621.
Lord High Treasurer 1620-1621. Lord
President of the Council 1621-1628. Lord
Privy Seal 1628-1642. Lord Lieutenant
Huntingdon 1636-1642.
7 Nov 1642 2 Edward Montagu 1602 5 May 1671 68
MP for Huntingdonshire 1624-1626. Lord
Lieutenant Northampton 1643 and
Huntingdon 1660-1671. KG 1661
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
22 May 1626
5 May 1671 3 Robert Montagu 25 Apr 1634 16 Mar 1683 48
MP for Huntingdonshire 1660-1671. Lord
Lieutenant Huntingdon 1671-1681
16 Mar 1683 4 Charles Montagu c 1662 20 Jan 1722
28 Apr 1719 D 1 Created Duke of Manchester 28 Apr 1719
Secretary of State 1702. Lord Lieutenant
Huntingdon 1689-1722. PC 1698
20 Jan 1722 2 William Montagu Apr 1700 21 Oct 1739 39
Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon 1722-1739
21 Oct 1739 3 Robert Montagu c 1710 10 May 1762
MP for Huntingdonshire 1734-1739. Lord
Lieutenant Huntingdon 1739-1762
10 May 1762 4 George Montagu 6 Apr 1737 2 Sep 1788 51
MP for Huntingdonshire 1761-1762. Lord
Lieutenant Huntingdon 1762-1788 PC 1782
2 Sep 1788 5 William Montagu 21 Oct 1771 18 Mar 1843 71
Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon 1793-1841
Governor of Jamaica 1808-1827. Postmaster
General 1827-1830
18 Mar 1843 6 George Montagu 9 Jul 1799 18 Aug 1855 56
MP for Huntingdonshire 1826-1837
18 Aug 1855 7 William Drogo Montagu 15 Oct 1823 22 Mar 1890 66
MP for Bewdley 1847-1852 and Huntingdonshire
1852-1855. KP 1877
22 Mar 1890 8 George Victor Drogo Montagu 17 Jun 1853 18 Aug 1892 39
MP for Huntingdonshire 1877-1880
18 Aug 1892 9 William Angus Drogo Montagu 3 Mar 1877 9 Feb 1947 69
PC 1906
9 Feb 1947 10 Alexander George Francis Drogo Montagu 2 Oct 1902 23 Nov 1977 75
23 Nov 1977 11 Sidney Arthur Robin George Drogo Montagu 5 Feb 1929 3 Jun 1985 56
3 Jun 1985 12 Angus Charles Drogo Montagu 9 Oct 1938 25 Jul 2002 63
25 Jul 2002 13 Alexander Charles David Drogo Montagu 11 Dec 1962
MANCROFT
23 Feb 1937 B 1 Sir Arthur Michael Samuel,1st baronet 6 Dec 1872 17 Aug 1942 69
Created Baron Mancroft 23 Feb 1937
MP for Farnham 1918-1937. Financial
Secretary to the Treasury 1927-1929
17 Aug 1942 2 Stormont Mancroft Samuel [he changed his 27 Jul 1914 14 Sep 1987 73
surname to Mancroft by deed pool 1925]
Minister without Portfolio 1957-1958
14 Sep 1987 3 Benjamin Lloyd Stormont Mancroft 16 May 1957
MANDELSON
13 Oct 2008 B[L] 1 Peter Benjamin Mandelson 21 Oct 1953
Created Baron Mandelson for life 13 Oct 2008
MP for Hartlepool 1992-2004. Minister without
Portfolio 1997-1998. Secretary of State for Trade
and Industry 1998. Secretary of State for
for Northern Ireland 1999-2001. Secretary of
State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory
Reform 2008-2009. Secretary of State for
Business, Innovation and Skills 2009-
First Secretary of State and Lord President of the
Council 2009-2010. PC 1998
MANDEVILLE
19 Dec 1620 V 1 Henry Montagu c 1563 7 Nov 1642
Created Baron Montagu of Kimbolton
and Viscount Mandeville 19 Dec 1620
and Earl of Manchester 5 Feb 1626
See "Manchester"
MANNERS
26 Oct 1309 B 1 Baldwin de Manners 9 Jul 1320
to Summoned to Parliament as Lord
9 Jul 1320 Manners 26 Oct 1309
Peerage extinct on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
20 Apr 1807 B 1 Thomas Manners-Sutton 24 Feb 1756 31 May 1842 86
Created Baron Manners 20 Apr 1807
MP for Newark 1796-1805. Solicitor
General 1802-1805. Lord Chancellor of
Ireland 1807-1827. PC 1807 PC [I] 1807
31 May 1842 2 John Thomas Manners-Sutton 17 Aug 1818 14 Nov 1864 46
14 Nov 1864 3 John Thomas Manners-Sutton 15 May 1852 19 Aug 1927 75
19 Aug 1927 4 Francis Henry Manners 21 Jul 1897 25 Nov 1972 75
25 Nov 1972 5 John Robert Cecil Manners 13 Feb 1923 28 May 2008 85
28 May 2008 6 John Hugh Robert Manners 5 May 1956
MANNERS DE HADDON
30 Apr 1679 B 1 John Manners 29 May 1638 10 Jan 1711 72
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Manners de Haddon 30 Apr 1679.
Created Marquess of Granby and
Duke of Rutland 29 Mar 1703
See "Rutland"
*************
6 Jun 1896 Henry John Brinsley Manners 16 Apr 1852 8 May 1925 73
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Manners of Haddon
6 Jun 1896
He succeeded as Duke of Rutland (qv) in 1906
MANNINGHAM-BULLER
2 Jun 2008 B[L] 1 Elizabeth Lydia Manningham-Buller 14 Jul 1948
Created Baroness Manningham-Buller
for life 2 Jun 2008
LG 2014
MANNY
12 Nov 1347 B 1 Walter Manny 13 Jan 1372
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Manny 12 Nov 1347
KG 1359
13 Jan 1372 2 Anne Hastings 1356 2 Apr 1384 27
2 Apr 1384 3 John Hastings,Earl of Pembroke 1372 30 Dec 1389 17
to Peerage extinct on his death
30 Dec 1389
MANSELL
1 Jan 1712 B 1 Sir Thomas Mansell,5th baronet 9 Nov 1667 10 Dec 1723 56
Created Baron Mansell 1 Jan 1712
MP for Cardiff 1689-1698 and
Glamorganshire 1701-1712. PC 1704
10 Dec 1723 2 Thomas Mansell 26 Dec 1719 29 Jan 1744 24
29 Jan 1744 3 Christopher Mansell 26 Nov 1744
26 Nov 1744 4 Bussy Mansell c 1701 29 Nov 1750
to MP for Cardiff 1722-1734 and Glamorgan
29 Nov 1750 1737-1744
Peerage extinct on his death
MANSFIELD
3 Nov 1620 V 1 William Cavendish 16 Dec 1593 25 Dec 1676 83
Created Viscount Mansfield 3 Nov 1620
Baron Cavendish and Earl of Newcastle
upon Tyne 7 Mar 1628,Marquess of
Newcastle on Tyne 27 Oct 1643 and
Duke of Newcastle 16 Mar 1665
See "Newcastle upon Tyne"
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
31 Oct 1776 E 1 William Murray 2 Mar 1705 20 Mar 1793 88
1 Aug 1792 E 1 Created Baron Mansfield 8 Nov 1756,
Earl of Mansfield 31 Oct 1776 and
Earl of Mansfield 1 Aug 1792
The Earldom of 1776 included a special remainder,
failing heirs male of his body,to Louisa Murray,
Viscountess Stormont,wife of his nephew and heir
David Murray,Viscount Stormont and the heirs
male of her body by her said husband.
