PEERAGE
Last updated 05/07/2014
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
SAATCHI
4 Oct 1996 B[L] 1 Maurice Saatchi 21 Jun 1946
Created Baron Saatchi for life 4 Oct 1996
SACKS
1 Sep 2009 B[L] 1 Jonathan Henry Sacks 8 Mar 1948
Created Baron Sacks for life 1 Sep 2009
Chief Rabbi of the UK and the Commonwealth 1991-
SACKVILLE
11 Feb 1782 V 1 Lord George Germain (Sackville until 1770) 26 Jan 1716 26 Aug 1785 69
Created Baron Bolebrooke and 
Viscount Sackville 11 Feb 1782
MP for Dover 1741-1761, Hythe 1761-1768
and East Grinstead 1768-1782. 
Chief Secretary for Ireland 1751-1755.
PC [I] 1751  PC 1758  President of the 
Board of Trade 1775-1779. Secretary of 
State for the Colonies 1779-1782
26 Aug 1785 2 Charles Sackville-Germain,later [1815] 5th 27 Aug 1767 29 Jul 1843 75
to     Duke of Dorset
29 Jul 1843 Peerages extinct on his death
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2 Oct 1876 B 1 Mortimer Sackville-West 22 Sep 1820 1 Oct 1888 68
Created Baron Sackville 2 Oct 1876
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
1 Oct 1888 2 Lionel Sackville Sackville-West 19 Jul 1827 3 Sep 1908 81
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
3 Sep 1908 3 Lionel Edward Sackville-West 15 May 1867 28 Jan 1928 60
For further information on this peer's wife, see the
note at the foot of this page.
28 Jan 1928 4 Charles John Sackville-West 10 Aug 1870 9 May 1962 91
9 May 1962 5 Edward Charles Sackville-West 13 Nov 1901 4 Jul 1965 63
4 Jul 1965 6 Lionel Bertrand Sackville-West 30 May 1913 27 Mar 2004 90
27 Mar 2004 7 Robert Bertrand Sackville-West 10 Jul 1958
SAINSBURY
3 May 1962 B[L] 1 Alan John Sainsbury 13 Aug 1902 21 Oct 1998 96
to     Created Baron Sainsbury for life 3 May 1962
21 Oct 1998 Peerage extinct on his death
SAINSBURY OF PRESTON CANDOVER
31 Jan 1989 B[L] 1 John Davan Sainsbury 2 Nov 1927
Created Baron Sainsbury of Preston
Candover for life 31 Jan 1989
KG 1992
SAINSBURY OF TURVILLE
3 Oct 1997 B[L] 1 David John Sainsbury 24 Oct 1940
Created Baron Sainsbury of Turville for life
3 Oct 1997
ST.ALBANS
27 Jan 1621 V 1 Francis Bacon 22 Jan 1561 9 Apr 1626 65
to     Created Baron Verulam 11 Jul 1618 
9 Apr 1626 and Viscount Saint Albans 27 Jan 1621
MP for Melcombe Regis 1584-1586, Taunton
1586-1587, Liverpool 1588-1589, Middlesex
1592-1593, Ipswich 1597-1598, 1601,1604-
1611 and Cambridge 1614. Solicitor General
1607-1613. Attorney General 1613-1617.
Lord Chancellor 1618-1621.
Peerages extinct on his death
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23 Aug 1628 E 1 Richard Bourke,4th Earl of Clanricarde 1572 12 Nov 1635 63
Created Baron of Somerhill and
Viscount Tunbridge 3 Apr 1624 and 
Baron of Imanney,Viscount Galway and
Earl of St.Albans 23 Aug 1628
12 Nov 1635 2 Ulick Bourke,5th Earl of Clanricarde,later [1646] Dec 1604 Jul 1657 52
to     1st Marquess of Clanricarde
Jul 1657 Peerage extinct on his death
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27 Apr 1660 E 1 Henry Jermyn,1st Baron Jermyn c 1604 2 Jan 1684
to     Created Earl of St.Albans 27 Apr 1660
2 Jan 1684 KG 1672
Peerage extinct on his death
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10 Jan 1684 D 1 Charles Beauclerk 8 May 1670 10 May 1726 56
Created Baron Hedington and Earl of
Burford 27 Dec 1676,and Duke of 
St. Albans 10 Jan 1684
illegitimate son of Charles II. Lord 
Lieutenant Berkshire 1714-1726. KG 1718
10 May 1726 2 Charles Beauclerk 6 Apr 1696 27 Jul 1751 55
MP for Bodmin 1718-1722 and Windsor
1722-1726. Lord Lieutenant Berkshire
1727-1751.  KG 1741
27 Jul 1751 3 George Beauclerk 25 Jun 1730 1 Feb 1786 55
Lord Lieutenant Berkshire 1751-1761
and 1771-1786
1 Feb 1786 4 George Beauclerk 5 Dec 1758 15 Feb 1787 28
15 Feb 1787 5 Aubrey Beauclerk,2nd Baron Vere of Hanworth 3 Jun 1740 9 Feb 1802 61
MP for Thetford 1761-1768 and
Aldborough 1768-1774
9 Feb 1802 6 Aubrey Beauclerk 21 Aug 1765 12 Aug 1815 49
MP for Hull 1790-1796
12 Aug 1815 7 Aubrey Beauclerk 7 Apr 1815 19 Feb 1816 -    
19 Feb 1816 8 William Beauclerk 18 Dec 1766 17 Jul 1825 58
17 Jul 1825 9 William Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 24 Mar 1801 26 May 1849 48
26 May 1849 10 William Amelius Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk 15 Apr 1840 10 May 1898 58
PC 1869.  Lord Lieutenant Nottingham
1880-1898
10 May 1898 11 Charles Victor Albert Aubrey de Vere
Beauclerk 26 Mar 1870 19 Sep 1934 64
19 Sep 1934 12 Osborne de Vere Beauclerk 16 Oct 1874 2 Mar 1964 89
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page
2 Mar 1964 13 Charles Frederick Aubrey de Vere
Beauclerk 16 Aug 1915 8 Oct 1988 73
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page
8 Oct 1988 14 Murray de Vere Beauclerk 19 Jan 1939
ST.ALDWYN
22 Feb 1915 E 1 Sir Michael Edward Hicks-Beach,9th baronet 23 Oct 1837 30 Apr 1916 78
Created Viscount St.Aldwyn 6 Jan 1906
and Viscount Quenington and Earl
St.Aldwyn 22 Feb 1915
MP for Gloucestershire East 1864-1885
and Bristol West 1885-1906. Chief 
Secretary for Ireland 1874-1878. Secretary
of State for Colonies 1878-1880.Chancellor 
of the Exchequer 1885-1886. Chief Secretary
for Ireland 1886-1887. President of the
Board of Trade 1888-1892. Chancellor of the
Exchequer 1895-1902. PC 1874  PC [I] 1874
30 Apr 1916 2 Michael John Hicks-Beach 9 Oct 1912 29 Jan 1992 79
PC 1959
29 Jan 1992 3 Michael Henry Hicks Beach 7 Feb 1950
ST.AMAND
29 Dec 1299 B 1 Almaric de St.Amand 29 Jul 1310
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
29 Jul 1310 St.Amand 29 Dec 1299
Peerage extinct on his death
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22 Mar 1313 B 1 John de St.Amand Jan 1330
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
St.Amand 22 Mar 1313
Jan 1330 2 Amauri de St.Amand c 1314 11 Sep 1381
11 Sep 1381 3 Amauri de St.Amand c 1341 13 Jun 1402
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
13 Jun 1402
15 Dec 1416 4 Gerard Braybrooke 15 Apr 1422
to     He became sole heir in 1416. On his death
15 Apr 1422 the peerage again fell into abeyance
1428 5 Elizabeth Braybrooke 2 Dec 1491
She became sole heir in 1428. She
married William Beauchamp who was
summoned to Parliament as Lord St.
Amand 2 Jan 1469
2 Dec 1491 6 Richard Beauchamp Jul 1508
to     Peerage extinct on his death
Jul 1508
ST.ANDREWS
12 Oct 1934 E 1 H.R.H. George Edward Alexander Edmund 20 Dec 1902 25 Aug 1942 39
Created Baron Downpatrick,Earl of
St.Andrews and Duke of Kent
12 Oct 1934
See "Kent"
ST.ASAPH
14 May 1730 V 1 John Ashburnham,3rd Baron Ashburnham 13 Mar 1687 10 Mar 1736 48
Created Viscount St.Asaph and Earl of
Ashburnham 14 May 1730
See "Ashburnham"
ST.AUDRIES
22 Jun 1911 B 1 Sir Alexander Fuller-Acland-Hood,4th baronet
[Hood 1809] and 6th baronet [Bateman 1806] 26 Sep 1853 4 Jun 1917 63
Created Baron St.Audries 22 Jun 1911
MP for Somerset West 1892-1911.  PC 1904
4 Jun 1917 2 Alexander Peregrine Fuller-Acland-Hood 24 Dec 1893 16 Oct 1971 77
to     Peerage extinct on his death
16 Oct 1971
SAINT BRIDES
8 Feb 1977 B[L] 1 John Morrice Cairns James 30 Apr 1916 26 Nov 1989 73
to     Created Baron Saint Brides for life 8 Feb 1977
26 Nov 1989 PC 1968
Peerage extinct on his death
ST.COLME
7 Mar 1611 B[S] 1 Henry Stewart 12 Jul 1612
Created Lord St.Colme 7 Mar 1611
12 Jul 1612 2 James Stewart c 1620
to     Peerage extinct on his death
c 1620
SAINT CYRES
3 Jul 1885 V 1 Stafford Henry Northcote 27 Oct 1818 12 Jan 1887 68
Created Viscount Saint Cyres and Earl of
Iddesleigh 3 Jul 1885
See "Iddesleigh"
SAINT DAVIDS
17 Jun 1918 V 1 Sir John Wynford Philipps,13th baronet 30 May 1860 28 Mar 1938 77
Created Baron St.Davids 6 Jul 1908
and Viscount St.Davids 17 Jun 1918
MP for Lanarkshire Mid 1888-1894 and
Pembrokeshire 1898-1908.  PC 1914
Lord Lieutenant Pembroke 1911-1932
28 Mar 1938 2 Jestyn Reginald Austen Plantagenet Philipps 19 Feb 1917 10 Jun 1991 74
He subsequently [1974] succeeded to the
Baronies of Hungerford and Strange de Knockin
10 Jun 1991 3 Colwyn Jestyn John Philipps 20 Jan 1939 26 Apr 2009 70
26 Apr 2009 4 Rhodri Colwyn Philipps 16 Sep 1966
SAINT GEORGE
18 Apr 1715 B[I] 1 Sir George Saint-George,2nd baronet c 1658 18 Aug 1735
to     Created Baron Saint George 
18 Aug 1735 18 Apr 1715
PC [I] 1715
Peerage extinct on his death
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19 Apr 1763 B[I] 1 St.George Saint-George c 1715 2 Jan 1775
to     Created Baron Saint George 
2 Jan 1775 19 Apr 1763
Peerage extinct on his death
SAINT GERMANS
30 Jan 1784 B 1 Edward Eliot (Craggs-Eliot from 1789) 8 Jul 1727 17 Feb 1804 76
Created Baron Eliot of St.Germans
30 Jan 1784
MP for St.Germans 1748-1768, Liskeard
1768-1774, St.Germans 1774-1775 and
Cornwall 1775-1784
17 Feb 1804 2 John Eliot 30 Sep 1761 17 Nov 1823 62
28 Nov 1815 E 1 Created Earl of Saint Germans 
28 Nov 1815
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
MP for Liskeard 1784-1804
17 Nov 1823 2 William Eliot 1 Apr 1767 19 Jan 1845 77
MP for St.Germans 1791-1802 and Liskeard
1802-1823
19 Jan 1845 3 Edward Granville Eliot 29 Aug 1798 7 Oct 1877 79
MP for Liskeard 1824-1832 and Cornwall 
East 1837-1845. Chief Secretary for Ireland
1841-1845. Postmaster General 1845-1846. 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1853-1855.  
PC 1841. PC [I] 1841
7 Oct 1877 4 William Gordon Cornwallis Eliot 14 Dec 1829 19 Mar 1881 51
MP for Devonport 1866-1868
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Eliot 14 Sep 1870
19 Mar 1881 5 Henry Cornwallis Eliot 11 Feb 1835 24 Sep 1911 76
For information of the death of his son and heir,
Lord Eliot,see the note at the foot of this page
24 Sep 1911 6 John Granville Cornwallis Eliot 11 Jun 1890 31 Mar 1922 31
31 Mar 1922 7 Granville John Eliot 22 Sep 1867 20 Nov 1942 75
20 Nov 1942 8 Montague Charles Eliot 13 May 1870 19 Sep 1960 90
19 Sep 1960 9 Nicholas Richard Michael Eliot 26 Jan 1914 11 Mar 1988 74
For further information on this peer, see the note
at the foot of this page
11 Mar 1988 10 Peregrine Nicholas Eliot 2 Jan 1941
ST.HELENS
26 Jan 1791 B[I] 1 Alleyne Fitzherbert 1 Mar 1753 19 Feb 1839 85
31 Jul 1801 B 1 Created Baron St.Helens [I] 26 Jan 1791
to     and Baron St.Helens [UK] 31 Jul 1801
19 Feb 1839 Chief Secretary for Ireland 1787-1789. 
PC 1787  PC [I] 1787
Peerage extinct on his death
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31 Dec 1964 B 1 Michael Henry Colin Hughes-Young 28 Oct 1912 27 Dec 1980 68
Created Baron St.Helens 31 Dec 1964
MP for Wandsworth Central 1955-1964
27 Dec 1980 2 Richard Francis Hughes-Young 4 Nov 1945
ST.HELIER
23 Feb 1905 B 1 Francis Henry Jeune 17 Mar 1843 9 Apr 1905 62
to     Created Baron St.Helier 23 Feb 1905
9 Apr 1905 Judge Advocate General 1892-1904.  PC 1892
Peerage extinct on his death
ST.JOHN
9 Mar 1539 B 1 William Paulet c 1483 10 Mar 1572
Created Baron Saint John 9 Mar 1539,
Earl of Wiltshire 19 Jan 1550 and 
Marquess of Winchester 11 Oct 1551
See "Winchester"
                     *************  
4 Oct 1544 John Paulet c 1510 4 Nov 1576
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron St. John 4 Oct 1544
He succeeded as Marquess of Winchester (qv)
in 1572
                     *************
5 May 1572 William Paulet 1533 24 Nov 1598 65
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron St. John 5 May 1572
He succeeded as Marquess of Winchester (qv)
in 1576
                     *************
10 Feb 1624 John Paulet c 1598 5 Mar 1675
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron St. John 10 Feb 1624
He succeeded as Marquess of Winchester (qv)
in 1629
                     *************
2 Jul 1716 V 1 Sir Henry St.John,4th baronet 17 Oct 1652 8 Apr 1742 89
Created Baron St.John of Battersea 
and Viscount St.John 2 Jul 1716
These creations contained special remainders
to his younger sons,John and Hollis, and the heirs
male of their bodies respectively and with an
ultimate remainder to the heirs male of his own body
MP for Wootton Basset 1679-1695 and
1698-1700, and Wiltshire 1695-1698
8 Apr 1742 2 John St.John 3 May 1702 26 Nov 1748 46
MP for Wootton Basset 1727-1734
26 Nov 1748 3 Frederick St.John 5 May 1787
He succeeded to the Viscountcy of Bolingbroke 
(qv) in 1751 with which title this peerage became
united and so remains
ST.JOHN DE BASING
29 Dec 1299 B 1 John St.John 14 May 1329
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
St.John de Basing 29 Dec 1299
14 May 1329 2 Hugh St.John 1337
1337 3 Edmund St.John 1347
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
1347
1361 4 Isabel 16 Oct 1393
She married Lucas de Poynings who was
summoned in her right. He died c 1385
16 Oct 1393 5 Thomas Poynings 13 Mar 1429
to     On his death the peerage again fell
13 Mar 1429 into abeyance
ST.JOHN OF BLETSO
13 Jan 1559 B 1 Oliver St.John 23 May 1582
Created Baron St.John of Bletso
13 Jan 1559
23 May 1582 2 John St.John 23 Oct 1596
23 Oct 1596 3 Oliver St.John c 1540 Jun 1618
Jun 1618 4 Oliver St.John,later [1624] 1st Earl of Bolingbroke c 1584 Jun 1646
14 May 1641 5 Oliver St.John 23 Oct 1642
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron St.John of Bletso
14 May 1641
On his death the peerage reverted to his
father (see above)
Jun 1646 6 Oliver St.John,2nd Earl of Bolingbroke c 1634 18 Mar 1688
18 Mar 1688 7 Paulet St.John,3rd Earl of Bolingbroke 23 Nov 1634 5 Oct 1711 76
5 Oct 1711 8 Sir Paulet St.Andrew St.John,5th baronet 10 May 1714
10 May 1714 9 William St.John 11 Oct 1720
11 Oct 1720 10 Rowland St.John 4 Jul 1722
4 Jul 1722 11 John St.John 24 Jun 1757
24 Jun 1757 12 John St.John 15 Nov 1725 27 Apr 1767 41
27 Apr 1767 13 Henry Beauchamp St.John 2 Aug 1758 19 Dec 1805 47
19 Dec 1805 14 St.Andrew St.John 22 Aug 1759 15 Oct 1817 58
MP for Bedfordshire 1780-1784 and 1785-1806
PC 1806
15 Oct 1817 15 St.Andrew Beauchamp St.John 8 Nov 1811 27 Jan 1874 62
27 Jan 1874 16 St.Andrew St.John 5 Oct 1840 2 Nov 1887 47
2 Nov 1887 17 Beauchamp Mowbray St.John 5 Dec 1844 10 May 1912 67
Lord Lieutenant Bedford 1905-1912
10 May 1912 18 Henry Beauchamp Oliver St.John 24 Jun 1876 17 Oct 1920 44
17 Oct 1920 19 Moubray St.Andrew Thornton St.John 5 Nov 1877 28 Oct 1934 56
28 Oct 1934 20 John Moubray Russell St.John 3 Aug 1917 13 Apr 1976 58
13 Apr 1976 21 Andrew Beauchamp St.John 23 Aug 1918 11 Feb 1978 59
11 Feb 1978 22 Anthony Tudor St.John 16 May 1957
ST.JOHN OF FAWSLEY
19 Oct 1987 B[L] 1 Norman Antony Francis St.John-Stevas 18 May 1929 2 Mar 2012 82
to     Created Baron St.John of Fawsley for life
2 Mar 2012 19 Oct 1987
MP for Chelmsford 1964-1987. Minister of
State for the Arts 1973-1974. Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster 1979-1981.
PC 1979
Peerage extinct on his death
ST.JOHN DE LAGEHAM
21 Sep 1299 B 1 John St.John Jun 1316
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
St.John de Lageham 21 Sep 1299
Jun 1316 2 John St.John 23 Apr 1323
23 Apr 1323 3 John St.John 1 Apr 1349
1 Apr 1349 4 Roger St.John 28 Mar 1353
28 Mar 1353 5 Piers St.John 1355
to     On his death the peerage became dormant
1355
ST.JOHN OF LYDIARD
7 Jul 1712 B 1 Henry St.John 10 Oct 1678 12 Dec 1751 73
Created Baron St.John and Viscount
Bolingbroke 7 Jul 1712
See "Bolingbroke"
ST.JUST
29 Jun 1935 B 1 Edward Charles Grenfell 29 May 1870 26 Nov 1941 71
Created Baron St.Just 29 Jun 1935
MP for London 1922-1935
26 Nov 1941 2 Peter George Grenfell 22 Jul 1922 14 Oct 1984 62
to     Peerage extinct on his death
14 Oct 1984
ST.LAWRENCE
3 Sep 1767 V[I] 1 Thomas St.Lawrence,15th Baron Howth 10 May 1730 29 Sep 1801 71
Created Viscount St.Lawrence and
Earl of Howth 3 Sep 1767
See "Howth"
SAINT LEONARDS
1 Mar 1852 B 1 Edward Burtenshaw Sugden 12 Feb 1781 29 Jan 1875 93
Created Baron Saint Leonards 1 Mar 1852
MP for Weymouth 1826-1831, St.Mawes
1831-1832 and Ripon 1837-1841. Solicitor
General 1829-1830. Lord Chancellor [I] 
1835 and 1841-1846. Lord Chancellor 1852
PC 1834. PC [I] 1835
For information about the St. Leonards Will Case
of 1875-76, see the note at the foot of this page
29 Jan 1875 2 Edward Burtenshaw Sugden 12 Aug 1847 18 Mar 1908 60
For further information about this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
18 Mar 1908 3 Frank Edward Sugden 11 Nov 1890 18 Jul 1972 81
18 Jul 1972 4 John Gerard Sugden 3 Feb 1950 1 Jun 1985 35
to     Peerage extinct on his death
1 Jun 1985
SAINT LEVAN
4 Jul 1887 B 1 Sir John St.Aubyn,2nd baronet 23 Oct 1829 14 May 1908 78
Created Baron Saint Levan 4 Jul 1887
MP for Cornwall West 1858-1885 and 
St.Ives 1885-1887
14 May 1908 2 John Townshend St.Aubyn 23 Sep 1857 10 Nov 1940 83
10 Nov 1940 3 Francis Cecil St.Aubyn 18 Apr 1895 10 Jul 1978 83
10 Jul 1978 4 John Francis Arthur St.Aubyn 23 Feb 1919 7 Apr 2013 94
7 Apr 2013 5 James Piers Southwell St.Aubyn 6 Jun 1950
ST.LIZ
2 Feb 1664 B 1 Basil Feilding,2nd Earl of Denbigh c 1608 28 Nov 1675
Created Baron St.Liz 2 Feb 1664
See "Denbigh"
ST.MAUR
29 Jul 1313 B 1 Nicholas St.Maur 8 Nov 1316
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
St.Maur 29 Jul 1313
8 Nov 1316 2 Thomas St.Maur 8 Aug 1361
8 Aug 1361 3 Nicholas Seymour Jan 1362
Jan 1362 4 Richard Seymour 15 May 1401
15 May 1401 5 Richard Seymour Jan 1409
Jan 1409 6 Alice Seymour
She married William Zouche,Lord Zouche (qv) 
who assumed the peerage in her right.
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20 Nov 1317 B 1 William de Saint Maur after 1322
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
after 1322 Saint Maur 20 Nov 1317
Peerage extinct on his death
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19 Jun 1863 E 1 Edward Adolphus Seymour,12th Duke  20 Dec 1804 28 Nov 1885 80
to     of Somerset
28 Nov 1885 Created Earl Saint Maur 19 Jun 1863
Peerage extinct on his death
SAINT OSWALD
6 Jul 1885 B 1 Rowland Winn 19 Feb 1820 17 Jan 1893 72
Created Baron Saint Oswald 6 Jul 1885
MP for Lincolnshire North 1868-1885
17 Jan 1893 2 Rowland Winn 1 Aug 1857 13 Apr 1919 61
MP for Pontefract 1885-1893
13 Apr 1919 3 Rowland George Winn 29 Jul 1893 25 Feb 1957 63
25 Feb 1957 4 Rowland Denys Guy Winn 19 Sep 1916 19 Dec 1984 68
19 Dec 1984 5 Derek Edward Anthony Winn 9 Jul 1919 18 Mar 1999 79
18 Mar 1999 6 Charles Rowland Andrew Winn 22 Jul 1959
ST.PHILIBERT
20 Nov 1348 B 1 John St.Philibert 3 Sep 1358
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
St. Philibert 20 Nov 1348
3 Sep 1358 2 Adam St.Philibert 1359
1359 3 John St.Philibert 1361
to     Peerage extinct on his death
1361
ST.PIERRE
11 Feb 1901 V 1 Frederick Sleigh Roberts VC,1st Baron Roberts 30 Sep 1832 14 Nov 1914 82
Created Viscount St.Pierre and Earl 
Roberts 11 Feb 1901
See "Roberts"
ST.VINCENT
23 Jun 1797 E 1 John Jervis 9 Jan 1735 14 Mar 1823 88
to     Created Baron Jervis and Earl of
14 Mar 1823 St.Vincent 23 Jun 1797 and Viscount
27 Apr 1801 V 1 St.Vincent 27 Apr 1801
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of the Viscountcy,see the note at the 
foot of this page
MP for Launceston 1783-1784, Great
Yarmouth 1784-1790 and Wycombe 1790-
1794. First Lord of the Admiralty 1801-
1804. Admiral of the Fleet 1821  PC 1801
On his death the Barony and Earldom became 
extinct whilst the Viscountcy passed to -
For information on two claims made for these
peerages,see the note at the foot of this page
14 Mar 1823 2 Edward Jervis Jervis 1 Apr 1767 25 Sep 1859 92
25 Sep 1859 3 Carnegie Robert John Jervis 12 Aug 1825 19 Jul 1879 53
19 Jul 1879 4 Edward John Leveson Jervis 3 Apr 1850 22 Jan 1885 34
22 Jan 1885 5 Carnegie Parker Jervis 5 Apr 1855 22 Sep 1908 53
22 Sep 1908 6 Ronald Clarges Jervis 3 Dec 1859 16 Feb 1940 80
16 Feb 1940 7 Ronald George James Jervis 3 May 1905 4 Sep 2006 101
4 Sep 2006 8 Edward Robert James Jervis 12 May 1951
SALFORD
22 Jul 1897 E 1 Wilbraham Egerton,2nd Baron Egerton of Tatton 17 Jan 1832 16 Mar 1909 77
to     Created Viscount Salford and Earl 
16 Mar 1909 Egerton of Tatton 22 Jul 1897
On his death these creations became extinct
whilst the barony continued - see 
"Egerton of Tatton"
SALISBURY
c 1145 E 1 Patrick de Salisbury 27 Mar 1168
Created Earl of Salisbury c 1145
27 Mar 1168 2 William de Salisbury 17 Apr 1196
17 Apr 1196 3 Isabella 24 Aug 1261
She married William de Longspee who
assumed the peerage in her right. He was 
born c 1175 and died 7 Mar 1226
7 Mar 1226 4 William de Longspee 8 Feb 1250
8 Feb 1250 5 William de Longspee 1257
1257 6 Margaret de Lacy 22 Nov 1310
22 Nov 1310 7 Alice Plantagenet 2 Oct 1348
to     Her husband was executed in 1322 when the
1322 peerage reverted to the Crown
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13 Mar 1337 E 1 William de Montacute,3rd Lord Montacute 30 Jan 1344
Created Earl of Salisbury 13 Mar 1337
30 Jan 1344 2 William de Montacute 25 Jun 1328 3 Jun 1397 68
KG 1348
3 Jun 1397 3 John de Montacute 7 Jan 1400
to     KG 1397
7 Jan 1400 He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
26 Oct 1409 4 Thomas de Montacute 1388 3 Nov 1428 40
Restored to the peerage in 1409
KG 1414
3 Nov 1428 5 Alice 31 Dec 1460
She married Richard Nevill who assumed 
the peerage in her right
31 Dec 1460 6 Richard Nevill,3rd Earl of Warwick 22 Nov 1428 15 Apr 1471 42
to     On his death the peerage fell into
15 Apr 1471 abeyance
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25 Mar 1472 E 1 George Plantagenet,Duke of Clarence 21 Oct 1449
to     Created Earl of Salisbury and Earl of
15 Jan 1478 Warwick 25 Mar 1472
He was attainted and the peerages 
forfeited
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15 Feb 1478 E 1 Edward Plantagenet 1473 31 Mar 1484 10
to     Created Earl of Salisbury 15 Feb 1478
31 Mar 1484 Later created Duke of Cornwall and Prince
of Wales - peerages extinct on his death
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16 Mar 1485 7 Edward Plantagenet 21 Feb 1474 28 Nov 1499 25
to     Restored to the peerage 1485. He was
28 Nov 1499 attainted and the peerage forfeited
1513 8 Margaret Pole 14 Aug 1473 27 May 1541 67
to     Restored to the peerage 1513. She was
1539 attainted and the peerage forfeited
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4 May 1605 E 1 Sir Robert Cecil 1 Jun 1563 24 May 1612 48
Created Baron Cecil of Essendon
13 Aug 1603,Viscount Cranborne
20 Aug 1604 and Earl of Salisbury
4 May 1605
MP for Westminster 1584-1585,1586-1587,
and Hertfordshire 1588,1592-1593,1597-
1598 and 1601. Secretary of State 1596-
1612. Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1597-1599. Lord Privy Seal 1597-1612. Lord
Lieutenant Hertford 1605. Lord Treasurer
1608-1612.  KG 1606
24 May 1612 2 William Cecil Feb 1591 3 Dec 1668 77
MP for Weymouth 1610-1611. Lord 
Lieutenant Hertford 1612 and Dorset 1642. 