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Earldom of 1792,see the note at the
foot of this page
MP for Boroughbridge 1742-1756. Solicitor
General 1742-1754. Attorney General 1754-
1756. Lord Chief Justice 1756-1788. PC 1756
On his death the Barony became extinct,
whilst the Earldom of 1776 passed to his
nephew's wife (as under) and the Earldom of
1792 passed to his nephew (see below)
20 Mar 1793 2 Louisa Murray (creation of 1776) 1 Jul 1758 11 Jul 1843 85
20 Mar 1793 2 David Murray (creation of 1792) 9 Oct 1727 1 Sep 1796 68
Lord Justice General of Scotland 1778-
1794. Secretary of State 1779-1782. Lord
President of the Council 1782 and 1794-
1796. PC 1763 KT 1768
1 Sep 1796 3 David William Murray (creation of 1792) 7 Mar 1777 18 Feb 1840 62
Lord Lieutenant Clackmannan 1803-1840
KT 1835
18 Feb 1840 4 William David Murray 21 Feb 1806 2 Aug 1898 92
3 MP for Aldeburgh 1830-1831, Woodstock
1831-1832, Norwich 1832-1837 and
Perthshire 1837-1840. Lord Lieutenant
Clackmannan 1852-1898. KT 1843
He succeeded to the Earldom of 1776 in 1843
2 Aug 1898 5 William David Murray 20 Jul 1860 29 Apr 1906 45
4 PC 1905
29 Apr 1906 6 Alan David Murray 25 Oct 1864 14 Mar 1935 70
5
14 Mar 1935 7 Mungo David Malcolm Murray 9 Aug 1900 2 Sep 1971 71
6 MP for Perth 1931-1935. Lord Lieutenant
Perth 1960-1971
2 Sep 1971 8 William David Mungo James Murray 7 Jul 1930
7 Minister of State, Scottish Office 1979-1983 and
Minister of State, Northern Ireland 1983-1984
MANTON
25 Jan 1922 B 1 Joseph Watson 10 Feb 1873 13 Mar 1922 49
Created Baron Manton 25 Jan 1922
13 Mar 1922 2 George Miles Watson 21 Jun 1899 10 Jun 1968 68
10 Jun 1968 3 Joseph Rupert Eric Robert Watson 22 Jan 1924 8 Aug 2003 79
8 Aug 2003 4 Miles Ronald Marcus Watson 7 May 1958
MANVERS
9 Apr 1806 E 1 Charles Pierrepont 14 Nov 1737 17 Jun 1816 78
Created Baron Pierrepont and
Viscount Newark 23 Jul 1796,and Earl
Manvers 9 Apr 1806
MP for Nottinghamshire 1778-1796
17 Jun 1816 2 Charles Herbert Pierrepont 11 Aug 1778 27 Oct 1860 82
MP for Nottinghamshire 1801-1816
27 Oct 1860 3 Sydney William Herbert Pierrepont 12 Mar 1825 16 Jan 1900 74
MP for Nottinghamshire South 1852-1860
16 Jan 1900 4 Charles William Sydney Pierrepont 2 Aug 1854 17 Jul 1926 71
MP for Newark 1885-1895 and 1898-1900
17 Jul 1926 5 Evelyn Robert Pierrepont 25 Jul 1888 6 Apr 1940 51
6 Apr 1940 6 Gervas Evelyn Pierrepont 15 Apr 1881 13 Feb 1955 73
to Peerage extinct on his death
13 Feb 1955
MANZOOR
6 Sep 2013 B[L] 1 Zahida Parveen Manzoor 25 May 1958
Created Baroness Manzoor for life 6 Sep 2013
MAPLES
24 Jun 2010 B[L] 1 John Cradock Maples 22 Apr 1943 9 Jun 2012 69
to Created Baron Maples for life 24 Jun 2010
9 Jun 2012 MP for Lewisham West 1983-1992 and Stratford
on Avon 1997-2010.
Peerage extinct on his death
MAR
c 1115 E[S] 1 Rothri c 1141
Witness to the Charter of Scone as
Earl of Mar c 1115
c 1141 2 Morgund c 1182
c 1182 3 Gilchrist c 1228
c 1228 4 Duncan c 1243
c 1243 5 William c 1281
c 1281 6 Donald c 1297
c 1297 7 Gratney c 1305
c 1305 8 Donald 12 Aug 1332
12 Aug 1332 9 Thomas c 1374
c 1374 10 Margaret Douglas c 1390
c 1390 11 Isabel
She married Alexander Stewart (see below)
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28 May 1426 E[S] 1 Alexander Stewart 1 Aug 1435
Created Earl of Mar 28 May 1426
Illegitimate son of Robert II of Scotland
On his death the peerage reverted to the
Crown
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1 Aug 1435 12 Robert Erskine c 1453
On his death the peerage was wrongly
assumed to have become extinct and a number
of new creations were made,as under -
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
c 1459 E[S] 1 John Stewart 1479
to Created Earl of Mar and Garioch
1479 c 1459
3rd son of James II of Scotland
Peerage extinct on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
c Jan 1483 E[S] 1 Alexander Stewart,Duke of Albany c 1485
to Created Earl of Mar and Garioch c
1483 Jan 1483
The peerage was forfeited a few months
later
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2 Mar 1486 E[S] 1 John Stewart c 1480 11 Mar 1503
to Created Earl of Mar and Garioch
11 Mar 1503 2 Mar 1486
3rd son of James III of Scotland
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
c 1453 13 Thomas Erskine c 1493
c 1493 14 Alexander Erskine c 1509
c 1509 15 Robert Erskine 9 Sep 1513
9 Sep 1513 16 John Erskine 1552
1552 17 John Erskine 29 Oct 1572
24 Jun 1565 E[S] 1 Created Earl of Mar 24 Jun 1565
For further information on this peerage see
the note at the foot of this page
29 Oct 1572 18 John Erskine 1562 14 Dec 1634 72
2 KG 1603. High Treasurer of Scotland
1615-1630
Created Lord Cardross 19 Jul 1606
14 Dec 1634 19 John Erskine c 1585 1654
3
1654 20 John Erskine Sep 1668
4
Sep 1668 21 Charles Erskine 19 Oct 1650 22 Apr 1689 38
5
22 Apr 1689 22 John Erskine Feb 1675 May 1732 57
to 6 KT 1706. Secretary of State for Scotland
17 Feb 1716 1706-1707. PC 1708
He was attainted and the peerages forfeited
17 Jun 1824 23 John Francis Erskine 1741 20 Aug 1825 84
7 Restored to the peerages
20 Aug 1825 24 John Thomas Erskine 18 Jun 1772 20 Sep 1828 56
8
20 Sep 1828 25 John Francis Miller Erskine 28 Dec 1795 19 Jun 1866 70
9 For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page
He succeeded as 11th Earl of Kellie (qv)
in 1829. On his death the creation of 1565
passed to his cousin (see below) whilst the
original earldom passed to -
19 Jun 1866 26 John Francis Erskine Goodeve-Erskine 29 Mar 1836 17 Jun 1930 94
17 Jun 1930 27 John Francis Hamilton Sinclair Cunliffe
Brooks Forbes Goodeve-Erskine 27 Feb 1868 29 Sep 1932 64
29 Sep 1932 28 Lionel Walter Young Erskine 13 Jun 1891 27 Nov 1965 74
27 Nov 1965 29 James Clifton 22 Nov 1914 21 Apr 1975 60
21 Apr 1975 30 Margaret of Mar 19 Sep 1940
MAR
24 Jun 1565 E[S] 1 John Erskine 29 Oct 1572
Created Earl of Mar 24 Jun 1565
29 Oct 1572 2 John Erskine 1562 14 Dec 1634 72
KG 1603. High Treasurer of Scotland
1615-1630
14 Dec 1634 3 John Erskine c 1585 1654
1654 4 John Erskine Sep 1668
Sep 1668 5 Charles Erskine 19 Oct 1650 22 Apr 1689 38
22 Apr 1689 6 John Erskine Feb 1675 May 1732 57
to KT 1706. Secretary of State for Scotland
17 Feb 1716 1706-1707. PC 1708
He was attainted and the peerages forfeited
17 Jun 1824 7 John Francis Erskine 1741 20 Aug 1825 84
Restored to the peerages
20 Aug 1825 8 John Thomas Erskine 18 Jun 1772 20 Sep 1828 56
20 Sep 1828 9 John Francis Miller Erskine 28 Dec 1795 19 Jun 1866 70
He succeeded as 11th Earl of Kellie (qv) in 1829
19 Jun 1866 10 Walter Coningsby Erskine (also 12th Earl of Kellie) 12 Jul 1810 17 Jan 1872 61
17 Jan 1872 11 Walter Henry Erskine (also 13th Earl of Kellie) 17 Dec 1839 16 Sep 1888 48
16 Sep 1888 12 Walter John Francis Erskine (also 14th Earl of
Kellie) 29 Aug 1865 3 Jun 1955 89
Lord Lieutenant Clackmannan 1898-1955
KT 1911
3 Jun 1955 13 John Francis Hervey Erskine (also 15th Earl of
Kellie) 15 Feb 1921 22 Dec 1993 72
Lord Lieutenant Clackmannan 1966-1993
22 Dec 1993 14 James Thorne Erskine (also 16th Earl of Kellie) 10 Mar 1949
Created Baron Erskine of Alloa Tower
for life 19 Apr 2000
MARCH (England)
9 Nov 1328 E 1 Robert Mortimer,2nd Lord Mortimer 29 Apr 1286 29 Nov 1330 44
to Created Earl of March 9 Nov 1328
29 Nov 1330 Chief Governor of Ireland 1316-1319
He was attainted and the peerages forfeited
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
1354 2 Roger Mortimer 11 Nov 1328 26 Feb 1360 31