KG 1624
3 Dec 1668 3 James Cecil 1648 Jun 1683 34
MP for Hertfordshire 1668  KG 1679
Jun 1683 4 James Cecil Sep 1666 3 Nov 1694 28
3 Nov 1694 5 James Cecil 8 Jun 1691 9 Oct 1728 37
Lord Lieutenant Hertford 1712-1714
9 Oct 1728 6 James Cecil 20 Oct 1713 19 Sep 1780 66
19 Sep 1780 7 James Cecil 4 Sep 1748 13 Jun 1823 74
24 Aug 1789 M 1 Created Marquess of Salisbury 
24 Aug 1789
MP for Great Bedwin 1774-1780,Plympton Erle
1780 and Launceston 1780. Lord Lieutenant 
Hertford 1771-1823. PC 1780  KG 1793
For information about this peer's wife,see the
note at the foot of this page
13 Jun 1823 2 James Brownlow William Gascoyne-Cecil 17 Apr 1791 12 Apr 1868 76
MP for Weymouth 1813-1817 and Hertford
1817-1823. Lord Lieutenant Middlesex 1841-1868
Lord Privy Seal 1852. Lord President of 
the Council 1858-1859.  PC 1826  KG 1842
12 Apr 1868 3 Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil 3 Feb 1830 22 Aug 1903 73
MP for Stamford 1853-1868. Secretary
of State for India 1866-1867 and 1874-1878
Foreign Secretary 1878-1880,1885-1886,
1887-1892 and 1895-1902. Prime Minister
1885-1886, 1886-1892 and 1895-1902. 
PC 1866  KG 1878
22 Aug 1903 4 James Edward Hubert Gascoyne-Cecil 23 Oct 1861 4 Apr 1947 85
MP for Lancashire NE 1885-1892 and
Rochester 1893-1903. Lord Privy Seal 1903-
1905 and 1924-1929. President of the Board
of Trade 1905. Lord President of the 
Council 1922-1924. Chancellor of the 
Duchy of Lancaster 1922.  PC 1903  KG 1917
4 Apr 1947 5 Robert Arthur James Gascoyne-Cecil 27 Aug 1893 23 Feb 1972 78
MP for Dorset South 1929-1941. Paymaster
General 1940. Secretary of State for 
Dominions 1940-1942. Secretary of State 
for Colonies 1942. Lord Privy Seal 1942-
1943 and 1951-1952. Secretary of State for
Dominions 1943-1945. Secretary of State 
for Commonwealth Relations 1952. Lord
President of the Council 1952-1957.  
PC 1940  KG 1946
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Cecil of Essendon in 
Jan 1941
23 Feb 1972 6 Robert Edward Peter Gascoyne-Cecil 24 Oct 1916 11 Jul 2003 86
MP for Bournemouth West 1950-1954
11 Jul 2003 7 Robert Michael James Cecil 30 Sep 1946
MP for Dorset South 1979-1987. Lord Privy Seal
1994-1997.  PC 1994
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Cecil of Essendon in 1992
SALMON
10 Jan 1972 B[L] 1 Cyril Barnet Salmon 28 Dec 1903 7 Nov 1991 87
to     Created Baron Salmon for life 10 Jan 1972
7 Nov 1991 Lord Justice of Appeal 1964-1972. Lord of
Appeal in Ordinary 1972-1980   PC 1964
Peerage extinct on his death
SALTER
16 Oct 1953 B 1 James Arthur Salter 15 Mar 1881 27 Jun 1975 94
to     Created Baron Salter 16 Oct 1953
27 Jun 1975 MP for Oxford University 1937-1950
and Ormskirk 1951-1953. Chancellor of 
the Duchy of Lancaster 1945. Minister of
State for Economic Affairs 1951-1952.
Minister of Materials   PC 1941
Peerage extinct on his death
SALTERSFORD
7 Jun 1796 B 1 James Stopford,2nd Earl of Courtown 28 May 1731 30 Mar 1810 78
Created Baron Saltersford 7 Jun 1796
See "Courtown"
SALTOUN
28 Jun 1445 B[S] 1 Laurence Abernethy 13 Mar 1460
Created Lord Saltoun 28 Jun 1445
13 Mar 1460 2 William Abernethy Jun 1488
Jun 1488 3 James Abernethy 1505
1505 4 Alexander Abernethy Jun 1527
Jun 1527 5 William Abernethy Dec 1543
Dec 1543 6 Alexander Abernethy 1537 Apr 1587 49
Apr 1587 7 George Abernethy c 1555 27 Apr 1590
27 Apr 1590 8 John Abernethy c 1577 21 Sep 1612
21 Sep 1612 9 Alexander Abernethy 26 Mar 1611 18 Dec 1668 57
18 Dec 1668 10 Alexander Fraser Mar 1604 11 Aug 1693 89
11 Aug 1693 11 William Fraser 21 Nov 1654 18 Mar 1715 60
18 Mar 1715 12 Alexander Fraser 1684 24 Jul 1748 64
24 Jul 1748 13 Alexander Fraser 1710 10 Oct 1751 41
10 Oct 1751 14 George Fraser 10 Oct 1720 30 Aug 1781 60
30 Aug 1781 15 Alexander Fraser 27 Jun 1758 12 Sep 1793 35
12 Sep 1793 16 Alexander George Fraser 22 Apr 1785 18 Jul 1853 68
KT 1852
18 Jul 1853 17 Alexander Fraser 5 May 1820 1 Feb 1886 65
1 Feb 1886 18 Alexander William Frederick Fraser 8 Aug 1851 19 Jun 1933 81
19 Jun 1933 19 Alexander Arthur Fraser 8 Mar 1886 31 Aug 1979 93
31 Aug 1979 20 Flora Marjory Ramsay 18 Oct 1930
SAMPSON
28 Dec 1299 B 1 William Sampson after 1306
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
after 1306 Sampson 28 Dec 1299
Peerage extinct on his death
SAMUEL
8 Jun 1937 V 1 Herbert Louis Samuel 6 Nov 1870 5 Feb 1963 92
Created Viscount Samuel 8 Jun 1937
MP for Cleveland 1902-1918 and Darwen
1929-1935. Chancellor of the Duchy of
Lancaster 1909-1910 and 1915-1916. 
Postmaster General 1910-1914 and 1915-
1916. Home Secretary 1916 and 1931-1932.
PC 1908  OM 1958
5 Feb 1963 2 Edwin Herbert Samuel 11 Sep 1898 14 Nov 1978 80
14 Nov 1978 3 David Herbert Samuel 8 Jul 1922
SAMUEL OF WYCH CROSS
3 Jul 1972 B[L] 1 Harold Samuel 23 Apr 1912 28 Aug 1987 75
to     Created Baron Samuel of Wych Cross for life
28 Aug 1987 3 Jul 1972
Peerage extinct on his death
SANDBERG
2 Oct 1997 B[L] 1 Michael Graham Ruddock Sandberg 31 May 1927
Created Baron Sandberg for life 2 Oct 1997
SANDERSON
20 Dec 1905 B 1 Thomas Henry Sanderson 11 Jan 1841 21 Mar 1923 82
to     Created Baron Sanderson 20 Dec 1905
21 Mar 1923 Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
18 Jun 1930 B 1 Henry Sanderson Furniss 1 Oct 1868 25 Mar 1939 70
to     Created Baron Sanderson 18 Jun 1930
25 Mar 1939 Peerage extinct on his death
Lord Sanderson was blind from birth
SANDERSON OF AYOT
4 Jul 1960 B 1 Basil Sanderson 19 Jun 1894 15 Aug 1971 77
Created Baron Sanderson of Ayot
4 Jul 1960
15 Aug 1971 2 Alan Lindsay Sanderson 1931
to     He disclaimed the peerage for life 28 Sep 1971
28 Sep 1971
SANDERSON OF BOWDEN
5 Jun 1985 B[L] 1 Charles Russell Sanderson 30 Apr 1933
Created Baron Sanderson of Bowden
for life 5 Jun 1985
SANDFORD
20 Jan 1891 B 1 Francis Richard John Sandford 14 May 1824 31 Dec 1893 69
to     Created Baron Sandford 20 Jan 1891
31 Dec 1893 PC 1885
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
14 Jul 1945 B 1 Albert James Edmondson 29 Jun 1886 16 May 1959 72
Created Baron Sandford 14 Jul 1945
MP for Banbury 1922-1945
16 May 1959 2 John Cyril Edmondson 22 Dec 1920 13 Jan 2009 88
13 Jan 2009 3 James John Mowbray Edmondson 1 Jul 1949
SANDHURST
28 Mar 1871 B 1 William Rose Mansfield 21 Jun 1819 23 Jun 1876 57
PC [I] 1870
Created Baron Sandhurst 28 Mar 1871
23 Jun 1876 2 William Mansfield 21 Aug 1855 2 Nov 1921 66
1 Jan 1917 V 1 Created Viscount Sandhurst 1 Jan 1917
to     Governor of Bombay 1895-1899. PC 1906
8 Nov 1921 On his death the Viscountcy became extinct
whilst the Barony passed to -
8 Nov 1921 3 John William Mansfield 10 Jul 1857 6 Jan 1933 75
6 Jan 1933 4 Ralph Sheldon Mansfield 19 Jul 1892 28 Oct 1964 72
28 Oct 1964 5 John Edward Terence Mansfield 4 Sep 1920 2 Jun 2002 81
2 Jun 2002 6 Guy Rhys John Mansfield 3 Mar 1949
SANDON
19 Jul 1809 V 1 Dudley Ryder,2nd Baron Harrowby 22 Dec 1762 26 Dec 1847 85
Created Viscount Sandon and Earl of
Harrowby 19 Jul 1809
See "Harrowby"
SANDWICH
12 Jul 1660 E 1 Edward Montagu 27 Jul 1625 28 May 1672 46
Created Baron Montagu of St.Neots,
Viscount Hinchingbrooke and Earl of
Sandwich 12 Jul 1660
MP for Huntingdonshire 1644-1647,1653,
1654 and 1656 and Dover 1660. KG 1660
Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon 1660-1672
28 May 1672 2 Edward Montagu 3 Jan 1648 29 Nov 1688 40
MP for Dover 1670-1672. Lord Lieutenant
Huntingdon 1683-1685 and Cambridge 1685-
1687
29 Nov 1688 3 Edward Montagu 10 Apr 1670 20 Oct 1729 59
20 Oct 1729 4 John Montagu 13 Nov 1718 30 Apr 1792 73
First Lord of the Admiralty 1748-1751,1763
and 1771-1782. Secretary of State 1763-
1765 and 1770-1771  PC 1749
For further information on this peer, and the death
of his mistress Martha Reay, see the notes at the
foot of this page
30 Apr 1792 5 John Montagu 26 Jan 1743 6 Jun 1814 71
MP for Brackley 1765-1768 and 
Huntingdonshire 1768-1792.  PC 1771
6 Jun 1814 6 George Montagu 4 Feb 1773 21 May 1818 45
MP for Huntingdonshire 1794-1814
21 May 1818 7 John William Montagu 8 Nov 1811 3 Mar 1884 72
Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon 1841-1884
PC 1852
3 Mar 1884 8 Edward George Henry Montagu 13 Jul 1839 26 Jun 1916 76
MP for Huntingdon 1876-1884
Lord Lieutenant Huntingdon 1891-1916
26 Jun 1916 9 George Charles Montagu 29 Dec 1874 15 Jun 1962 87
MP for Huntingdon 1900-1906. Lord
Lieutenant Huntingdon 1922-1946
15 Jun 1962 10 Alexander Victor Edward Paulet Montagu 22 May 1906 25 Feb 1995 88
to     MP for Dorset South 1941-1962
24 Jul 1964 He disclaimed the peerage for life 24 Jul 1964
25 Feb 1995 11 John Edward Hollister Montagu 11 Apr 1943
SANDYS
20 Dec 1743 B 1 Samuel Sandys 10 Aug 1695 21 Apr 1770 74
Created Baron Sandys 20 Dec 1743
MP for Worcester 1718-1743. Chancellor
of the Exchequer 1742-1743. President of
the Board of Trade 1761-1763.  PC 1742
21 Apr 1770 2 Edwin Sandys 18 Apr 1726 11 Mar 1797 70
to     MP for Droitwich 1747-1754, Bossiney
11 Mar 1797 1754-1762 and Westminster 1762-1770
Peerage extinct on his death
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
19 Jun 1802 B 1 Mary Hill 19 Sep 1774 1 Aug 1836 61
Created Baroness Sandys 19 Jun 1802
For details of the special remainder included in the
creation of this peerage,see the note at the 
foot of this page
1 Aug 1836 2 Arthur Moyses William Hill 10 Jan 1793 16 Jul 1860 67
MP for Down 1817-1836. 
16 Jul 1860 3 Arthur Marcus Cecil Sandys 28 Jan 1798 10 Apr 1863 65
MP for Newry 1832-1835 and Evesham
1838-1852  PC 1841
10 Apr 1863 4 Augustus Frederick Arthur Sandys 1 Mar 1840 26 Jul 1904 64
26 Jul 1904 5 Michael Edwin Sandys Sandys 31 Dec 1855 4 Aug 1948 92
4 Aug 1948 6 Arthur Fitzgerald Sandys Hill 4 Dec 1876 24 Nov 1961 84
24 Nov 1961 7 Richard Michael Oliver Hill 21 Jul 1931 11 Feb 2013 81
11 Feb 2013 8 Arthur Francis Nicholas Wills Hill,9th Marquess
of Downshire 4 Feb 1959
He had previously [2003] succeeded to the
Marquessate of Downshire,with which title this
peerage then merged
The special remainder to the Barony of Sackville created in 1876
From the "London Gazette" of 26 September 1876 (issue 24367, page 5199):-
"The Queen has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland granting the dignity of a Baron of the said United
Kingdom to Mortimer Sackville-West, Esq. (commonly called the Honourable Mortimer Sackville-
West), and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title of Baron
Sackville, of Knole, in the county of Kent, with remainders, in default of such issue male, to his
brothers Lionel Sackville Sackville-West, Esq. (commonly called the Honourable Lionel Sackville
Sackville-West), and William Edward Sackville-West, Esq. (commonly called the Honourable
William Edward Sackville-West), severally and successively, and to their heirs male of their
respective bodies lawfully begotten."