Obtained a reversal of the attainder
KG 1348
26 Nov 1360 3 Edmund Mortimer 1 Feb 1351 27 Dec 1381 30
Chief Governor of Ireland 1379-1381
27 Dec 1381 4 Roger Mortimer 11 Apr 1374 20 Jul 1398 24
Chief Governor of Ireland 1395-1398
20 Jul 1398 5 Edmond Mortimer 6 Nov 1391 19 Jan 1425 33
Chief Governor of Ireland 1423-1425
19 Jan 1425 6 Richard Plantagenet,3rd Duke of York 21 Sep 1411 30 Dec 1460 49
30 Dec 1460 7 Edward Plantagenet,4th Duke of York 28 Apr 1442 9 Apr 1483 40
to He succeeded to the throne as Edward IV
1461 in 1461 when the peerage merged with the
Crown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
18 Jul 1479 E 1 Edward Plantagenet,Duke of Cornwall
to Created Earl of Earl of March and
9 Apr 1483 Earl of Pembroke 18 Jul 1479
He succeeded to the crown as Edward V
when all his honours merged with the Crown
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7 Jun 1619 E 1 Esme Stuart 1579 30 Jul 1624 45
Created Baron Stuart of Leighton
Bromswold and Earl of March
7 Jun 1619
See "Lennox" - these titles extinct 1672
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9 Aug 1675 E 1 Charles Lennox 29 Jul 1672 27 May 1723 50
Created Baron Setrington,Earl of
March and Duke of Richmond 9 Aug
1675 and Lord of Torboltoun,Earl of
Darnley and Duke of Lennox 9 Sep 1675
See "Richmond"
MARCH (Scotland)
1455 E[S] 1 Alexander Stewart c 1485
Created Earl of March 1455 and Duke
of Albany c 1456
See "Albany"
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5 Mar 1580 E[S] 1 Robert Stuart 29 Mar 1586
to Created Lord of Dunbar and Earl of
29 Mar 1586 March 5 Mar 1580
Peerages extinct on his death
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 May 1672 M[S] 1 John Maitland 24 May 1616 24 Aug 1682 66
to Created Marquess of March and Duke of
24 Aug 1682 Lauderdale 1 May 1672 and Baron
Petersham and Earl of Guilford
25 Jun 1674
Peerages extinct on his death
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20 Apr 1697 E[S] 1 Lord William Douglas c 1665 2 Sep 1705
Created Lord Douglas of Neidpath,
Viscount of Peebles and Earl of
March 20 Apr 1697
2 Sep 1705 2 William Douglas c 1696 7 Mar 1731
7 Mar 1731 3 William Douglas,later [1748] 3rd Earl of Ruglen and
[1778] 4th Duke of Queensberry 16 Dec 1724 23 Dec 1810 86
23 Dec 1810 4 Francis Charteris-Wemyss 15 Apr 1772 28 Jun 1853 81
He had previously succeeded to the Earldom
of Wemyss (qv) in 1808 with which title
this peerage then merged and so remains
MARCHAMLEY
3 Jul 1908 B 1 George Whiteley 30 Aug 1855 21 Oct 1925 70
Created Baron Marchamley 3 Jul 1908
MP for Stockport 1893-1900 and Pudsey
1900-1908. PC 1907
21 Oct 1925 2 William Tattersall Whiteley 22 Nov 1886 17 Nov 1949 62
17 Nov 1949 3 John William Tattersall Whiteley 24 Apr 1922 26 May 1994 72
26 May 1994 4 William Francis Whiteley 27 Jul 1968
MARCHMONT
23 May 1697 E[S] 1 Sir Patrick Hume,2nd baronet 13 Jan 1641 2 Aug 1724 83
Created Lord Polwarth 26 Dec 1690
and Lord Polwarth,Viscount of
Blasonberrie and Earl of Marchmont
23 May 1697
High Chancellor of Scotland 1696-1702
2 Aug 1724 2 Alexander Hume-Campbell 1 Jan 1675 27 Feb 1740 65
KT 1725 PC 1726
27 Feb 1740 3 Hugh Hume-Campbell 15 Feb 1708 10 Jan 1794 85
to MP for Berwick upon Tweed 1734-1740 PC 1762
10 Jan 1794 On his death the peerage became dormant
MARCHWOOD
13 Sep 1945 V 1 Sir Frederick George Penny,1st baronet 10 Mar 1876 1 Jan 1955 78
Created Baron Marchwood 8 Jun 1937
and Viscount Marchwood 13 Sep 1945
MP for Kingston upon Thames 1922-1937
1 Jan 1955 2 Peter George Penny 7 Nov 1912 6 Apr 1979 66
6 Apr 1979 3 David George Staveley Penny 22 May 1936
MARGADALE
1 Jan 1965 B 1 John Granville Morrison 16 Dec 1906 25 May 1996 89
Created Baron Margadale 1 Jan 1965
MP for Salisbury 1942-1964
Lord Lieutenant Wiltshire 1969-1981
25 May 1996 2 James Ian Morrison 17 Jul 1930 6 Apr 2003 72
6 Apr 2003 3 Alastair John Morrison 4 Apr 1958
MARGESSON
27 Apr 1942 V 1 Henry David Reginald Margesson 26 Jul 1890 24 Dec 1965 75
Created Viscount Margesson
27 Apr 1942
MP for Upton 1922-1923 and Rugby
1924-1942. Secretary of State for War
1940-1942. PC 1933
24 Dec 1965 2 Francis Vere Hampden Margesson 17 Apr 1922
MARISCHAL
c 1458 E[S] 1 William Keith after 1458
Created Earl Marischal c 1458
after 1458 2 William Keith 1483
1483 3 William Keith c 1527
c 1527 4 William Keith 7 Oct 1581
7 Oct 1581 5 George Keith 1554 2 Apr 1623 68
He subsequently [c 1593] succeeded as 2nd
Lord Altrie (qv)
2 Apr 1623 6 William Keith c 1585 28 Oct 1635
28 Oct 1635 7 William Keith 1614 1671 57
Lord Privy Seal of Scotland 1660-1661
1671 8 George Keith Mar 1694
Mar 1694 9 William Keith c 1664 27 May 1712
27 May 1712 10 George Keith 1693 28 May 1778 84
to He was attainted and the peerages forfeited
1716
MARJORIBANKS
12 Jun 1873 B 1 David Robertson 2 Apr 1797 19 Jun 1873 76
to Created Baron Marjoribanks 12 Jun 1873
19 Jun 1873 MP for Berwickshire 1859-1873. Lord
Lieutenant Berwickshire 1860-1873
Peerage extinct on his death
MARKS
16 Jul 1929 B 1 George Croydon Marks 9 Jun 1858 24 Sep 1938 80
to Created Baron Marks 16 Jul 1929
24 Sep 1938 MP for Launceston 1906-1918 and Cornwall
North 1918-1924
Peerage extinct on his death
MARKS OF BROUGHTON
10 Jul 1961 B 1 Simon Marks 9 Jul 1888 8 Dec 1964 76
Created Baron Marks of Broughton
10 Jul 1961
For further information on this peer,see
the note at the foot of this page
8 Dec 1964 2 Michael Marks 27 Aug 1920 9 Sep 1998 78
9 Sep 1998 3 Simon Richard Marks 3 May 1950
MARKS OF HENLEY-ON-THAMES
11 Jan 2011 B[L] 1 Jonathan Marks 19 Oct 1952
Created Baron Marks of Henley-on-Thames
for life 11 Jan 2011
MARLAND
8 Jun 2006 B[L] 1 Jonathan Peter Marland 14 Aug 1956
Created Baron Marland for life 8 Jun 2006
MARLBOROUGH
5 Feb 1626 E 1 Sir James Ley,1st baronet 1552 14 Mar 1629 76
Created Baron Ley 31 Dec 1625 and
Earl of Marlborough 5 Feb 1626
Lord High Treasurer 1624-1628. Lord
President of the Council 1628.
14 Mar 1629 2 Henry Ley 3 Dec 1595 1 Apr 1638 42
1 Apr 1638 3 James Ley 28 Jan 1618 3 Jun 1665 47
3 Jun 1665 4 William Ley 12 Mar 1612 1679 67
to Peerage extinct on his death
1679
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14 Dec 1702 D 1 John Churchill 24 Jun 1650 16 Jun 1722 71
Created Baron Churchill 21 Dec 1682
and 14 May 1685,Earl of Marlborough
9 Apr 1689, Marquess of Blandford
and Duke of Marlborough 14 Dec 1702
MP for Newtown 1678-1679. Lord
Lieutenant Oxfordshire 1706-1712. PC 1689
KG 1702
16 Jun 1722 2 Henrietta Godolphin 20 Jul 1681 24 Oct 1733 52
24 Oct 1733 3 Charles Spencer 22 Nov 1706 20 Oct 1758 51
Lord Privy Seal 1755. Lord Lieutenant
Oxford and Buckingham 1739-1758. KG 1741
PC 1749
20 Oct 1758 4 George Spencer 26 Jan 1739 29 Jan 1817 78
Lord Lieutenant Oxford 1760-1817. Lord Privy
Seal 1763-1765. PC 1762 KG 1768
29 Jan 1817 5 George Spencer-Churchill 6 Mar 1766 5 Mar 1840 73
MP for Oxfordshire 1790-1796 and
Tregony 1802-1804
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Spencer of Wormleighton
12 Mar 1806
5 Mar 1840 6 George Spencer-Churchill 27 Dec 1793 1 Jul 1857 63
MP for Chippenham 1818-1820 and
Woodstock 1826-1831,1832-1835 and 1838-
1840. Lord Lieutenant Oxford 1842-1857
1 Jul 1857 7 John Winston Spencer-Churchill 2 Jun 1822 5 Jul 1883 61
MP for Woodstock 1844-1845 and 1847-
1857. Lord Lieutenant Oxford 1857-1883.
Lord President of the Council 1867-1868.
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1876-1880.