Victoria-Josefa Sackville-West, wife of the 3rd Baron Sackville (1862-1936)
The following is extracted from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
Spanish passion and Anglo-Saxon reserve were united in Lady Sackville - the illegitimate child
of a Latin dancer [Josefa de la Oliva] and an English diplomat [the 2nd Baron Sackville - she
therefore married her cousin] - to create a contradictory and unpredictable temperament. Her
attitude towards money, for example, veered without warning from reckless indulgence to
extreme parsimony. In certain moods money slipped through her hands like water; she once 
absentmindedly left a £10,000 cheque from J P Morgan made out to bearer in a taxi; on another
occasion a stranger whom she met on the forty-minute train journey from London to Sevenoaks
and never again laid eyes on persuaded her to invest £60,000 in a gold mine. In neither case 
was the money recovered.
On the other hand for a time she took to cutting up used postage stamps and piecing together
the non-postmarked bits to save the cost of a new stamp. She also economised by writing
letters on filched hotel notepaper, and on one occasion on a slice of cooked ham. She was 
especially pleased with toilet paper pinched from Harrod's ladies' room. She corresponded
regularly on this for quite some time and praised it to her daughter, the writer Vita Sackville-
West, for taking ink so nicely.
Lady Sackville was a high-spirited woman, capable of being utterly charming, but with a quick,
if short-lived, temper. Those closest to her, her servants and her family, suffered the brunt of
her mood changes, though they did not always take it lying down: several times the entire
household staff resigned en masse. One much loved nanny was summarily dismissed on
suspicion of having eaten three-dozen quail which had not arrived in time for a dinner party.
Fresh air was one of Lady Sackville's great passions. She never had a fire in her room, kept the
windows and doors at Knole always open, and insisted upon taking her meals outdoors in all
weathers. Often a meal with her meant sitting wrapped in fur coats with a hot water bottle on
one's knees and a rug draped over one's lap. A lamp provided some light in the darkness and
illuminated the drifting snowflakes as they piled up on the food and the cutlery. The 
compensation for all this was Lady Sackville saying cosily, 'Now, aren't you deliciously warm?'
Luckily, she was apparently immune to colds; her favourite remedy for sore throats was to tie
a pair of the architect Edwin Lutyens' old socks around her neck.
Knole, the ancient Sackville home in the Kentish countryside, was Lady Sackville's pride and joy.
There and at various smaller houses she had bought and sold over the years, she was able to
put her peculiar notions of interior decoration into practice. One bedroom at Knole was papered
entirely with postage stamps. The risers of a staircase at another house were painted to look
like bookshelves. The Persian Room was furnished completely with objects from Turkey, a
geographical contradiction which Lady Sackville absolutely refused to acknowledge. She took
great trouble over minor details, and had a special individually designed bookplate printed for
each book she owned.
Her daughter Vita was of course a distinguished gardener, as well as a writer, but Lady
Sackville preferred artificial flowers. Tin delphiniums were among her favourites because, as
she explained to Vita, they are always in bloom and never plagued by slugs. Rather than planting
living things, she often landscaped using only potted plants and porcelain flowers. On one 
occasion when Vita was coming to lunch, Lady Sackville's garden looked particularly dismal and,
wanting to make a show for her daughter, she sent a friend out to buy £30 worth of paper and
satin flowers which she 'planted' in an artistic arrangement in the bare earth.
An expensive lawsuit about the Sackville title had eaten into the family's fortune [for further
details see below] and Lady Sackville worried constantly that Knole's upkeep would become too
expensive for them. When Lionel, her husband, was called up for the First World War, she wrote
directly to Lord Kitchener saying that he must not be posted to a dangerous position as Knole
could not possibly survive the massive death duties that would fall due if he was killed.
Later she wrote to complain that Knole was being deprived of its staff by the call-up: 'I think
perhaps you do not realize, my dear Lord K., that we employ five carpenters and four painters
and two blacksmiths and two footmen and you are taking them all from us! I do not complain
about the footmen, although I must say that I had never thought I would see parlourmaids
at Knole!…….Dear Lord K., I am sure you will sympathize with me when I say that parlourmaids
are so middle-class, not at all what you and me are used to. But, as I said, that is not what I
complain about……I know that we must give an example. You are at the War Office and must
neglect your dear Broome [Kitchener's house], which you love so much. I think you love it as
much as I love Knole? and of course you must love it even more because the world says you
have never loved any woman - is that true? I shall ask you next time I come to luncheon with
you. But talking about luncheon reminds me of parlourmaids, and I said that I would not
complain about them (because I am patriotic after all) but I do complain about the way you
take our workmen from us.'
The distinction between charitable enterprises and profit-making ones eluded Lady Sackville. She
was not in the least shy of soliciting funds on her own behalf - sometimes without actually 
saying so. The energy, invention and ruthless charm she put into such enterprises was 
staggering. One of her pet 'charities' in later years was The Homeless Sleeping on Brighton 
Beach, an organisation which was not registered with the Charity Commissioners and of which 
she was the only known member or beneficiary.
In 1928 she wrote letters to all her acquaintances asking for donations to her Roof of Friendship
Fund. Each person was asked to give the price of a tile to be dedicated to his or her friendship
with Lady Sackville and to form with all the others an inspirational symbol of friendship to replace
her distinctly uninspiring and leaky roof. Quite a few did contribute, but she was furious with 
[the painter] William Nicholson, who had the effrontery to send in a real tile.
Later on came the Million Penny Fund, designed to eliminate the National Debt. Lady Sackville 
perused the papers for mentions of famous people celebrating their birthdays and wrote asking 
them to contribute one penny for each year of their life. The form letter she had written for 
the purpose ended with a plea: ' and do give me stamped envelopes which means one for my
begging letter, one for having the pleasure of thanking you, and one for a fresh VICTIM.'
Another time she decided to hold a white elephant sale. 'You know, people have them at 
bazaars,' she told Vita, 'but I shall have this one for myself. And then I thought as elephants
come from Siam I would write to the King and ask him for a white one.' To the surprise of
everyone but Lady Sackville, the King of Siam replied with a gift of a small but valuable solid-
silver elephant.
                                                   ***************
In May 1903, an action was brought by Ernest Henri Jean Baptiste Sackville West against
the then Lord Sackville. His case was that he was the lawful and eldest son of Lord Sackville;
that Sackville had married Josephine Duran de Ortega in 1864 or 1865 either in Spain or in
France; and that he had been born on 24 June 1869. For his part, Sackville denied that he had
ever been married and further stated that Josephine had previously married, in 1851, one Juan
Antonio Gabriel de la Oliva and that, at the time of her alleged marriage to Sackville, she was
still married to de la Oliva. 
There is no doubt that Josephine had been Sackville's mistress for many years and that she had
been the mother of three of his children, including Victoria-Josefa, who was therefore the 
claimant's older sister.
The claim was finally rejected by the Probate Court in February 1910. The following extract is 
from 'The Times' of 15 February 1910.
'Pepita, the mother of the claimant, was, somewhere about the fifties [i.e. the 1850s], a
fascinating dancer "with glorious black eyes and hair", the idol of Madrid, with admirers where-
ever she went. The German students took the horses out of her carriage and drew it, to show
perhaps their opinion that she was another or a better Lola Montez. She had many of the 
triumphs of a danseuse and one day she danced away the heart of a young Englishman, a
diplomatist, the heir to a peerage and an ancient title. His was no fugitive fancy. They lived
together for many years, and children were born to them. But they were not married. They
could not be so. There was abundant evidence that in 1851 she became the wife of a Spanish
dancer, de Oliva. The certificate of her marriage was found among her papers at her death.
The late Lord Sackville, who had been told of the marriage to Oliva, stated that he was anxious
to marry her if her husband was out of the way, 'but I never did marry her, or go through any
form of marriage with her.' While they lived together his intimate friends knew the true state of
things, which he did not conceal from them. When he went to Washington the Diplomatic Circle
was made aware that his children were not legitimate. After her death he did his duty towards
them, but not at the expense of truth. The late peer had his faults, but he was kind, not only to
his children, but to Pepita. He no doubt introduced her and spoke of her as his wife. He
registered his children as legitimate, and she was buried as his wife. The explanation of this was
simple; he desired to spare her feelings while she lived and to respect her memory when she 
died. He knew that his friends were well acquainted with the facts; in business matters he took 
care to state the truth; and letter after letter from him, unequivocal as to his children's
positions, was put in evidence.'
                                                   ***************
While viewing the Wallace Collection in 1897, Lady Sackville first met Sir John Murray Scott. For
further information on him, see the note at the foot of the page containing details of the 
Wallace baronetcy created in 1871. Following the deaths of his mentor, Sir Richard Wallace and
his wife, Scott had inherited over a million pounds in cash and securities, two valuable estates
in Britain and the historic pavilion of Bagatelle in Paris, once owned by Marie Antoinette. 
 
A friendship developed between Sir John and Lady Sackville. She visited Paris to view the 
collection of Marie Antoinette's furniture at Bagatelle; he, in turn, visited Knole to see the art
treasures there. Once the litigation outlined above had commenced, Sir John was anxious that 
none of the collection at Knole be sold to meet the costs of the court case. Accordingly, he 
advanced the sums necessary to fight the case.
When Sir John died in 1912, he left an estate valued at £1,180,000. In his will, he left Lady
Sackville £150,000 in cash and the magnificent art collection at his house in Paris, valued at
£350,000. Sir John's four brothers and two sisters were furious when they heard of this, and
this fury was increased when they realised that the bequest was tax-free, meaning that any
taxation would have to be paid by the residue of the estate. They claimed that, after paying
this tax, the value of the remaining estate would be negligible.
They therefore contested the will and the case became famous as 'The Million Pound Case'
when it opened in the Probate Court in June 1913. Lady Sackville was represented by Sir
Edward Carson, later Baron Carson, and the Scotts by F E Smith, later Earl of Birkenhead.
The Scotts maintained that the amount advanced to the Sackvilles to fight their court case
was nearly £90,000. They alleged that Lady Sackville had insinuated herself into Sir John's
good graces and had completely mesmerised him. She had become virtual mistress of his home
in Connaught Place, choosing his guests, riding in his carriages, managing his servants and once
even banishing one of his sisters from the table during a dinner party. One of the brothers,
Walter Scott, accused her of trying to trap him into a love affair in order to turn Sir John
against him.
The Scotts were forced to admit, under questioning by Carson, that Sir John had been most
generous to them in his lifetime. To one he had given a fully-stocked farm worth £57,000
with a allowance of £2,000 a year. Another brother admitted receiving £26,000.
It took the jury only 12 minutes to find in favour of Lady Sackville. Contrary to Sir John's good
intentions however, and proving her fickle nature, she reputedly lost no time in selling the art
treasures, obtaining, it is said, some £270,000 from a Paris art dealer.
Osborne de Vere Beauclerk, 12th Duke of St. Albans
The following is extracted from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
'Obby', as his friends called him, took little part in public life; in fact, his forays into that arena
seem mostly to have been motivated by a gleeful desire to cause havoc. He held the hereditary
post of Grand Falconer and proposed attending the 1953 Coronation with a live falcon on his
wrist. When the organisers suggested a stuffed bird instead, he boycotted the ceremony. 
Parishioners at the church near his home in Ireland remember him snoozing through sermons
with a handkerchief over his face, rousing himself occasionally to shout out "Rubbish!"
He married late in life and never had any legitimate children, partly for fear of passing on a 
streak of madness that ran in his branch of the family. About illegitimate children, however, he
had no such inhibitions, and boasted of having large numbers of them. Obby professed to be
unsure of exactly how many he had. On one occasion a certain baronet and his wife who were
lunching with the Duke were mystified to hear him repeatedly muttering to a friend in very
audible asides "What do you think? Is he one of mine?"
His sense of decorum was strict, if unpredictable. Once, when his wife was late coming down to
a lunch, Obby gave her seat to a man who had come to check the fire extinguishers and when 
she did appear he refused to allow her to join the table. He expected the hall porter at his club,
Brooks's, to wind his watch for him, holding out his arm and saying "there's a good fellow."
Once, while he was eating in a hotel restaurant, a fire broke out. The Duke remained at his table
and when urged by the waiters to escape, he replied "Nonsense! Bring me some more toast."
On the other hand the ducal dignity was allowed to slip rather badly when on a visit to Lord
Dunraven he arrived carrying only a toothbrush and a pair of pyjamas in a brown paper bag. 
Obby lived to be 89, with little thought of growing old gracefully. At 83, he took a freighter to 
the US, crossed the country by Greyhound bus, and toured Latin America, travelling second
class all the way. A newspaper interview two years previously in which he expressed a desire
for a young wife brought him 68 offers of marriage, including a number of titled and highly
eligible ladies. He opted for continued singleness, the state in which eccentricity and
crotchetiness best thrive.
Charles Frederick Aubrey de Vere Beauclerk, 13th Duke of St. Albans
 
At the time he succeeded to the Dukedom, Charles Beauclerk was employed in the film division
of the Central Office of Information, having previously contributed articles to the Evening Star
newspaper and lived in rented accommodation.
Once he succeeded to the title, his immediate ambition was to use the title to advance his
business prospects. However, he showed poor judgement in his choice of business colleagues
and, after a series of financial scandals, he was forced to admit that his involvement in the
world of commerce had brought him nothing but grief. In December 1973, when he was chairman 
of Grendon Trust, he was severely criticized by the UK Department of Trade over his actions
during a takeover bid. The Duke held a 3.9% holding in Grendon which he sold, despite having 
given an undertaking not to sell without advance notice to the Grendon board. The Takeover
concluded that, although they had no reason to believe that the Duke acted from improper
motives, they could not avoid the conclusion that the sale of the Duke's shares was prejudicial
to the interests of other Grendon shareholders and was therefore open to serious criticism.
The Duke was reported to have made £793,000 from the sale of his shares.
After the Inland Revenue sued him for £182,000 in 1978, he sold his two houses in Chelsea and
went to live in southern France, returning regularly to London to have his hair cut at the Ritz.
The special remainder to the Earldom of Saint Germans
From the "London Gazette" of 30 September 1815 (issue 17066, page 1997):-
"His Royal Highness has....been pleased, in the name and on behalf of His Majesty, to grant the
dignity of Earl of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to the Right Honourable John
Craggs Lord Eliot, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, by the name, style, and title
of Earl of Saint Germains, in the county of Cornwall."
A week later, there appeared in the "London Gazette" of 7 October 1815 (issue 17068, page 
2042) 
"Errata in the Gazette of Saturday last
"For His Royal Highness the Prince Regent has....been pleased to grant the dignity of an Earl of
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland unto the Right Honourable John Craggs Lord
Eliot, and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten,
 
"Read His Royal Highness the Prince Regent has been....pleased to grant the dignity of an Earl 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland unto the Right Honourable John Lord Eliot, and 
the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue, to his brother William
Eliot, Esq. and the heirs male of his body lawfully begotten."
Edward Henry John Cornwallis Eliot, styled Baron Eliot, son and heir of the 5th Earl
of Saint Germans
Lord Eliot committed suicide on 24 August 1909. The following obituary appeared in 'The
Times' on 25 August:-
'Lord Eliot, elder son and heir of the Earl of St.Germans, was found shot dead at the family seat,
Port Eliot, St.Germans, Cornwall, yesterday.
'Lord Eliot was a subaltern in the Coldstream Guards and had been serving with his battalion,
the third, at Khartoum. He went out in January last and recently came home on sick leave, but
was not believed to be in a serious state of ill-health. He had, however, felt the effects of the
climate of the Sudan. He was an enthusiastic cricketer, and had, during his stay at home, taken
part in several matches. It had been arranged that a team from Plymouth should go down to
St.Germans yesterday for a match. On the arrival at St.Germans of Major Cawdor and his team
from Plymouth, Lord Eliot could not be found, and search was made for him. About 2 o'clock
his dead body was found in the gun-room. Lord Eliot had been shot through the head, and an
empty cartridge case was found in one of the barrels of a double-barrelled gun which was 
beside the body. Lord Eliot was personally very popular in the district, and his death has caused
great regret.
'Edward Henry John Cornwallis, Lord Eliot, was born on August 30, 1885, so that he was within
a few days of completing his 24th year. He was educated at Eton and Magdalene College,
Cambridge, and was gazetted an ensign in the Coldstream Guards in May last year. His younger
brother, the Hon. John Granville Cornwallis, who was born in June, 1890, and is a cadet at
Sandhurst, now becomes heir to the title.'
Nicholas Richard Michael Eliot, 9th Earl of Saint Germans
St. Germans (or Lord Eliot as he was known until 1960) was dubbed the 'Bookie Peer'. Having
participated in horse racing as an owner and trainer, he opened a turf commission agency in
1950. In 1953, he was called as a witness in the 'Francasal affair' where a racecourse gang
ran a horse named Francasal at the Bath races in the name of a considerably slower horse
called Santa Amaro. Shortly before the start of the race, the gang placed bets totalling
£6,000 on 'Santa Amaro'. The ring-in duly won, but the circumstances aroused suspicion and
payment of bets was withheld. The gang were later found guilty and imprisoned. In his evidence
at the trial, St. Germans testified that one of the conspirators had come to him with 'quite a
childish suggestion'; that the wife of the Chief Constable of Bath should be presented with a fur
coat. St. Germans immediately informed Scotland Yard of this approach.
After he succeeded to the title in 1960, St. Germans migrated to Tangier as a tax exile. There
he called himself the 'Tangerine Earl'. He was a popular figure among the locals but admitted 
that there were things he missed about England, including treacle tart and a decent game of
backgammon. In 1963, he fired an unauthorized gun in the Safari Bar, for which he spent a night
in a police cell.
The Saint Leonards Will case of 1875-1876
The following article, written by Dalrymple Belgrave, is taken from a series entitled "Romances
of High Life" published in the 'Manchester Times' in 1898:-
'The Lord Chancellors are a long-lived race. Lord Lyndhurst lived to ninety-one, Lord Brougham
to eighty-nine, and Lord Chelmsford to an old age, but the oldest ex-Chancellor of late years
was Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, the first Lord St. Leonards, who was over 70 in 1852, when he
was made Lord Chancellor by Lord Derby, and who lived for 23 years after that great event in 
his life. Lord St. Leonards, when the time came for him to go into the House of Commons as a
step in the career of a great lawyer, had probably troubled himself very little about politics. 
Unlike Lord Lyndhurst, who was always interested in politics, or Lord Brougham, of whom it was
said that if he had known some law he would have known a little of everything, Lord St. 
Leonards was a great lawyer, who was interested in nothing but law. He served the Tory party
by the great ability he showed when he was their law officer, and amused it when he was in
Opposition by losing no opportunity, in the law courts, of exposing the ignorance of law of the
Whig Chancellor, Lord Brougham, but he took little part in debates.
'He was always loyal to his party, though his promotion came very slowly. In 1829 he was made
by the Duke of Wellington Solicitor-General. In 1834 Sir Robert Peel gave him the Irish 
Chancellorship. After that he went back to the Bar and the House of Commons. After he was
made Chancellor in 1852, he did not hold that office for long, as the Ministry only lasted a few
months. Six years later Lord Derby came into office, and again offered the old lawyer the 
woolsack, but he considered that at 77 he was too old for the responsibilities of office. For 
years after that, however, he did a great deal of work in the House of Lords as a law lord, while 
he also was of great service to his country in the House as a law reformer. Towards the end of 
his life, however, he lived most of his time at Boyle Farm, near Thames Ditton, which was the 
place he had chosen as his home. He was a man of humble birth, for his father was a hair-
dresser, but for years he had had a large practice at the bar, and he had made a great deal of
money, a large portion of which he had invested in the purchases of landed estates.
'He had bought the Childerly Hall Estate, Cambridgeshire, which had a rent roll of £1,580 a year,
Sutton Scotney, Hampshire, with £1,200 a year, Peaswood, Berkshire £1,200 1,200 a year, Filgate,
Sussex, worth £283 a year, and Boyle Farm and some land, worth £405 a year. Boyle Farm was
his residence, and he had spent a good deal of money in improving and furnishing the house. 
Some years after he bought Boyle Farm he purchased another estate, Kingsdown, in Sussex.
When he was a young man, a year after he had been called to the Bar, he had married. He had
a family of three sons and five daughters. Two of his sons, the eldest (Henry) and the youngest
(Arthur), died in his lifetime. Both, however, had married and left sons, and all his daughters but
one were married. This daughter, the Hon. Miss Charlotte Sugden, was her father's constant
companion. During his busy life at the Bar, the old Chancellor had written several great law 
books, and in his old age he devoted a great deal of time to a work which he called "The Handy-
Book of Real Property Law." The idea of this book was that it should explain the law of real
property - which had occupied the great lawyer's life - to unlearned readers, and make most of
its intricacies and difficulties easy for them to understand. To some extent he may be said to 
have succeeded in doing this, for the book is admirably clear. In doing this work it was his 
custom to use his daughter, Miss Sugden, as his amanuensis and assistant. He would read over 
what he had written to her, and explain it, and when he saw that she perfectly understood it
he would say that the general public ought to understand what he had written. Possibly he was
over-confident in this respect, for Miss Sugden seems to have had no small talent for the 
branch of learning in which her father so greatly excelled.
'The book is written in the form of letters to some person whom the writer is supposed to be
anxious to instruct. There is one of them which has a curious interest, considering what 
afterwards happened. It relates to the subject of wills. "I am somewhat unwilling," he writes, 
"to give you instructions for making your will without the assistance of your professional legal
adviser. It is quite shocking to reflect on the litigation that had been caused by men making 
their own wills or employing incompetent persons to do so, to save a few guineas. Looking at it
as a money transaction, lawyers might be in despair if everyone's will was prepared by a
competent person." In another place in his book he discusses the new regulations of the Probate
Office, which not only takes care of the wills of deceased persons, but also provides repositories
where people can, if they choose, place their own wills for safe custody. "If you are from time to
time likely to alter your will, I should advise you not to place it within this depository. If I were a
devisee of a living testator I should like to hear that the will was in the new depository. The
expense and difficulty of the gathering of the will out of this custody would deter many men 
from capriciously altering their donations."
'Possibly Lord St. Leonards thought that his warning against people making their own wills do not
apply to the case of an ex-Lord Chancellor, who probably knew more about the law on the 
subject than any man alive, and yet he was destined to prove the truth of the old adage about 
the sort of client that the man has who is his own lawyer. Lord St. Leonards will was an object
of art, on which he spent much time, and he probably could not stand the idea of any other
lawyer having anything to do with it. He had made a will in 1867, in which he had left all his
landed estate in trust for his grandson - who would succeed him in the peerage - for his life,
with remainders to his first and other sons, and with other remainders, so that as far as the
estate could be settled it would go with the peerage. He made his pictures and objects of art
at Boyle Farm heirlooms, and he gave to his daughter, Miss Charlotte Sugden, a legacy of 
£6,000, and directed that she should have from his farm stock two cows, to be selected by
herself, from his conservatory two dozen plants, and two dozen bottles of his old sherry.
'On January 13th, 1870, Miss Sugden noticed that her father was very busy with his papers, and 
that he had the will of 1867 before him. When she called him to luncheon he would not suspend
his labours, but he went on writing until he had finished, and then he expressed his pleasure at
having completed his will. He then read slowly over to her what he had written. This began: 
"This is an addition to my will," and it disposed of the Kingsdown Estate, which he had then 
lately bought, and which was worth about £1,200 a year, to his living son, Frank, who was a 
clergyman. It gave certain other legacies, and named his daughter, Charlotte Sugden, and two 
married daughters, Caroline Turner and Augusta Reilly, his residuary legatees. This, with the will 
of 1867, covered sixteen sheets of blue paper, which were pinned together. After he had made 
his will he locked it in his will box. On March 3rd, 1870, he added a codicil to his will; on July 4th, 
1871, a second codicil; September 15th, 1871, a third; a few days afterwards he made another 
codicil, and he made a fifth codicil on November 27th, 1871. These codicils were not of much 
importance, except that one of them left three meadows at Thames Ditton to Miss Sugden, on
one of which in 1873 she built a house. On March 25th, 1872, however, he made a codicil which
was of much more importance, for it most materially altered the position of his heir. It had
happened that in 1870 his grandson, who was then little more than of age, had at Rome met a
young lady, and had become engaged to marry her. Now, Lord St. Leonards had a great 
objection to the idea of his grandson's marrying. First of all, he considered he was too young; 
but a more serious or more lasting objection was the trouble that it would give to draw his
marriage settlements.
'The old ex-Chancellor probably felt that he was too old to set about drawing the marriage 
settlement for his heir, and at the same time he probably did not like the idea of their being 
drawn by anyone else. The one way of obviating this difficulty that he saw seems to have been
that his grandson should not marry. When he became engaged to marry in 1870, the old lord
became very angry, but he managed to break off the engagement. To do this he prepared a
codicil leaving his grandson only £800 a year. A copy of this was sent to his daughter-in-law,
Mrs. Henry Sugden, the young man's mother, but when the young lady's friends heard that Lord
St. Leonards disapproved of the marriage they at once broke off the engagement, and the
grandfather and grandson became reconciled and the codicil was destroyed. In 1872, however,
the young man again became engaged, and this occasioned the sixth codicil, which was 
executed in March, 1872.
'By this codicil he left Sutton Scotney to his son Frank, while he left Filgate to Mrs. Henry 
Sugden, and afterwards to her younger sons. A month or so afterwards, he made another 
codicil, leaving Boyle Farm to his son Frank. On August 20th, 1873, he made a last codicil,
confirming all the dispositions he had made in favour of his daughter, Miss Sugden, and leaving
her some further property. Miss Charlotte Sugden was present at the execution of all of these
codicils, and on each occasion she saw the will, and on several occasions she read it over to
her father. As her father locked up the will after he had put the eighth codicil to it, he said:
"There, I have done the last earthly thing I wish." All the codicils were written on loose sheets
of paper, which were put in the folds of the will. The will has put into a small despatch box,
which was kept in the room in which her father generally sat and wrote. It was locked up, and
the key was locked up in a drawer of an escritoire, the key of which Lord St. Leonards always
kept. After some time the box was kept for safety in Miss Sugden's bedroom.
'Lord St. Leonards had been much annoyed by a series of hoaxes which he had been made the
object of. Things had been sent him which he had never ordered. Amongst other things which 
had been sent was a monument with a false inscription to the late Lady St. Leonards. 
Detectives had been employed to find out who the evilly disposed person was, but they had not 
discovered the culprit. In the year 1874, Lord St. Leonards became very ill, and during his illness 
told Miss Sugden that he had been trying to remember how he had left his estates. She then 
repeated to him how he had disposed of them. He listened, and then said: "That is exactly as I 
desire." From this illness he got better again, and he sometimes would say to his daughter how 
pleased he was to think that he had settled his earthly affairs. He would say that he thought it 
to be the duty of every man to make a disposition of his property in such a manner as to 
prevent litigation, and he considered that he had done so. At the beginning of 1875, he was 
taken ill again, and on January 29th he died. A very short time before he died he said to his 
daughter that if he thought that he had not left her everything she desired he should not die 
happy.
'Towards the end of her father's life Miss Sugden generally kept the keys that unlocked the will
box, and on only one occasion did she part with them. That was when she went to Brighton for
[a] change of air, after an illness in 1873, when she gave them to her brother Frank, taking 
them back when she returned. After the death, Mr. Trollope, the family lawyer, went to Boyle 
Farm, and, having been given the keys in the presence of the family, he opened the will box. 