PC 1866 KG 1868
5 Jul 1883 8 George Charles Spencer-Churchill 15 May 1844 9 Nov 1892 48
9 Nov 1892 9 Charles Richard John Spencer-Churchill 13 Nov 1871 30 Jun 1934 62
Paymaster General 1899-1902. PC 1899
KG 1902. Lord Lieutenant Oxfordshire
1915-1934
30 Jun 1934 10 John Albert Edward William Spencer-
Churchill 18 Sep 1897 11 Mar 1972 74
11 Mar 1972 11 John George Vanderbilt Henry Spencer-
Churchill 13 Apr 1926 16 Oct 2014 88
16 Oct 2014 12 Charles James Spencer-Churchill 24 Nov 1955
MARLESFORD
7 Jun 1991 B[L] 1 Mark Shuldham Schreiber 11 Sep 1931
Created Baron Marlesford for life 7 Jun 1991
MARLEY
16 Jan 1930 B 1 Dudley Leigh Amon 16 May 1884 29 Feb 1952 67
Created Baron Marley 16 Jan 1930
29 Feb 1952 2 Godfrey Pelham Leigh Amon 6 Sep 1913 13 Mar 1990 76
to Peerage extinct on his death
13 Mar 1990
MARMION
26 Jul 1313 B 1 John Marmion 1322
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Marmion 26 Jul 1313
1322 2 John Marmion c 1292 30 Apr 1335
30 Apr 1335 3 Robert Marmion c 1360
to On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
c 1360
MARNY
9 Apr 1523 B 1 Henry Marny c 1457 24 May 1523
Created Baron Marny 9 Apr 1523
KG 1510
24 May 1523 2 John Marny c 1493 27 Apr 1525
to Peerage extinct on his death
27 Apr 1525
MARPLES
8 May 1974 B[L] 1 Alfred Ernest Marples 9 Dec 1907 6 Jul 1978 70
to Created Baron Marples for life 8 May 1974
6 Jul 1978 MP for Wallasey 1945-1974. Postmaster
General 1957-1959. Minister of Transport
1959-1964. PC 1957
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSH
15 Jul 1981 B[L] 1 Richard William Marsh 14 Mar 1928 29 Jul 2011 83
to Created Baron Marsh for life 15 Jul 1981
29 Jul 2011 MP for Greenwich 1959-1971. Minister of
Power 1966-1968. Minister of Transport
1968-1969. PC 1966
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSHAL
8 Dec 1309 B 1 William Marshal 24 Sep 1277 24 Jun 1314 36
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Marshal 8 Dec 1309
24 Jun 1314 2 John Marshal 1 Aug 1292 12 Aug 1316 24
to On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
12 Aug 1316
MARSHALL OF CHIPSTEAD
14 Jan 1921 B 1 Sir Horace Brooks Marshall 5 Aug 1865 29 Mar 1936 70
to Created Baron Marshall of Chipstead
29 Mar 1936 14 Jan 1921
PC 1919
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSHALL OF GORING
22 Jul 1985 B[L] 1 Walter Charles Marshall 5 Mar 1932 20 Feb 1996 63
to Created Baron Marshall of Goring for life
20 Feb 1996 22 Jul 1985
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSHALL OF KNIGHTSBRIDGE
20 Jul 1998 B[L] 1 Colin Marsh Marshall 16 Nov 1933 5 Jul 2012 78
to Created Baron Marshall of Knightsbridge
5 Jul 2012 for life 20 Jul 1998
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSHALL OF LEEDS
11 Jul 1980 B[L] 1 Frank Shaw Marshall 26 Sep 1915 1 Nov 1990 75
to Created Baron Marshall of Leeds for life
1 Nov 1990 11 Jul 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
MARSHAM
22 Jun 1801 V 1 Charles Marsham 28 Sep 1744 1 Mar 1811 66
Created Viscount Marsham and Earl of
Romney 22 Jun 1801
See "Romney"
MARTIN
23 Jun 1295 B 1 William Martin 1257 1325 68
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Martin 23 Jun 1295
1325 2 William Martin 1295 1326 31
to On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
1326
MARTIN OF SPRINGBURN
25 Aug 2009 B[L] 1 Michael John Martin 3 Jul 1945
Created Baron Martin of Springburn for life
25 Aug 2009
MP for Springburn 1979-2005 and Glasgow North
East 2005-2009. Speaker of the House of
Commons 2000-2009. PC 2000
MARTONMERE
13 May 1964 B 1 John Roland Robinson 22 Feb 1907 3 May 1989 82
Created Baron Martonmere 13 May 1964
MP for Widnes 1931-1935, Blackpool 1935-
1945 and Blackpool South 1945-1964
3 May 1989 2 John Stephen Robinson 10 Jul 1963
MARYBOROUGH
17 Jul 1821 B 1 William Wellesley-Pole 20 May 1763 22 Feb 1845 81
Created Baron Maryborough
17 Jul 1821
See "Mornington"
MASHAM
5 May 1955 B 1 Philip Cunliffe-Lister,1st Viscount Swinton 1 May 1884 27 Jul 1972 88
Created Baron Masham and Earl of Swinton
5 May 1955
See "Swinton"
MASHAM OF ILTON
12 Feb 1970 B[L] 1 Susan Lilian Primrose Cunliffe-Lister 14 Apr 1935
Created Baroness Masham of Ilton for life
12 Feb 1970
MASHAM OF OTES
1 Jan 1712 B 1 Samuel Masham c 1679 16 Oct 1758
MP for Ilchester 1710-1711 and Windsor
1711-1712
Created Baron Masham of Otes
1 Jan 1712
For information on his wife Abigail,see the
note at the foot of this page
16 Oct 1758 2 Samuel Masham Nov 1712 14 Jun 1776 63
to Peerage extinct on his death
14 Jun 1776
MASHAM OF SWINTON
15 Jul 1891 B 1 Samuel Cunliffe-Lister 1 Jan 1815 2 Feb 1906 91
Created Baron Masham of Swinton
15 Jul 1891
2 Feb 1906 2 Samuel Cunliffe-Lister 2 Aug 1857 24 Jan 1917 59
24 Jan 1917 3 John Cunliffe-Lister 9 Aug 1867 4 Jan 1924 56
to Peerage extinct on his death
4 Jan 1924
MASON OF BARNSLEY
20 Oct 1987 B[L] 1 Roy Mason 18 Apr 1924
Created Baron Mason of Barnsley for life
20 Oct 1987
MP for Barnsley 1953-1983 and Barnsley Central
1983-1987. Minister of State,Board of Trade 1964-
1967. Minister of Defence (Equipment) 1967-1968.
Postmaster General 1968. Minister of Power 1968-
1969. President of the Board of Trade 1969-1970.
Secretary of State for Defence 1974-1976.
Secretary of State for Northern Ireland
1976-1979. PC 1968
MASSEREENE
21 Nov 1660 V[I] 1 John Clotworthy 23 Sep 1665
Created Baron of Loughneagh and
Viscount Massereene 21 Nov 1660
23 Sep 1665 2 Sir John Skeffington,4th baronet 21 Jun 1695
PC [I] 1690
21 Jun 1695 3 Clotworthy Skeffington 1661 14 Mar 1714 52
14 Mar 1714 4 Clotworthy Skeffington c 1681 11 Feb 1738
11 Feb 1738 5 Clotworthy Skeffington 17 Sep 1757
28 Jul 1756 E[I] 1 Created Earl of Massereene 28 Jul 1756
PC [I] 1746
17 Sep 1757 6 Clotworthy Skeffington 28 Jan 1742 28 Feb 1805 63
2 For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
28 Feb 1805 7 Henry Skeffington 1744 12 Jun 1811 66
3
12 Jun 1811 8 Chichester Skeffington c 1746 25 Feb 1816
4 On his death the Earldom became extinct,
whilst the Viscountcy passed to -
25 Feb 1816 9 Harriet Skeffington 2 Jan 1831
2 Jan 1831 10 John Foster-Skeffington 30 Nov 1812 28 Apr 1863 50
He succeeded as 3rd Viscount Ferrard in 1843
KP 1851
28 Apr 1863 11 Clotworthy John Eyre Foster-Skeffington
(also 4th Viscount Ferrard) 9 Oct 1842 26 Jun 1905 62
Lord Lieutenant Louth 1879-1898
26 Jun 1905 12 Algernon William John Clotworthy
Skeffington (also 5th Viscount Ferrard) 28 Nov 1873 20 Jul 1956 82
Lord Lieutenant Antrim 1916-1938
20 Jul 1956 13 John Clotworthy Talbot Foster Whyte-Melville
Skeffington (also 6th Viscount Ferrard) 23 Oct 1914 27 Dec 1992 78
27 Dec 1992 14 John David Clotworthy Whyte-Melville
Foster Skeffington (also 7th Viscount Ferrard) 3 Jun 1940
The special remainder to the Earldom of Mansfield created in 1792
From the "London Gazette" of 24 July 1792 (issue 13444, page 586):-
"The King has been pleased to grant the Dignity of an Earl of the Kingdom of Great Britain to
the Right Honourable William Earl of Mansfield, in the County of Nottingham, and the Heirs Male
of his Body lawfully begotten, by the Name, Style and Title of Earl of Mansfield, in the County
of Middlesex; with Remainder to the Right Honourable David Viscount Stormont, and the Heirs
Male of his Body lawfully begotten."