The will, however, was not in the will box. There were the eight codicils, but the will itself was 
not there, and no one could find it. Mr. Trollope, the lawyer, knew that Miss Sugden was well 
acquainted with her father's affairs, and had often seen the will, and he at once suggested that 
it would be best for her to write down all she remembered of the will. She at once went away 
from the others, and, without speaking to anyone, she sat down and wrote out all she 
remembered. In the meantime the house was searched, but in vain. The young Lord St. Leonards
properly enough left the task of looking for the will to the other members of the family. A reward
of £500 was offered for the will, but no one gave any information about it. One thing was learnt
that was rather curious. It had been believed that no one could open the will box except the
person who had in his possession the key of the escritoire, where the key of the will box was
locked up. When a search was made, however, it was found that there were at least three
other keys in the house that would open that drawer. If any members of the family had any
suspicion they kept them to themselves. Had the old ex-Chancellor destroyed his will with the
intention of revoking it? To believe that he had done so without making another will would be
to believe that he wished all his landed estates to go absolutely to his grandson, the second
Lord St. Leonards, so that he should be able to deal with them exactly as he chose.
'Of course, if the will had been revoked, the codicils which depended upon it would also have
become of no effect. To leave all his landed property absolutely to his heir-at-law would have
been a strange thing for anyone to do who was in possession of a peerage, which he wished
to protect and establish in prosperity. Lord St. Leonards had, again and again, both in his 
"Handy-Book of Real Property Law," and in his conversation, expressed his opinion that "for a
man to put off making his will until the hand of death was upon him was either cowardice or
gross carelessness." Therefore, that he who took simply a delight in legal settlements should
have willingly died intestate was quite inconceivable. The question was, could the will as
remembered by Miss Sugden be proved in the Probate Court without its production? Before that
time lost wills had been proved, but it happened that these had been cases of wills that had 
been made by lawyers, and there had been drafts from which they had been copied out, or the
instructions to the lawyers. Lord St. Leonards had dispensed with the services of a lawyer. He
had thought, as he said to his daughter, "that he could make his will as well as any lawyer 
could," and so there was no means of proving the contents of the will but the recollection of
Miss Sugden. Still, those who benefited under the will were advised to go to court. The lady
gave her evidence, and on the part of the defendant to the suit, the present Lord St. Leonards,
whose conduct seems to have been unexceptionable in the matter, there was really no attempt
made to suggest in any way that she was telling a false story. Then some of the servants were
called, and they proved statements that the old lord had made up to the very last, which 
showed that he believed that Miss Sugden would be left well off, and that his son Frank would
have the Kingsdown Estate.
'Mr. Samuel Warren, a Commissioner in Lunacy and the famous author, was called. He was then
an old man, and he had been one of Lord St. Leonard's great friends. "It was a shame to trouble
Mr. Warren to come to the Probate Court," said Mr. Hawkins, the plaintiff's counsel, when he 
had already given us all 'ten thousand a year.' " [This reference is to Warren' best known novel,
which was entitled "Ten Thousand a Year"] Mr. Warren said that the old lord had told him that 
he had purchased an estate for £40,000, which he had left to his son Frank. In cross-
examination, Mr. Warren said that Lord St. Leonards had always been proud of the dignity of
his peerage, and that he was anxious that there should be an adequate income to keep it up.
'This, however, cut two ways, for though it might be used as an argument against his leaving
properties away from the peerage, it was a stronger argument against his revoking a will
without making another, and so giving his heir-at-law the absolute disposal of all his landed
estates. A suggestive piece of evidence was given by one of the menservants, who said that
he had often heard his old master hum to himself a song about an old lady who hid her will
away in a cabinet. For the defendant it was argued, as a point of law, that a will could not
be proved by only one witness, who was greatly interested in the will. The suggestion was made
also that Lord St. Leonards had torn up his will with the intention of making another, and that
he had kept the codicils in order to be guided in making his new will. For the defendant, also,
reliance was placed upon the presumption of law that, when a will is not to be found, which
was in the custody of the testator, it has been torn up with the intention of revoking. It was
argued that if any other person had taken away the will from the box, out of curiosity or malice,
that person would also have taken away the codicils.
'In giving judgment, Sir James Hannen, of course, admitted the presumption of law that a will
that had been in possession of the testator and could not be found had been destroyed by him 
with the intention of revoking it. That presumption could be rebutted by evidence, and in this
case he considered that it had been. Then he considered that the contents had been proved.
It would have been more satisfactory if there had been a draft with an instruction for the will,
as there would have been if the will had been made by a lawyer. It would have been more
satisfactory if a professional man could have been called to prove what the contents of the 
will were. But Miss Sugden, though a lady, had been the constant companion of a great lawyer,
who had always delighted in explaining law to her, and he declared himself satisfied that the
contents of the will were as she stated them to be. There was one point which Sir James 
Hannen had probably some satisfaction in referring to, and that was the advice in his "Handy-
Book" which Lord St. Leonards had given people, not to use the depositories for wills provided
by the Court of Probate. There was nothing, he said, to prevent any person altering his will by
making a new one at any time he liked, although he might have placed the first will in the
depository.
'So Sir James Hannen declared in favour of the will as remembered by Miss Sugden, and the
aged ex-Lord Chancellor, who had done so much in his lifetime to make and elucidate the law,
left behind him a will suit which will always be the leading case as to the amount of evidence
by which a lost will can be proved.'
Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, 2nd Baron Saint Leonards
The 2nd Lord Saint Leonards was charged with indecent assault in May 1884. The following
edited report appeared in the ''Hampshire Advertiser' of 24 May 1884:-
'Edward Burtenshaw Sugden, Lord St.Leonards, aged 36, was charged yesterday morning before
the Recorder at the Old Bailey with indecently assaulting Emma Cole. The prisoner pleaded not
guilty........Mr. Mathews [for the prosecution] having remarked that there was nothing in the
case to distinguish it from any other charge of the similar character, except the rank of the 
prisoner, narrated the facts of the charge.
'Emma Cole, the prosecutrix, was then called. She said that she lived at 12, Victoria-road,
Twickenham, as domestic servant to Mr. Crawford. She had been about three weeks in that
employment. Until the Sunday before the 6th of May she had never seen the prisoner. On
Tuesday, the 6th of May, the prisoner called at the house and asked for Mr. Crawford. She
told him that Mr. And Mrs. Crawford were both in town. As she was closing the door, the 
prisoner, who appeared to be drunk, forced it open and came into the hall. He asked for a piece
of string for his dog. He said, "I suppose I can go in here," and he went into the parlour. The
witness said she would go and get the string. As she was about to leave the room, the prisoner
took hold of her, tried to push her on the sofa, and assaulted her. She struggled and got away 
from him. The witness went downstairs and called George Detmar, who was working in the
garden. The prisoner rang the bell, and Detmar went upstairs. The prisoner was still in the 
parlour, and he asked Detmar for some string. He was then got out of the house, but he
returned for a clay pipe which he left in the parlour. The witness said that she complained to
Detmar and to her master of the prisoner's conduct. She was bruised by the prisoner, and the
next day she was examined by the doctor.
'Witness, on being pressed by Mr. Clarke [for the defence], admitted that a long time since she
had behaved improperly with a man.
'George Detmar said he had worked for Mr. Crawford for a number of years. On the evening of
the 6th of May he was at Mr. Crawford's when he saw the prisoner, who asked for a bit of string
for his dog. Emma Cole made a complaint to him about Lord St.Leonards' conduct towards her. 
The witness thought the prisoner had had a little to drink.
'In cross-examination the witness said he heard the prisoner knock at the door. When the 
witness came into the house he noticed that Emma Cole looked flurried. He asked her what was
the matter. After Lord St.Leonards he gone she complained to him.
'Mr. Samuel Crawford said that when he got home on the night of the 6th of May, Emma Cole
opened the door. She afterwards made a complaint as to the prisoner. He had only seen Lord St.
Leonards on the previous Sunday at Eel Pie Island.
'Dr. Benthal said he had known Emma Cole for five years. On the 7th inst. he was called in to
examine her. He found two slight bruises on her left breast and bruises on her right thigh. He
examined her again upon a subsequent occasion. Cross-examined - There were no bruises on
the arm, and there were no signs of a violent struggle.
'No evidence was called for the defence. Mr. Clarke addressed the jury on behalf of the prisoner.
He urged that to convict Lord St.Leonards on the evidence produced would be an unheard-of
wrong.
'The Recorder, in summing up, said that in all cases of rape and indecent assault there were, as 
a rule, only the accuser and the accused present at the time alleged. Such charges were easy 
to make and difficult to refute, and the jury must therefore always look to see what corrobo-
ration there was. His Lordship read at length the evidence of the prosecutrix. Her examination 
showed that she was not a virtuous woman, but that would not disentitle her to the protection 
of the law. In dealing with the question of corroboration the jury would consider both whether 
there were such marks upon her of bruises as would lead to the belief there was a struggle and
whether her character was such as would entitle her to belief. If they had any reasonable 
doubt, the prisoner was entitled to it; but if, on the other hand, they thought the case proved, 
they would find him guilty of the offence with which he was charged.
'The jury retired to consider their verdict at 2.25. After an absence of nearly an hour and a half, 
they returned into court with a verdict of Guilty.'
Sentencing was postponed until the next session, when the Recorder imposed a sentence of
seven weeks' imprisonment, dating from 7th May. As a result, Lord St.Leonards was released
immediately after being sentenced.
Lord Saint Leonards appears to have spent the next few years in Australia, where he attracted 
attention for all the wrong reasons. In August 1885, he was involved in a drunken confrontation
in a Melbourne hotel when he was refused service of liquor after hours. Shortly thereafter, the
'York Herald' of 5 December 1885 reported that "A Melbourne journal states that Lord St.
Leonards, who was at St.Kilda, a fashionable watering-place near Melbourne, recently received
a very sound thrashing from a Colonial bushman, for having, at a public bar, spoken irreverently
and indecently of her Majesty the Queen." In June 1886, the licensee of the hotel in which
Lord Saint Leonards was staying was forced to seize and sell his personal effects to recover
moneys owed to him.
The special remainder to the Viscountcy of St. Vincent created in 1801
From the "London Gazette" of 18 April 1801 (issue 15356, page 421):-
"The King has been pleased to grant the Dignity of a Viscount of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, to the Right Honorable John Earl of St. Vincent, Knight of the Most Honorable
Order of the Bath, and Admiral of the White Squadron of His Majesty's Fleet, and to the Heirs
Male of his Body lawfully begotten by the Name, Style, and Title of Viscount St. Vincent, of
Meaford, in the County of Stafford, with Remainders severally and successively to William Henry
Ricketts, Esq; Captain in the Royal Navy, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten; to
Edward Jervis Ricketts, Esq; Barrister at Law, Brother of the said William Henry Ricketts, and
Sons of Mary Ricketts by William Henry Ricketts. Esq; late of the Island of Jamaica, deceased,
and sister to the said John Earl of St. Vincent, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten,
and the Dignity of Viscountess St. Vincent, of Meaford, in the said County of Stafford, to the
Right Honourable Mary Countess of Northesk, Daughter of the said Mary Ricketts, and Widow of
William Henry Ricketts aforesaid, and the Dignity of Viscount St. Vincent to the Heirs Male of her
Body lawfully begotten.
 
On the death of the 1st Viscount in 1823, he was succeeded by Edward Jervis Ricketts, who
changed his surname to Jervis shortly after inheriting the title.
Claims to the peerage of St.Vincent
Newspapers in the years 1881 and 1901 reported upon claims that were supposedly about to be 
made for the title of Viscount St.Vincent. In neither case have I been able to find any details of
any subsequent actions taken by the claimants, and I therefore assume that both claims were
not proceeded with.
The first (and more realistic) claim arose in 1881, when the 'Essex Telegraph' published an 
article which was reprinted in 'The Isle of Wight Observer' on 14 May 1881:-
'That truth is stranger than fiction was never more forcibly exemplified than by the event we are
now about to chronicle. Indeed the most imaginative romancist never conceived a more perfect
picture of unjust suspicion, of unmerited obloquy, and of ultimate clearance and restoration to
right; and even that sensational and gifted novelist, Wilkie Collins, never concocted a story of
the recovery of deeds, or discovery of registers more improbable and romantic than the actual
occurrences in this case. Unsuspected by them, the inhabitants of St.Paul's district, Lexden
[a suburb of Colchester in Essex], have, during the last six years, had their spiritual wants
ministered to by a Peer of the Realm. Succeeding the Rev. Samuel Farman, some six years ago,
the Rev. William Henry Edward Ricketts Jervis took up his residence in the St.Paul's district - 
now ecclesiastically a parish - and ever since has laboured most zealously in the neighbourhood.
To a few people it was known some years ago that Mr. Jervis believed himself to be the legal
successor to the title and emoluments of Viscount St.Vincent, and that there was but one 
hiatus in the chain by which his claim was supported.
'This missing link, however, was a most serious one, being none other than the parish register in
was recorded the marriage of Captain William Henry Ricketts, R.N., Mr. Jervis' paternal grand-
father. How Captain Ricketts could stand in this relation to Mr. Jervis may at first sight appear
strange, seeing that the family patronymic is not the same; but this will be explained by the
following facts: Admiral Sir John Jervis, K.B., was elevated to the Peerage on June 23rd, 1797,
by the title[s] of Baron Jervis of Meaford, in the county of Stafford, and Earl [of] St.Vincent, in
acknowledgment of his services and splendid victory over the Spanish fleet off Cape St.Vincent.
The Earl was married, but had no children; and in the year 1801 he applied to the King, in order
to save the title from extinction, to be created Viscount St.Vincent, with remainder to his 
sister's (Mrs. Ricketts') children. Upon this the Rev. Mr. Jervis' grandfather, being the eldest son,
became heir-apparent to the Viscountcy, and in June, 1801, he assumed, by sign manual, the
surname and arms of Jervis, instead of Ricketts. Four years afterwards (on the 26th of January,
1805) Captain Jervis was unfortunately drowned by the upsetting of the barge used by him in
carrying despatches to the Commander-in-Chief off Rochefort. Capt. Jervis married, first, Lady
Elizabeth Jane Lambart, from whom, on his own petition, he was divorced in 1797, by Act of
Parliament, the only method in those days of dissolving a marriage. By this wife he had two
daughters.
'The second marriage has been, until lately, a subject of doubt and mystery, and, in the absence
of proof of it, a great wrong has been done to the Rev. Mr. Jervis and his father. However, it
now appears that he married, secondly (in 1800), Cecilia Jane Vinet, a lady well known in society
at that time. There never was any doubt of the fact that by his lady he left issue - two sons,
the eldest of whom, born Oct 11, 1802, was the Vicar of St.Paul's father, afterwards Vice-
Admiral William Henry Jervis, Knight Commander of the Portuguese Order of the Tower and 
Sword. The second son was born shortly after Capt Jervis was drowned, and died in Jamaica in
1837.