The Earldoms of Mar
Why are there two Earldoms of Mar? The following extract, taken from "The Great Historic
Families of Scotland" by James Taylor [2 vols, J S Virtue & Co. London 1889] is as good an
explanation as I have found:-
'On the death of John Francis, sixteenth Earl of Mar and eleventh Earl of Kellie, in 1866, his
cousin, Walter Coningsby Erskine, inherited the family estates along with the earldom of Kellie,
which were entailed on heirs male ; while the ancient earldom of Mar was claimed by John
Francis Goodeve, the only son of the late earl's sister, who thereupon assumed the name of
Erskine. His claim was at first universally admitted. He was presented at Court as Earl of Mar,
his vote was repeatedly received at the election of representative peers, and his right to the
title was conceded even by his cousin, Walter Coningsby Erskine, the new Earl of Kellie. By-
and-by, however, Lord Kellie laid claim also to the earldom of Mar, but he died before his
petition could be considered by the House of Lords. It was renewed by his son, and was in
due course referred to the Committee for Privileges. In support of the claim it was pleaded
that the title of Earl of Mar, conferred by Queen Mary on John, Lord Erskine, in 1565, was not
the restoration of an ancient peerage, but the creation of a new one; that the original earldom
of Mar was purely territorial, one of the seven ancient earldoms of Scotland, and was therefore
indivisible ; that this dignity terminated at the death of Earl Thomas in 1377; that William, first
Earl of Douglas, his sister's husband, must have obtained the earldom by charter and not by
right of his wife, as at his death the title and estates descended to their son James, second
Earl of Douglas, while his mother was still living; that her daughter, Isabella, became the wife
Sir Malcolm Drummond, who was styled Lord of Mar and of the Garioch, not earl; that her
second husband, Alexander Stewart, obtained possession of the territorial earldom of Mar in
right of his wife, but did not become earl until he obtained seizen under the Crown; that he
survived the Countess for many years, and acted, and was treated by the Crown, as the owner
in fee of the earldom, and that on his death the Crown entered into possession of the estates
in terms of the charter granted to the earl by King James I; that from this period downwards the
lands had been broken up and disposed of by the Sovereign at his pleasure, different portions of
them having been granted at various times to royal favourites, and that the title had been
in succession upon several persons who had no connection with its original possessors. The
territorial earldom, it was asserted, was indivisible, and could not be separated from the title,
and as the former had ceased to exist, the ancient dignity could not be revived. It was,
therefore, contended that Queen Mary must have created a new dignity when on her marriage
to Darnley in 1565 she raised Lord Erskine to the rank of an earl; that the fact that throughout
Queen Mary's reign he ranked as the junior and not the premier earl, as must have been the
case if the title had been the old dignity revived in his person, shows that his earldom was a
new creation, and that as there is no charter in existence describing the dignity conferred upon
Lord Erskine, the prima-facie presumption is that it descended to heirs male.
'On the other hand, it was pleaded by Mr. Goodeve Erskine, who opposed Lord Kellie's claim,
that inasmuch as the earldom of Mar was enjoyed by two countesses, mother and daughter, it
could not be a male fief; and that as Sir Robert Erskine is admitted to have been second heir 'of
line and blood' to the Countess Isabel through his mother, Janet Keith, great-granddaughter of
Donald, third earl, he was de jure Earl of Mar, though excluded from the title and estates by an
act of tyranny and oppression on the part of James I, who was at this time bent of breaking
down the power of the nobles, and for that reason illegally seized the land and suppressed the
dignity of this great earldom; that the Erskines never relinquished their claim to the earldom,
while it remained ' in the simple and nakit possession of the Crown without ony richt of property
therein,' and made repeated though unsuccessful efforts to recover their rights; that Queen
Mary, therefore, it was contended, did not create a new peerage but had in express terms
recognised the right of Sir Robert Erskine's descendant, John, Lord Erskine, to the earldom of
which his ancestor had been unjustly deprived, as she said, through 'the troubles of the times
and the influence of corrupt advisers,' and had declared that, 'moved by conscience, as it was
her duty to restore just heritages to their lawful heirs, she restored to John, Lord Erskine, the
the earldom of Mar and the lordship and regality of Garioch, with all the usual privileges incident
and belonging thereto, together with the lands of Strathdon, Braemar, Cromar and Strathdee.'
Queen Mary, therefore, it was contended, did not create a new peerage but restored an old
one; and even if the title conferred upon Lord Erskine had been a new creation, the presumption
is that, like the original dignity, it would have descended to heirs female as well as male. With
regard to the assumption that Queen Mary must have granted a patent or charter conferring
the 'peerage earldom' on Lord Erskine, it was pointed out that there is no proof that any such
document ever existed, that there is not the remotest allusion to it in any contemporary history,
and that Lord Redesdale's suggestion that the deed may have been accidentally destroyed, or
that the Earl of Mar may have destroyed it to serve some sinister purpose, is a mere conjecture,
wholly unsupported by evidence. When it was proposed to restore the forfeited title, in 1824, to
John Erskine of Mar, it was remitted to the law officers of the Crown, one of whom was Sir John
Copley, afterwards Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst, to investigate whether he had proved himself to
be heir to his grandfather, the attainted earl. They reported in the affirmative, and the attainder
was reversed in his favour. It was noted as an important fact that John Erskine was declared in
the Act to be the grandson and lineal heir of his grandfather through his mother - a striking
proof, it was said, that the earldom restored by Queen Mary was not limited to heirs male. Mr.
Goodeve Erskine rests his claim to be the heir of his uncle on the very same ground on which
his grandfather based his claim to be the heir of the Jacobite earl, viz., through his mother; and
it was argued that, since the claim was regarded as valid in the one case, it ought to be so held
in the other also. Great stress was laid on the position which the earldom occupies in the Union
Roll, as showing that it has all along been regarded as the original dignity, and not a new
creation. In 1606 commissioners were appointed by James VI to prepare a roll of the Scottish
peers, according to their precedence, and the document prepared by them, which was
corrected by the Court of Session, is known in Scottish history as the 'Decreet of Ranking' - the
official register of the peerage of Scotland the basis, in fact, of the Union Roll. Now in this
nearly contemporary document the earldom of Mar has a much higher antiquity assigned to it
than the date of 1565, the earl being placed above several earls whose titles were conferred in
the fifteenth century. On the Union Roll it has the date of 1457 prefixed to it.
'These arguments, however, failed to satisfy the Committee for Privileges, consisting of Lords
Redesdale, Chelmsford, and Cairns, who decided that the dignity conferred by Queen Mary on
Lord Erskine was a new and personal honour, and is held on the same tenure as the other
peerages possessed by the Erskine family, all of which are limited to heirs male. This decision
which are limited to heirs male. This decision has not given universal satisfaction. A considerable
number of influential Scottish peers, including the Earls of Crawford and Balcarres, Stair,
Galloway and Mansfield, the Marquis of Huntly, Viscounts Strathallan and Arbuthnot, and Lord
Napier of Ettrick, have repeatedly protested against the Earl of Kellie's claim to vote as the
Earl of Mar, whose name stands fifth on the Union Roll. An elaborate work in two volumes
octavo was prepared by the late Earl of Crawford and Balcarres to prove that a miscarriage of
justice has taken place in consequence of the decision of the Committee for Privileges on the
Mar peerage case. Mr. Goodeve Erskine, who has at last regained the title of Ear; of Mar and
Baron Garioch, asserted that though the Committee for Privileges had unwarrantably authorised
the Earl of Kellie to assume a title which never had an existence and is a mere figment of their
own imagination, their decision had no bearing on his right to the ancient earldom of Mar, which
is claimed by no one but himself, and of which he is the undoubted lineal heir.
'The feeling that injustice was done to Mr. Goodeve Erskine by the decision of the Committee
was so strong that a Bill, entitled 'Earldom of Mar Restitution Bill.' was brought into the House of
Lords, by command of the Queen, for the purpose of restoring the ancient earldom to Mr.
Erskine. It was read a second time on the 20th of May, 1885, and referred to a Select
Committee, who reported that the preamble had been proved. The Bill passed through both
Houses of Parliament without opposition, and became law before the close of the session.'
John Francis Miller Erskine, 25th Earl of Mar
The Earl found himself in a spot of bother in late 1831, when he appeared in court charged with
an assault by shooting in the direction of a man named John Oldham. The following account of
the trial appeared in 'The Examiner' of 25 December 1831:-
'High Court of Justiciary, Edinburgh, Dec 19.
Trial of the Earl of Mar - The Earl of Mar was accused of assault, by shooting in the direction
of John Oldham, Esq., on the moor of Cochrage, Perth, on the 12th August last. John Oldham,
Esq., stated that he had a shooting on Cochrage Moor, of which he went to take possession
on the 12th August. Andrew Michie pointed out the boundary to him, and shortly afterwards, he
observed that there were three men shooting upon his moor. He rode up to them, when one of
them, which proved to be the Earl of Mar, seized hold of the bridle of his poney [sic], and
asked who and what he was, and what business he had there? Witness said he was on his own
moor - when his lordship replied that he was a poacher and a thief, and that he would as lief
shoot his horse as him. He thought, from his lordship's manner, that he must be drunk; and,
therefore, merely asked him what was the name of his moor. He said it was Blackcraig, and
witness answered that this is not Blackcraig, but Mr. Campbell's moor. Lord Mar then threatened
to prosecute witness, insisted on knowing who he was, and seeing his license. The witness
continued, "I said I should like first to know who he was: one of his men came forward, and said,
this is the Earl of Mar. Lord Mar immediately added, do you know who I am? I was a great deal
irritated at this, that he should suppose I should care more for him that Douglas, and I
answered that I knew not, nor cared who he was. I had never seen him before. I told him he
was off his own ground, and I was not. I said I was no poacher nor thief, and that he was a
liar and scoundrel. There was some repetition of these words; and he also said that I had
robbed him; it was his moor, and he had paid for it. At this time my men came up. I then said
to Lord Mar, here is a man (A. Michie) who is well acquainted with the moor: I should like to
have the limits of the moor defined. Lord Mar seemed quite furious at the proposal to have
the limits of the moor defined. He kicked my pony, let go of the bridle, and separated himself
about five or six yards. He then said he would fire at us if we did not leave the moor
immediately, and began to wave about the gun in all directions. A short parley took place
between Lord Mar and his own men who earnestly begged of him not to fire, and put the gun
aside. As soon as the men ceased to put aside the gun, his lordship put the gun to his
shoulder and fired. The charge passed near me, I instantly got off the poney [sic], expecting
that he would fire the other barrel, but his men prevented him. One of Lord Mar's men,
Salmon, begged that we should leave the moor; if we did not, he was sure mischief would
happen. I rather demurred to be driven off my ground in this way, but fearing to be shot said,
'We are going.' I went off, leaving his lordship standing, and when they had got away about
120 or 130 yards, I heard two shots fired. Robert Stewart looked about, and said he was
firing at us again, but I did not see him fire. Three witnesses corroborated this statement.
'Lord Mar admitted firing, with a view to scaring the party away, but not in the direction of
Mr. Oldham. Two witnesses gave his lordship a character for kindness, mildness and humanity,
The jury, after a few minutes' conversation, unanimously found the assault proven - Lord
Gillies after adverting to the distressing nature of the case that a young nobleman, the
representative of a most ancient family, should be convicted of crime, and to the necessity
of dispensing equal justice to the high and to the low, sentenced his lordship to imprisonment
for two months, and thereafter to find security to the extent of 5,000 to keep the peace
for five years, or to be confined for a further period of six months.'
Robert Mortimer, 1st Earl of March
The following sketch of the downfall of the Earl of March is taken from "Chambers' Book of
Days" published in 1869:-
'To the traveller approaching Nottingham by rail from the Derbyside, the commanding position of
its ruined castle cannot but be an object of interest. Though commerce has completely
surrounded the rock it stands upon with workshops, wharves, and modern dwelling houses, the
castle seems literally "to dwell alone." Associations of a character peculiar to itself cluster round
it. It has a distinctive existence, claims a distinct parentage from the puny, grovelling erections
beneath it and soars as much beyond them by the events it calls to mind, as by its proud and
lofty position. Its history, in fact, is interwoven in the history of the nation; and part of the
glory and shame of its country's deeds rests upon it.
'The old castle must have frowned with unusual gloominess when Isabella, queen of Edward II,
and her unprincipled paramour, Mortimer, took up their abode in it. The queen had rebelled
against and deposed her husband. Mortimer had accomplished his death. And with the young
king, Edward III, in their tutelage, they tyrannised over the country, and squandered its
treasures as they pleased.
'As a fresh instance of her favour, the frail princess had recently elevated Mortimer to the
earldom of March. But the encroaching arrogance of the haughty minion was awakening in the
minds of the barons a determination to curb his insolence and overgrown power. The spirit of
revenge was still further excited by the execution of the king's uncle, [Edmund Plantagenet]
the Earl of Kent, who appears to have been slain merely to shew that there was no one too
high to be smitten down if he dared to make himself obnoxious to the profligate rulers. The
bow, however, was this time strained beyond its strength. The blow that was intended to
quell the rising storm of indignation rebounded, with increased force, on the guilty Mortimer,
and proved his own destruction. For all parties, weary of his insolence and oppression, were
forgetting their former feuds in the common anxiety to work his overthrow, and this last
savage act of his government aroused them to a full sense of their danger, and gave increased
intensity to their hatred and desire of vengeance. Besides which, they saw in the young king,
now in his eighteenth year, signs of growing impatience of the yoke which Mortimer, as regent,
had imposed on his authority. Daily they poured complaints into the royal ear of the profligacy,
the exactions, and the illegal practices of the paramour, and found in Edward a willing listener.
At length he was brought to see his own danger, to look upon Mortimer as the murderer of his
father and uncle, the usurper of power which ought to be in his hands, the spoiler of his
people, and the man who was bringing daily dishonour to himself and the nation by an illicit
connection with his royal mother. He determined, accordingly, to humble the pride of the
arrogant chief, and redress the public grievances.
'A parliament was summoned to meet at Nottingham, about Michaelmas 1330. The castle was
occupied by the dowager queen and the Earl of March, attended by a guard of a hundred and
eighty knights, with their followers; while the king, with his queen, Philippa, and a small retinue,
took up his abode in the town. The number of their attendants, and the jealous care with which
the castle was guarded, implied suspicions in the mind of the guilty pair. Every night the gates
of the fortress were locked, and the keys delivered to the queen, who slept with them under
her pillow. But with all their precautions, justice was more than a match for their villainy. Sir
William Montacute [later 1st Earl of Salisbury], under the sanction of his sovereign, summoned
to his aid several nobles, on whose loyalty and good faith he could depend, and obtained the
king's warrant for the apprehension of the Earl of March and others. The plot was now ripe for
execution.
'For a time, however, the inaccessible nature of the castle rock, and the vigilance with which
the passes were guarded, appeared to present an insuperable obstacle to the accomplishment
of their designs. Could Sir William Eland, the constable of the castle, be won over, and induced
to betray the fortress into their hands? The experiment was worth a trial, and Montacute
undertook the delicate task. Sir William joyfully fell in with a proposition which enabled him at
once to testify his loyalty to his sovereign and his detestation of the haughty tyrant.
'Everything being now arranged, Edward and his loyal associates were conducted by Sir William
Eland through a secret passage in the rock to the interior of the castle. Proceeding at once to
a chamber adjoining the queen's apartment, they found the object of their search in close
consultation with the bishop of Lincoln and others of his party. The Earl of March was seized;
Sir Hugh Turplinton and Sir John Monmouth, two of the state-guards, were slain in attempting
to rescue him from the king's associates; and the queen, hearing the tumult, and suspecting
the cause, rushed into the room in an agony of terror, exclaiming: "Fair son, fair son, have pity
on the gentle Mortimer!" Notwithstanding the cries and entreaties of the weeping Isabella, her
beloved earl was torn from her presence, and hurried down the secret passage by which his
captors entered, and which has ever since been designated Mortimer's Hole. With so much
secrecy and despatch was this stratagem executed, that the guards on the ramparts of the
castle were not disturbed, and the good people of Nottingham knew nothing of the enterprise
till the following day, when the arrest of Mortimer's sons and several of his adherents by the
royalists, gave a significant and acceptable indication that the luxurious and profligate
usurpation of the Earl of March had at length been terminated by kingly authority.
'Mortimer was conveyed by a strong guard to the Tower of London. Edward repaired to
Leicester, whence he issued writs for the assembling of a new parliament at Westminster, for
the purpose of hearing charges against the late administration, and redressing the grievances
under which the kingdom had laboured. At this parliament Mortimer was impeached and
convicted in a most summary manner of high treason and other crimes. No proof in evidence
of his guilt was heard, and he was condemned to die as a traitor, by being drawn and
and hanged on the common gallows; a sentence which was executed at 'The Elms,' in
Smithfield, on the 29th of November 1330. His body was allowed to hang two days on the
gallows, and was then interred in the church of the Greyfriars.'
Simon Marks, 1st Baron Marks of Broughton
The following biography of Lord Marks of Broughton appeared in the February 1971 issue of the
Australian monthly magazine "Parade.":-
'Sir Simon Marks, the British retail store colossus, never lost his reverence for the memory of his
father, Michael, the Polish Jew who had earned his first shillings in England selling odds and ends
from a pack he carried on his back. Michael was a man of absolute integrity, a quality he passed
on to his son. And it was the lessons the younger Marks learned from his father that caused him
to treat the 28,000 members of his staff in his 240 stores like little princes and princesses.
Nothing was too good for these employees. Any humble salesgirl could, during the midday break,
have her hair shampooed in the staff hairdressing salon for 3/6 while a 1/- three-course meal
was served to her on a tray.
'Once a left-wing politician complimented Marks on his staff welfare services. "You're putting
socialism into practice," the politician said. Marks looked hard at the man. Quietly he said: "Not
exactly. I learned a very fine code of conduct towards my fellow men, not from Karl Marx, but
from Michael Marks."
'A sad-eyed little man who looked like Eddie Cantor, Simon Marks revolutionised shopping in
Britain until his stores were selling 10 per cent of all the clothing in the nation and serving 10
million customers a week. Starting with 50 penny bazaars left him by his father, Simon Marks
built Britain's most successful retail chain by selling quality goods at economy prices. His aim in
business, he always said, was to see that every shopgirl and typist could dress like a duchess.
"And eat like an epicure," he added when the firm began building up sales of food lines as well
as clothing.
'This romantic story of the creation of a great business began in 1880 when Michael Marks
arrived in England having fled his native Poland to escape conscription. Poland was then under
the control of Russia and the 17-year-old Jew had made up his mind he was not going to bear
arms for a country that was notorious for its anti-Semitism. Michael Marks landed at Hull in
Yorkshire and set up as pedlar round nearby villages. He sold buttons, pins, needles, cotton and
darning wool from a pack he carried on his back. After four years he had advanced enough to
marry Hannah Cohen and open a permanent stall in the Leeds market. The stall sold the same
sort of household odds and ends he had previously peddled from door to door. Marks called it
the Penny Bazaar and it carried a sign: "Don't ask the price - it's a penny."
'On July 9, 1888, Hannah Marks gave birth to a son who was named Simon. Meanwhile, the idea
of the penny bazaar had caught on and by 1890 Michael Marks was running five of them in
in different market towns. In 1894 Michael Marks found himself over-extended financially, so he
decided to take in a partner. Tom Spencer [1852-1905], a cashier at one of the warehouses
where Marks bought his goods, agreed to put up 300 for a half-share and the firm Marks and
Spencer was born.
'Young Simon Marks attended Manchester Grammar School and by the time he was 15, Marks
and Spencer had 40 market stalls in the Midlands. With increasing prosperity, Michael Marks was
able to go to a workman's club every weekend and present sovereigns to needy members
pointed out by the secretary. "God gives to him who gives," Marks used to tell his son.