'The object of concealing this marriage with Miss Vinet may forever remain a mystery, but it will
most surely be keenly discussed, by-and-bye, when the case is legally investigated. 
Circumstances point clearly to the conclusion that it was a private marriage. There is no lack of
proof that Capt Jervis' maternal uncle, the gallant Admiral Earl St.Vincent, had a strong objection
to naval officers marrying. Having probably once had experience of his uncle's anger in regard to
marriage, he feared that a further remonstrance in the same direction might result in his being
disinherited. Anyhow, it is perfectly clear that he must have bound his wife to maintain the 
secret for a time, intending, in all probability, to divulge the affair upon the death of the Admiral.
However, the Captain was drowned some eighteen years before the Earl died. This latter event
occurred on March 13th, 1823.
'Not the least mysterious feature of this most mysterious case is to understand why it was that
the widow of Captain Jervis maintained to the end the secret of the entry in the marriage 
register of the Dorsetshire church. The motive to divulge and thus legitimatise her children must
have been strong; yet ever stronger was the motive to keep the secret locked in her breast. To
speculate at this period as to whether her motives were honourable or otherwise we leave to
other people, and proceed with our narrative.
'On the death of the Earl St.Vincent, and failing proof of Capt Jervis' marriage with Miss Vinet, 
the title passed to Capt Jervis' next brother, Edward Jervis Ricketts, and has from that time been
in possession of members of the younger branch of the family, to the exclusion of Vice-Admiral
Jervis and his eldest son, the Rev. W.H.E.R. Jervis, the present claimant to the honour, and 
whom the marriage certificate proves undoubtedly to be the rightful possessor of the title and
whatever follows with it. 
'The Rev Mr Jervis was first made aware of his possible position upon his coming of age, his 
father then narrating to him the history of the affair. As may well be understood, this chapter of
family history was not often a subject of conversation, and the Admiral seldom mentioned it
himself, and gave no countenance to others bringing it up for discussion. It was, we understand,
only when on his death-bed that he freely opened his heart, and told all he knew and suspected
in the matter.
'The Vice-Admiral died on November 19th, 1874, and when his papers were examined a most
important statement in his own handwriting was discovered. This put the matter in so tangible a
form that it could not fail to influence the rev. Gentleman, and to make him resolve that no 
efforts should be spared to determine the question at issue. His clerical duties and his family
affairs prevented him giving much continuous time and attention to the enquiry, but the one
object to be attained was, nevertheless, ever kept in view. Advertisements were occasionally
inserted in the London newspapers offering a reward for the discovery of proof of the marriage
of Captain William Henry Ricketts (or Jervis if after June, 1801) to Miss Vinet. 
'Subsequently (in 1879) the rev. Gentleman instructed Mr. A.M. White, solicitor, of Colchester,
to act for him, and the reward was increased to £500. These advertisements were productive
of no result, and after a time they were withdrawn. In May last, however, Mr. Jervis, acting
on the suggestion of a clerical friend, inserted a similar advertisement in the Ecclesiastical
Gazette, a copy of which, it appears, is sent gratuitously to every incumbent in the kingdom.
Here, we have no doubt, the reward came under the notice of many whom it would not
otherwise have reached, and, although no immediate result followed, it was through this agency
that the long-sought proof was eventually discovered. 
'Without the fearful storm of the 18th of January last, however, the Ecclesiastical Gazette would
have been useless. The two together effected the wonderful purpose, but either without the
other would have been powerless. A Church of England newspaper and a terrible snowstorm 
seem a somewhat remarkable combination, but it was by these conjointly that the identity of
the Rev. W.H.E.R. Jervis, vicar of St.Paul's, Colchester, and rector-designate of Cranford,
Middlesex, with Viscount St. Vincent was established.
'Like most other incumbents, the rector of a village in Dorsetshire, the name of which we are
not at present moment at liberty to divulge, saw the advertisement offering £500 for the
certificate, and, like most other incumbents, he no doubt wished, though he scarcely dared to
hope, that so substantial a reward might fall to his portion. He did not, however, deem it worth
while to search the parish records, and it was only by a fortuitous combination of circumstances
that he eventually came upon the entry which had so long been sought for. 
In the first place there was a storm of a phenomenal character; in the second place, the roof
of the Parish Church was defective; in the third place, the sliding covering of the keyhole of the
chest in which old registers were kept was left aside, and the keyhole, which was in the top of
the box, exposed; in the fourth place, the snow and water came through the roof exactly on to
this chest, and a good deal of it went through the unprotected keyhole. The latter fact led to
the all-important discovery. The Rector, on finding how the wet had got in, opened the chest to
see what damage had been done, and it was while turning over the leaves of an old register that
his eye lit upon an entry of the marriage of William Jervis Ricketts with Cecilia Jane Vinet, which
marriage was celebrated in the year 1800. The names at once seemed to be familiar to him, and 
few moments' reflection brought his mind back to the Ecclesiastical Gazette and the reward of
£500. He accordingly communicated with Mr. Jervis, and that gentleman, accompanied by his
solicitor, Mr. A.M. White, proceeded to the church and inspected the register on Tuesday last,
finding it to contain the veritable entry which had so long been anxiously sought for.
'Attached to the title is a pension of £3000 a year, which was granted to Earl St.Vincent, not
as a "perpetual pension," but one for three lives only - himself and two others. The title having
gone, as it now appears, in the wrong branch of the family, the pension ceased with the holder
who died in 1879; but should the Rev. Mr. Jervis be declared by the Committee of Privileges to
be the rightful heir, it will have to be revived, he being, under those circumstances, the third
and last life entitled to the pension. Nothing less than this would be substantial justice; it
would follow as a matter of course. The title carries with it a seat in the House of Lords, and
should he establish his claim, as there is every reason to suppose he will, we shall shortly see
the present vicar of St.Paul's, Colchester, sitting and voting in the Upper Chamber, and
Cranford will have a peer for its rector.'
Unfortunately for the worthy Reverend, the discovery of the missing marriage register was too
good to be true, since the 'Isle of Wight Observer,' in its edition of 24 September 1881,
contained the following report:-
'It will be remembered that some little time since we gave an account of the discovery of an
entry in a parish registry by which the Rev. W.H.E.R. Jervis, vicar of Cranford, Middlesex (who
is not unknown here), was led to claim the title of Viscount St.Vincent. It will be remembered
that in order to establish his claim to this title the rev. gentleman offered a reward of £500
for the discovery of the register of the marriage of his paternal grandfather, William Henry 
Ricketts, with Celia Jane Vinet, in the year 1800. After the lapse of some time the rector of
a parish in Dorsetshire wrote that he had found the entry of the marriage in examining the
registers of his church to see what damage they had sustained by the memorable storm of
January last, and Mr. Jervis gave him a security for the amount of the reward. The services 
of M. Chabot have since been called in, and it is now stated that he has unhesitatingly
pronounced the entry to be a forgery, and that Mr. Jervis, who for a time assumed the title of
Lord St.Vincent, has demanded a full investigation into the alleged fraud, and has obtained a
return of the security from the clergyman in question.'
                                         **************************
Compared with the potential claim which surfaced in 1881, the claim which was made 20 years
later can at best be described as being very unlikely. The following report of this claim appeared 
in the Broken Hill 'Barrier Miner' of 13 July 1901:-
'An interesting romance of an earldom was brought under the notice of the board of manage-
ment of the Launceston [Tasmania] Benevolent Asylum, last week. The superintendent (Mr. T. 
Clements) stated that he had received inquiries relative to a late inmate of the institution, 
known as "Sammy Cox," and letters and documents went to show that the latter was heir to the
first Earl St.Vincent. The asylum books showed that Cox died on January 5, 1891, at the great
(recorded) age of 105 years, but his real age is supposed to have been 116 years [!!]. 
'He was a midshipman on board a ship under the command of his uncle, Admiral Jervis, and 
visited Tasmania long before settlement took place. The vessel ran short of water, and a party
was landed at the mouth of the River Tamar to obtain a supply. Young Jervis, whose story was
that he was ill-treated by his uncle, made off into the bush and escaped. He joined a tribe of
blacks and lived with them for years. When settlement began Jervis wandered down to Norfolk
Plains, and fell in with a family named Cox, who had recently settled there. Descendants of the
family are now residing in Launceston. He gave his name as Jervis, but subsequently adopted
the family name of Cox. He often told the family the story of his career, how he escaped into
the bush and lived with the blacks, but it was generally thought that he was romancing, 
although there was always a mystery about his life before joining them. They knew he was not
an escaped convict, but ultimately decided in their own minds that he was a shipwrecked
sailor.
'After some years "Sammy," as he was familiarly known, left Norfolk Plains, and worked in various
parts of the island, subsequently drifting to the Launceston Benevolent Asylum, where he ended
his days. A relative - a great grandnephew of the first Earl St.Vincent - who was on a visit to
Tasmania towards the end of last year, heard by chance of "Sammy's" story, and his contention
that he belonged to the Jervis family. He instituted close inquiries, searched records and
interviewed old colonists who knew the deceased, with the result that he seems satisfied that
the old man's story was correct. In his letter to the superintendent of the asylum, read at the
meeting, he says:-
"The statements made by 'Sammy Cox' differ (not materially) from those made by him a few 
years earlier. I have a letter from Mr. Monds, of Launceston, who writes that 'Sammy's' 
statement was to the effect that his father was Squire Jervis, of Lichfield; that he (Sammy)
voyaged to Van Diemen's Land with his uncle (Admiral Jervis), who subsequently became the
Earl St.Vincent. The ship was the Regent Fox, named, no doubt, after a prominent politician
in England at that time. The uncle ill-treated and threatened to maroon the young midshipman
and then take possession of his estates in Lichfield. When the boat went ashore at the Tamar
for a supply of water he ran away and the uncle sailed without making any attempt to find him.
There is no doubt Sammy was nephew and, subsequently, heir to his uncle (who was created 
Earl St.Vincent), besides being heir to his father, Squire Jervis. No doubt they never looked or 
inquired for him, thinking him dead. I am satisfied my statement is true, and, further that he
was my grand uncle, and Sammy should have been the second Earl St.Vincent. His uncle, the
first earl, having died without male issue, the title, according to 'Burke's Peerage,' became
extinct. What a life the poor old fellow must have lived, heir to an earldom, and earning his
living by hard work."
There are a number of facts which go to prove that Sammy Cox's claim is not capable of belief:-
* Cox claimed that it was in 1789 that he fled into the Tasmanian bush. According to naval
records as quoted in 'The Australian Encyclopedia' only one ship is recorded as being in 
Tasmanian waters in that year, and it was not named the Regent Fox. In any event, the ship
only approached the extreme southern tip of Tasmania, whereas the place where Cox claimed
to have fled into the bush is on the north coast.
* In order to reach the Tamar River, any ship would necessarily have had to navigate through
the body of water which separates Tasmania from the Australian mainland (Bass Strait). Until
1798, Tasmania was thought to be part of the mainland, and it was only in this year, 9 years
after Cox claimed to have been there that George Bass, after whom the strait is named, made
the first recorded voyage in these waters.
* Sir John Jervis's entry in the Dictionary of National Biography makes no mention of his ever
having been in Australian waters.
* Even if Cox's story is believed in its entirety, he was never heir to the earldom of St.Vincent,
and therefore could never have succeeded to it. The remainder in the creation of the earldom
was the usual remainder - i.e. to heirs male of the body of the grantee. As Sammy Cox was not 
the son of the 1st Earl, he had no right to succeed him in that peerage.
Mary Cecil, Marchioness of Salisbury (1750-1835)
The following is summarised from "Great Political Eccentrics" by Neil Hamilton (Robson Books,
London 1999)
Mary was the daughter of the 1st Marquess of Downshire and married Salisbury in December
1773. The Marchioness offended conventional opinion by her hunting, free-spoken talk, 
extravagance and gambling. She shocked society by arranging card parties on Sunday evenings
and concert parties earlier in the day, to co-incide with the times of the local church service at 
Hatfield.
Occasionally the Marchioness did attend church, but then only for social reasons. On one 
occasion she arrived late at the Chapel Royal in London, but found the chapel to be full. When 
one of her daughters asked, 'Where shall we go, mama?', she replied, 'Home again, to be sure. 
If we cannot get in, it is no fault of ours - we have done the civil thing.'
Once, while attending Hatfield Church, she heard for the first time the biblical story of Adam and
Eve. She was outraged to learn that Adam had blamed Eve when God rebuked them for eating 
the apple. When she heard Adam's excuse, 'The woman tempted me, and I did eat', she 
exclaimed in a loud voice, 'A shabby fellow, indeed.'
At the Handel Festival, held in Westminster Abbey in the presence of King George III and Queen
Charlotte, she arrived late and sat in the box erected for the Lord Chamberlain's party. Shortly
afterward, the music was interrupted by a loud hammering and banging. The King asked what
was happening, to be told that Lady Salisbury, finding her box divided in two by an inconvenient 
partition, had sent for the Abbey carpenters to dismantle it at once.
She resolutely refused to accept the infirmities of age, surrounded herself with young people
and modelled her dress and behaviour on theirs. At the age of 80, she still insisted on going out
hunting. Too feebled by age to be able to hold onto the horse unaided, she had herself strapped
onto it. Because she was too blind to see where she was going, the horse was attached by a
leading-rein to a groom. Every time they came to a hedge, the groom would shout 'Damn you,
my Lady, jump,' and over the hedge they went.
Her death was as spectacular as her life. On 27 November 1835, a servant raised the alarm that
clouds of smoke were pouring out of the windows of Lady Salisbury's bedroom in the West Wing
of Hatfield House. The room was well ablaze, fanned by a strong wind and, although making 
many attempts, the fir was so fierce that the servants were unable to fight their way through 
the flames. When the fire was finally extinguished, all that remained of Lady Salisbury was a few
charred bones.
At the subsequent inquest, it was found that the fire had started at the top of her head. She
had habitually worn her hair piled high and decorated with feathers. Getting up from a table, 
it was thought that her hair had caught in a chandelier and started the blaze which consumed 
her.