'Simon left school in 1905 and was packed off to the Continent for two years so that he could
learn French and German. That year Tom Spencer died. In a period of constant business growth,
this meant overwork and worry for Michael Marks. He was so overworked that in 1907 it killed
him. In the same year Simon Marks, back from Europe only a couple of weeks and still a novice
in business, had to take control of the 50 penny bazaars run by Marks and Spencer. Yet seven
years later he had built the business up to 145 shops and bazaars, 50 of which were in London.
Although economy prices were still the firm's watch-word, the price ceiling was being raised
progressively, shops were replacing the bazaars and clothing was becoming the principal Marks
and Spencer line.
'With the outbreak of World War I, Simon Marks left the expanding business for his staff to run
and enlisted as a signaller in the artillery. A year later he was seconded from the army to act as
assistant to Dr. Chaim Weizmann [later the first President of Israel] in his government-supported
campaign to establish a Jewish national home in Palestine. Thus it was 1919 before Simon Marks
was able to go back to Marks and Spencer full-time and resume the building of a gigantic retail
chain. By the 1930s there was a Marks and Spencer store in every town of any size in England,
Scotland and Wales. And sales and profits were growing year by year with almost mathematical
progression.
'Simon Marks always gave the credit for the firm's success to commercial principles dinned into
him by his father. These included ploughing profits back into the business, making direct contact
with manufacturers, keeping the lines simple and worrying over the welfare of the staff. As the
number of Marks and Spencer stores bounded upwards, the firm became a byword in Britain.
Indeed, it was one of the rare commercial names the BBC allowed to be mentioned in broad-
casts.
'Simon Marks had revolutionised retailing with his passionate belief that "cheap need never be
nasty." Thus concentrating on quality he kept quantity soaring. By 1935 the Marks and Spencer
Marble Arch branch in London was selling more goods per square foot of space than any other
store in the world.
'To get the quality and selection of goods Marks wanted, the firm dictated to the 900 manufact-
urers it dealt with. They had to come up to Mark's standards or their contracts were cancelled.
He even bought the output of entire factories after making them conform to his specifications.
Virtually every item of clothing sold by Marks and Spencer was tested in laboratories for fabric
strength, colour fastness, durability of stitching, quality of buttons and so on.
'Marks ran the business like a benevolent dictatorship. "He wants to know about everything,
right down to the last button," summed up a staff member. His executives were driven hard but
they rarely left the firm. One who had been there 13 years described himself as a "new boy."
'Simon Marks was always seeking to reduce prices but not at the expense of the chain's profit
margins. Reductions came only from increasing efficiency and cutting expenses. Most of his
time was spent visiting stores. And when he got there he spent more time talking to the girls
behind the counter than to the executives. "The salesgirls are Marks and Spencer," he used
to say. "They know what is selling well or badly - and, above all, why."
'Simon Marks had a passion for detail. For instance, he once sent research scientists to Greece
and Turkey to persuade the peasants to grow uniform-sized currants. "He was a continuous
one-man quality control commission," an associate once said of him and told how would visit
a shoe department, pick up the most expensive shoe in stock, detach the lace and try to snap
it in two. If he succeeded he would call the store manager and tell him softly: "However fine
the shoe, the customer will condemn it if the lace breaks."
'Cleanliness was an obsession with Marks. One day he suddenly decided to stop stocking ice
cream although the firm was selling 2.5 million worth a year. He could not stand the sight of
the empty cartons people dropped on the shop floor. Similarly he banned smoking because it
polluted the air and he hated feeling cigarette butts underfoot. Marks's fetish for cleanliness
also meant that girls who handled cash could not handle food. Cooks and food-handlers could
not wear nail-varnish, or jewellery and had to tuck their hair up in plastic caps.
'To the shopgirls who made up most of the staff Simon Marks had a friendly, fatherly manner.
To the managers, however, he was always a tough-minded perfectionist. Once he visited a
store and asked the manager: "Any rotten apples lately?" This remark resulted from his previous
inspection seven years earlier when he had found some of the fruit bearing specks. "I go
round the stores making a nuisance of myself," Marks once confessed. "I know what everyone
says: 'There goes old so-and-so, interfering again. He's never satisfied.' But that's what I'm
there for."
'He once visited a store, saw a rail of dresses and asked the manager: "Do we dress pygmies
now?" Picking out a dress labelled for a woman of 5ft 2in he called for a tape measure and
demonstrated the dress was three-quarters of an inch short. Standing outside one of his stores
Marks once saw a woman emerging wearing a print dress with large red chrysanthemums all
over it. As she walked away he saw one extra large chrysanthemum covered a prominent part
of her anatomy where good taste told him no chrysanthemum should be. The alarmed Marks
rushed in to his shop to make sure the woman was not wearing a Marks and Spencer creation.
To his relief he was assured she was not. Still not satisfied, he then personally checked every
design and pattern of prints in stock to make sure no such chrysanthemum monstrosity
disgraced the racks of Marks and Spencer.
'In business circles he was generally regarded as having revolutionary ideas on staff relations. In
fact he horrified other company heads by spending 2 million a year on staff welfare. From his
father, too, he inherited charitable instincts which prompted him to donate more than 1.5
million over the years to causes both in England and Israel.
'In 1944 Simon Marks was knighted and in 1961 he was raised to the peerage as Lord Marks [of
Broughton]. At that time he told a friend: "I much preferred to be Sir Simon, it had the ring of
riding a charger and saving ladies in distress. Lord Marks somehow has a much flatter sound."
'Profits of Marks and Spencer mushroomed following a revolutionary anti-paperwork crusade he
began in 1957 and which was estimated to have saved 2 million a year immediately. The
figure increased progressively in later years because, while eliminating unnecessary records,
Marks also eliminated 8,000 jobs out of 28,000. But there were no sackings because he
promised the staff when he began the paper purge that no one would suffer. The firm simply
did not replace staff when someone left and the numbers dropped gradually.
'Lord Marks died at his desk of a heart attack on December 8, 1964. That year the firm he had
built from his father's market stalls showed a profit of more than 25 million from sales of 200
million. Perhaps his best obituary was in a current financial journal's summing up of the
company: "No firm in Britain is stronger, better managed or more consistently successful."
Abigail Masham (c 1670-6 Dec 1734), wife of the 1st Baron Masham of Otes
The following article is taken from the February 1953 issue of the Australian monthly magazine
"Parade":-
'Royal St. James' Palace was in the throes of a minor rebellion one sultry day in 1708. Fat,
gouty Queen Anne, described somewhat unkindly as the most stupid monarch in Europe, had
plucked up courage to revolt. She gazed with some distaste at the blonde junoesque woman
woman who, regardless of her costly gown, grovelled in tears at her feet. "Madame, I will not
restore you to favour," she said through primly-pursed lips. Sarah Churchill, Duchess of
Marlborough, brilliant, domineering "Viceroy Sarah" rose to her full height. "You'll suffer for this
injustice," she shouted defiantly as she flounced from the room. The skirmish was a victory for
the Queen who never spoke to Sarah Churchill again - and for the plain, waspish little woman
who quietly entered the royal bedchamber as the angry Duchess swept out.
'It was also a turning point in British history. For the waspish woman, Mrs. Masham, was to
guide Anne through the welter of intrigue and fear engendered by rising Stuart pretensions.
In the dying queen's last lucid moment, she persuaded her to hand the rod of office to an
incorruptible statesman who assured the succession to George of Hanover and removed the
threat of all-out civil war from the land.
'History has never solved the enigma of Mrs. Masham. Some describe her as colourless, insipid,
mousy; others as a wily, treacherous, venomous woman who betrayed her greatest benefactor.
Whatever the verdict, she played a greater part behind the scenes than any of the noble
soldiers and statesmen who jockeyed for power in an age of unbridled graft and corruption,
when the very throne of England trembled.
'Mrs. Masham was the daughter of a modest London merchant named Hill, who died unexpect-
edly, leaving his two sons and two daughters penniless. They were running wild and rapidly
sinking to the level of slum children when rescued by Sarah Jennings, their cousin. Sarah had
been the friend since childhood of dumpy Princess Anne, second daughter of James II. She had
married secretly a brilliant young strategist, John Churchill, who, by deserting to the enemy
with his troops on the eve of battle, had sent his royal friend and patron, James II, fleeing
overseas, and placed James' daughter Mary, and her foreign husband, William of Orange, firmly
on the throne.
'Sarah Churchill did well by her poor relations, particularly the dejected Abigail Hill - the future
Mrs. Masham, whom she pitied. Though notoriously mean and tight-fisted, she took the girl into
her own home and heaped presents on her. With the death of William and the accession of
Anne, the Marlboroughs became the most powerful couple in the land. It was understandable
for, in addition to their long personal friendship, Anne owed everything to them. They had
forestalled her father's attempt to kidnap her when he fled and then incurred the displeasure of
the new king by winning her a parliamentary income of 50,000 a year,
'As Anne's 15 children died one after the other, the unhappy woman leant more and more on
the lively, vivacious Sarah. Their friendship was so close that they called each other Mrs.
Morley and Mrs. Freeman. Anne therefore stood meekly by when, on her accession, the
Marlboroughs seized power and became virtual rulers. Sarah, as Lady of the Bedchamber and
of the Privy Purse, amassed a fortune by selling preferments and public offices. She even
deducted a pension for herself from the Queen's private funds.
'To make her position secure she surrounded the Queen with her own minions. Prominent among
them was the mousy Abigail Hill, the cousin she had picked from the gutter, whom she badgered
Anne into accepting as a woman of the bedchamber. Sarah had the utmost confidence in
Abigail. Demure, self-effacing, she appeared to be passionately devoted to her. She was
deferential almost to the point of servility. Even the flabby Queen could not understand why the
Duchess insisted on forcing such a dull creature, with lacklustre eyes, into the royal suite.
'The star of Marlborough began to set before he reached his peak of glory. The stolid people of
England, particularly the taxpayers, though outwardly impressed by his victories at Ramillies,
Oudenarde and, finally, Blenheim, began to doubt the wisdom of pouring wealth into a war
merely to decide which of two impossible princes - French or Austrian - should inherit the throne
of Spain.
'To keep her family in power against this growing hostility, the Duchess of Marlborough began to
bully Anne. When the Queen protested the Duchess would stamp her feet and shout: "Lor,
Ma'am, it must be so." She even told the Queen frankly that she was a "fool" and "ignorant."
The Duchess had misplaced confidence in her palace minions. Frequently absent, she could not
know that the Queen had drawn closer to the humble woman of the bedchamber, Abigail Hill.
Anne became so attached to her that when her consort died [in 1708], leaving her a childless
widow, she had little Abigail Hill to sleep on the floor of the royal bedroom.
'As the Duchess' bullying increased, Abigail turned against her. She stressed to the Queen that
the Duchess held her in contempt. She began to dabble in politics. The tide of popular feeling
was running fast against the Marlboroughs and their war party, and she decided to unseat
them. Among her cousins was Robert Harley, brilliant son of a Herefordshire squire, who had
become Speaker of the House of Commons, then cabinet minister, but who was in temporary
eclipse after being falsely charged with revealing the contents of secret documents. As a
result he was a bitter enemy of the Marlboroughs and their Whig friends and willingly entered
the plots of Abigail. On many evenings Abigail would admit Harley by a back stairway to the
private suite of the Queen, where in long political talks, they would plan the overthrow of the
Whigs.
'Suddenly the Duchess of Marlborough noticed that Abigail Hill was avoiding her. It was the
first hint of treachery. Then she heard that Abigail had been privately married to Mr. Samuel
Masham, a gentleman of the household and a Tory enemy. Angrily she demanded why, as Lady
of the Bedchamber, she had not been informed or invited. Abigail pleaded shyness, whereupon
the Duchess forgave her and offered to tell the Queen.
'The Duchess was not satisfied. She delved further and, to her rage, discovered that the Queen
had actually attended the marriage and had given the bride a large sum of money which the
Duchess herself had disbursed. It was obvious from such a snub that Abigail was now the
reigning favourite. The Duchess' rage became the greater when she discovered that she was
also the confederate of her husband's mortal enemy, Robert Harley. With a view to bullying her
into submission, she ordered Abigail before her. Abigail ignored the command.
'The quarrel came to a head when the Queen attended a thanksgiving service at St. Paul's
Cathedral for Marlborough's victories against the French. As usual, the Duchess, in her role of
Lady of the Bedchamber, selected and laid out the jewels the Queen was to wear. At the last
moment she discovered that her selection had been discarded for another prepared by Mrs.
Masham. The Duchess was so enraged that she had a violent quarrel with the Queen on the
steps of the Cathedral before a crowd. As a result the Duchess was summarily dismissed from
her positions at court. The Marlboroughs were tumbled out of office. The country returned a
Tory pro-peace Parliament.
'The change brought a vast increase of power to Mrs. Masham, now undisputed power behind
the throne. Her cousin, Harley, soon to be Lord Oxford, was appointed Prime Minister. Her
husband was made a baron. She became Keeper of the Privy Purse. The war petered out
indecisively in the Treaty of Utrecht. The Marlboroughs, hounded as scapegoats, went into
exile, the dominant Sarah violently denouncing the ungrateful Mrs. Masham.
'Though peace had come to the land, a far greater terror now descended on it. Queen Anne,
a gross feeder, was obviously failing. All her 15 children had died. There was no direct
succession to the throne. Under the Act of Settlement the throne was due to go to Protestant
George of Hanover, a descendant of a daughter of James I, unknown, unpopular, but safe. At
St. Germain, in France, however, James Francis Edward Stuart, son of the exiled James II and
brother of Queen Anne, had been proclaimed King of England. To many, particularly those of the
Catholic faith, he was the true King.
'All over England his supporters intrigued for his return. Even Protestant cabinet ministers and,
some say, Queen Anne herself, corresponded with him. The Protestant faction knew that if he
returned the heads of their leaders would fall. Estates would again be sequestered and re-
distributed. There would be bitter religious strife. Civil war as ruthless as Cromwell's would split
the land. England panicked. As Queen Anne sank gradually in health, Court, Cabinet and
services were split by plot and counter-plot. No one could trust his neighbour. The whole
country was in the grip of fear.
'It is believed that even Mrs. Masham's cousin, the Prime Minister, Lord Oxford, tentatively
approached the Pretender, while his Secretary of State, Lord Bolingbroke, was openly plotting
his return. The unhappy, ailing Queen became the shuttlecock of quarrelling factions, The crisis
reached a head when Mrs. Masham quarrelled violently with Oxford in the presence, it is said, of
the Queen, who then dismissed Oxford. The exultant Bolingbroke prematurely assumed power,
appointed his own minions and prepared to repeal the Act of Settlement and restore James
Francis Edward Stuart to the throne of his fathers, despite the opposition of the people.
'He acted too soon. As a result of the quarrel the Queen became suddenly ill. She went into a
coma. When the announcement, "Queen Anne is dead," came on 1 August 1714, it struck fear
into the hearts of citizens anxious for life and property. The fear lifted when it was announced
that in a moment of returning consciousness, Queen Anne had handed the cloak of office to the
incorruptible Whig Duke of Shrewsbury, who could be relied upon to secure the peaceful
succession of George of Hanover.
'Some authorities maintain that Anne was influenced in this historic act by Mrs. Masham. If that
were so, then the self-effacing mousy woman dragged from the gutter by Sarah Churchill was
one of the greatest figures in history. In the whirlpool of succession he faded quietly into
into obscurity in the country, where she died in 1734.'
Clotworthy Skeffington, 2nd Earl of Massereene
Massereene's father died when he was a lad of 15. When he came of age, he inherited the
family estates in county Antrim, but by then he had already settled in Paris, leaving the
management of his Irish property in the hands of his mother.
His allowance of 200 per month could not, however, cover his tailor's bills, gambling losses
and the demands of his many mistresses. Even so, he might have survived had he not become
in a business speculation put to him by a crooked merchant named Vidari, who proposed to
import salt to France from the Barbary Coast. Massereene signed a number of bills of exchange
which he was called upon to honour when the business collapsed. While his mother, the
dowager Countess, set about the task of raising the money required to pay his creditors,
Massereene himself was thrown into prison. His creditors, aware of his extensive property in
Ireland, assumed that he would become sick of imprisonment and pay the 30,000 he owed
in order to obtain his liberty. However, Massereene insisted that the debts had been incurred
by means of a fraud against himself, and he refused to acknowledge them. Rather than admit
his guilt by paying the debts, he decided to stay in prison for 25 years, after which time,
according to French law, the debts would be cancelled.
While imprisoned in the Chatelet prison, Massereene married Marie Anne Barcier, daughter of
the prison governor. She made two unsuccessful attempts to help him to escape. Finally, in
1789, after 18 years in prison, he was released on the day before the storming of the Bastille
by a mob which was partly inspired by bribes paid by Lady Massereene.
After his release, he returned to Antrim Castle, his seat in Ireland. He showed no interest in
the way his estates were being run, leaving after a short period for London. Here, he was soon
lured into another fraudulent business venture, again resulting in imprisonment for debt. Blaming
his wife's extravagance for his problems, he deserted her at a time when her health had been
ruined by her exertions on his behalf.
His total lack of feeling for his wife was the result of a new relationship with 19-year-old
Elizabeth Blackburn, a servant in the house opposite his lodgings. Being a devotee of nude
shadow-boxing, Massereene exposed himself at his window and caught her eye; soon she was
living with him. Meanwhile, he had been swindled again to the extent of 9,000, which landed
him in prison, where Miss Blackburn was allowed to join him. After a humiliating lawsuit in which
he pleaded that he had acted with extreme foolishness, coupled with a loan from his brother-in-
law, the Earl of Leitrim, he was eventually freed.
In 1797 he returned to Ireland with Miss Blackburn. Although he owed his own liberty to the
rebellious spirit of the French Revolution, he had a horror of Jacobinism and now took an active
part in an anticipated uprising in Ireland. He formed a company of yeomen and trained it in his
own peculiar fashion. The men were drilled without weapons; they simulated rifle shots by
clapping their hands and presented arms in a complicated pantomime involving a series of hand
signals. He also developed a number of new drills with names such as Serpentine and Eel-in-the-
Mud. All this military activity convinced Massereene that he was a natural leader of men, an
assessment not subscribed to the military establishment of the time.
When not drilling his troops, Massereene continued to indulge his personal whims. From time to
time he ordered the dining table, completely set, all the chairs and an elaborate dinner, to be
hoisted onto the roof by means of a pulley. His guests climbed to the roof by means of a small
ladder inside the house, but once they had assembled, Massereene usually declared himself
dissatisfied with the arrangements and ordered everything to be taken down again. When one
of his dogs died, all the local dogs were invited to its funeral at Antrim Castle. Some 50 of them,
provided with white scarves, acted as a guard of honour.
When his loyal and unappreciated first wife died, Massereene married Miss Blackburn who,
together with her family, had gained control of his fortune. On his death a few years later, his
brothers contested the will and gained the verdict they sought.
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