John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich
 
The following biography of Sandwich appeared in the September 1956 issue of the Australian
monthly magazine "Parade":-
'Often the memory of a man hangs on little things, ensuring him a measure of immortality not
enjoyed by more worthy men, as witness the case of John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich.
He lived in an age commencing with the beginning of England's struggle with France and Spain
for colonial possessions, and ending with the loss of her north American colonies that was both 
an heroic and a tragic period in his country's history, enjoying high office in its government
most of the time. Yet all he is remembered for today is the device he is said to have invented 
to enable him to eat without leaving the gaming table, that poor substitute for a decent meal,
the sandwich. He would not be worth remembering at all except that his career helps to explain
how the heroism of Englishmen abroad was reduced to naught by the ineptitude of those at 
home in Georgian times of harsh living for the poor and loose living for the rich. 
'Sandwich belonged by inclination to the set that in the reigns of the second and third Georges
made libertinism as bad as it had been in Restoration times. By birth, in an age when a few
great families made up a Parliament unrepresentative of the people, he was a politician.
'He was great-grandson of a famous admiral of Restoration times, Edward Montagu [1st Earl of
Sandwich], who went down with his ship, The Royal George, in a heroic fight against the Dutch
in Southwold Bay in 1672. He followed in his great-grandsire's footsteps to the extent of
attaining the office of First Lord of the Admiralty three times, but his tenure of office coincided
with the disastrous period for England, on land and sea, between the fall of the elder Pitt and
the rise of Pitt the younger in the closing 1700s. 
'One of the few triumphs of his term of office was the despatch of James Cook on his great
second and third and fatal voyage following his discovery of the east coast of Australia; but his
adventitious part in that did not enable him to escape the judgment: "for corruption and
incapacity Sandwich's administration is unique in the history of the British Navy." It was during
his last and longest term of office that England lost her North American colonies.
'In his public life Sandwich mirrored the parliamentary decadence of his day. He rose to high
office after the ascent of George III to the throne in 1760 by tagging the coat-tails of Lord
Bute, who in turn tagged the coat­tails of the Duke of Bedford, chief "yes-man" to a king
determined to make himself supreme over the parliament of the land. They all rose to high
office together to a tune of "Yes, yes, yes" with George on the rostrum, while the elder Pitt,
whose firm policy had saved Canada and India from passing to the French, was pushed aside
for daring to say "No," until the follies of George at last compelled him to call for the aid of "a
man of the people" to govern, and the King stood back to let the younger Pitt lead the nation
back from total ruin.
 
'And in his private life Sandwich showed the source of that decadence. He was only 11 when,
in 1729, as a rather scrubby-looking Eton scholar, he succeeded to the title won by his great-
grandsire. He emerged from Trinity College, Cambridge, eight years later with a sheeplike vacuity
of countenance that was the outward label of a mind inclined to follow wherever Folly led. Folly
straight away seized upon him in the person of a raking young reprobate, Francis Dashwood,
[later 15th Lord Despencer], 10 years his senior and already the inspiration of the artist 
Hogarth's famous series of prints, the "Rake's Progress."
 
'In the company of Dashwood, Sandwich made a Mediterranean tour, combining orgies of
gambling, drunkenness and woman-chasing with heady Jacobite talk with rebels sheltering on 
the Continent and hoping for an invasion of England to place Charles Stuart upon the throne.
Upon his coming of age Sandwich took his seat in the House of Lords. Two years later he
married the Honourable Dorothy Fane, third daughter of an Irish peer [Viscount Fane]. Except 
that during the next ten years Dorothy became the mother of his five children, she might as
well not have existed so far as his loyalty was concerned.
 
'In between founding, with his boon companion Dashwood, the Hell-Fire Club for the smart
young men about town with few interests other than eating, drinking, women, gambling and
bawdy stories, Sandwich commenced his public life under the auspices of the Duke of Bedford,
voting solidly for the Opposition. In 1744 he was Second to Bedford's First Lord of the Admiralty.
In private life he was a member of the Divan Club, another rake-hellion affair whose members
addressed each other solemnly as "Pasha" and "Effendi" and had their portraits painted as 
Turkish aristocrats - only Heaven knows why.
 
'When the Jacobite rebellion came to a head in 1745, Sandwich was a captain in Bedford's
regiment and later colonel in the ordnance - "most active in raising men to oppose the rebels."
His lobbying, his knowing the "right people" - and, in fact, being one of them - brought him into
Royal favour. In 1746 he was plenipotentiary to the Congress of Breda and again at the Aix-La-
Chapelle Treaty which ended the Seven Years' War. In another three years he was appointed
First Lord of the Admiralty. 
'In 1751, when Bedford was dropped, Sandwich suffered a like fate. In search of diversion, when
Dashwood began to plan his infamous "monastery" he enthusiastically became a "monk." There
were 12 foundation members of this, an exclusive society, sybarites all, who gathered frequently,
along with their current mistresses or light ladies, for feasting and revelry in an old house
Dashwood had remodelled on the site of Medmenham Abbey on the Thames. The remodelling had
been done secretly by workmen put under oath not to divulge the decorations. The place was
staffed by servants forbidden to speak to outsiders. The country people called it the "Hell-Fire
Club," and Sandwich was reckoned by his cronies in the slang of the day, "the saddest dog of 
them all." 
'The "monastery's" secrets were well kept, and for seven or eight years none but the initiates,
under Dashwood as "Father Superior," knew what was going on behind the low square entrance
on which was engraved the motto "Do What You Will." Gossip did its best, and it appears the
iniquities of the members were little exaggerated. The sacred rites were profane orgies, and
since all of the members were rabid Protestants their services were mostly mock celebrations
of Roman Catholic religious services. Dotted about the grounds were statues of Priapus, symbol
of the powers of procreation, and in a garden grotto stood a statue of the nude Venus stooping
to pull a thorn from her foot, her back to the beholder. At this shrine, the "holy monks" offered
toasts from indecently wrought goblets. 
'In 1760, when George III ascended the throne, Sandwich found himself again in the political
swim, for men of his political association were in favour of Lord Bute, George's ex-tutor and
adviser in all things. Despite George's own strict code of life, the revels at Medmenham 
continued. Sandwich and John Wilkes, the latter now the stormy Member for Aylesbury, had
stormy Member for Aylesbury, had become boon companions, given to insulting each other
cheerfully, as on the occasion when Sandwich laughingly predicted to Wilkes that he would die
either of a dread disease or on the gallows. "That depends whether I embrace your mistress or
your morals," was Wilkes' prompt retort. [This quotation has often been misattributed - it was
actually said by the actor Samuel Foote (1720-1777)]
 
'At about this time when Sandwich had reached his mid-forties, his eye was taken by a pretty
girl in Covent Garden. Her name was Martha Ray, a milliner in her teens. She welcomed with
alacrity Sandwich's offer to set her up as his mistress. What Lady Sandwich thought of the
proceedings is not on record, but having already borne much, her husband's establishing Martha
as the mistress of his country seat, Hinchinbrooke, near Huntingdon, probably would not have
worried her unduly. Lord Sandwich's liaison with Martha was to survive so long as to become
almost respectable. She became the mother of nine of his children, three of whom reached
adulthood; and to the, end of her life Sandwich was indulgent if not faithful.
'Martha may have been the main reason why Sandwich, appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to
Spain early in 1763, did not proceed to that post. At all events, three months later George III,
in appointing Bedford Lord President of the Council, reappointed Sandwich First Lord of the
Admiralty, and before the year was out he blossomed as one of the Secretaries of State. The
elevation to this high office came at an awkward time for Sandwich. John Wilkes had recently
attacked the Government in his paper, The North Briton, thus attacking by implication the King,
since the King was the Government. When The North Briton criticised the King's speech after
the Peace of Paris, Wilkes was arrested. This arrest was declared illegal by the courts, and he
was freed to reprint The North Briton and add other attacks on the Ministry.
'As Secretary of State, Sandwich had been the instrument of government in pursuing Wilkes, 
and it is thought that he was influenced into being so willing a tool by a lampoon of himself he 
saw among Wilkes' papers ridiculing his fondness for female society. Sandwich, instructed by the
King, attacked Wilkes in the House of Lords as the author of an indecent poem, notwithstanding
their earlier boon companionship. Assuming on his large heavy face an expression of virtuous
indignation, and in a voice full of pious horror Sandwich informed the House of Wilkes' publicat-
ions and proceeded to read some of the more obscene passages aloud. The ironic humour of
Sandwich moralising was not lost upon the House, and "Hell-Fire" Francis Dashwood (recently
become 15th Baron le Despenser) leant over and stage-whispered to his neighbour that it was
"the first time he had heard the devil preaching." Most of the House, despite the mingled
ribaldry, mirth and shocked deprecation with which the reading was received, considered 
Sandwich guilty of treachery to his old friend. However, they obediently voted Wilkes'
publication a scandalous libel. 
 
'All London had espoused the cause of Wilkes against an unpopular government, and made a
butt of Sandwich, who became the target for many attacks. The nickname "Jemmy Twitcher"
was stuck to him; but he remained sheepishly imperturbable. He continued to plod along in his
slow style, clinging to office like a limpet. Whatever discomfort he suffered in his political life,
however, his life at Hinchinbroke was happy and full of interest. Always interested in music,
he had Martha's voice trained and gave concerts with an orchestra of 60 raised from the
countryside. Not infrequently he played kettle-drum to Martha's prima donna.
 
'In 1768 he shared with his old friend, Dashwood, the office of Postmaster-General, and two
years later when Lord North became Prime Minister he was appointed First Secretary of State
for Foreign Affairs. The following year he resigned this post and for the third time became First
Lord of the Admiralty. It was to him that Captain Cook reported when he returned from his
first voyage along the east coast of New South Wales, and under Sandwich's commission Cook
made the second voyage in 1772 which resulted in the discovery of (inter alia) New Caledonia
and Norfolk Island, and his third and last voyage in 1776, which ended with his death at the 
hands of natives on Hawaii, rediscovered by Cook and named by him the Sandwich Isles.
'Throughout his term of office, however, things went from bad to worse with Britain on the high
seas, and there were hints of peculation in the admiralty. In the London Evening Post of early
1773, Sandwich was accused of setting up for sale the office of Commissioner in the Navy. He
vindicated in an action for libel by securing a verdict for £2000 damages. Six years later the 
House of Lords introduced an inquiry into the management of Greenwich Hospital, for which
Sandwich was responsible, but after three months' proceedings he was acquitted of these 
charges, also. 
'Meantime, however, he had been involved in a queer tragedy. Martha, still comely, though
middle-aged, had attracted the devotion of a young ensign named Hackman, who had been
staying near Hinchinbroke. She was considerably older than her admirer and alternately led him
on and stood him off, flattered by his adoration but wary of losing the ease and comfort of
Lord Sandwich's "patronage."  The affair had been proceeding in this indecisive fashion for some
time, during which Hackman had resigned his commission and become a curate. As a clergyman
he still pursued her, but unable to persuade her to return his love he shot her dead in April 1779,
as she was coming out of Covent Garden Theatre with a woman friend. [For further details, see
the note immediately following this].
 
'Sandwich wrote to a friend that he had been "robbed of all comfort in the world," and requested
postponement of discussions on Navy matters in the House, pleading the excuse: "I am at 
present totally unfit for business of any kind."
'Lord North's Government was defeated in 1782, however, and Sandwich was displaced. He
contented himself with the office of Rangership of the Parks, but resigned from this in January
1784. For the rest of his life he lived as a retired, elderly country gentleman keeping open house
for guests and neighbours. In 1790 "a complaint in the bowels to which his Lordship had at times
been subject" became more than usually troublesome, and by the end of the year the disorder
had sealed his fate. On April 30, 1792, he died, gloomily reflecting on the revolutionary spirit
abroad. It probably did not occur to him that men such as he were the inspirers of that spirit,
nor to reflect upon what he and his ilk had cost their country, for his self-esteem as a 
"nobleman" was as alive as ever at the end.'
Martha Reay, mistress of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich
Sandwich was a man of very few, if any, redeeming features. He had been a member of the
infamous "Hellfire Club" and had clawed his way to high administrative rank by hanging on to
the coat-tails of the 'yes-men' who surrounded the mad King George III. Among his political
posts was that of First Lord of the Admiralty, where he proved to be a total incompetent. He
was totally corrupt in this post, and was accused of selling preferments in the navy. Also
under his management was Greenwich Hospital, which was known as 'death ditch' by all who
were sent there. His major claim to fame was he was supposed to have invented the humble
sandwich, which he ate in order to avoid having to leave the gaming tables to dine.
This note, however, is more concerned with his long-term mistress, Martha Reay (or Ray). 
Martha was born in 1742, the daughter of a corsetmaker. Possessed with a fine singing voice,
at the age of 17 she came to the attention of the Earl of Sandwich, who soon installed her
as his permanent mistress. She gave birth to a number of the Earl's illegitimate children - the
sources vary in number between five and nine.
In November 1775 a young army ensign, James Hackman, of the 68th Regiment of Foot, was
invited the officers of that regiment to dine with him, and young Hackman (he was 23 at the
time) was among the smart uniformed company that assembled round the Earl's dining table.
Presiding over the table with the Earl was Martha Reay, and Hackman fell in love with her at
first sight. A fellow officer later recalled that Hackman's gaze never left her face. After the
meal was completed and the gentlemen rejoined the ladies, Martha entertained the company
with a number of ballads. Hackman became so agitated that a fellow officer was forced to
remind him that Martha was the Earl's mistress, and ten years older than Hackman. This
only inflamed Hackman's passions, since this information led him to believe that Martha was
the innocent victim of the lecherous Earl. 
Hackman obtained leave and began to pester Martha with protestations of love and begged her
to marry him, but she refused. In desperation, he resigned his commission in the army and
turned to the church. He was ordained in February 1779, and posted to the remote parish of
Wiveton, in Norfolk. But he could not get Martha out of his mind.
On 7 April 1779, Hackman was in the audience at Covent Garden when Martha entered her box
at the theatre. For the first two acts of the play he gazed at her, and then he went to his 
lodgings, where he pocketed two of his army pistols, wrote two letters - one a suicide note -
and then returned to the theatre just as the play ended. As Martha was walking out of the 
theatre, Hackman stepped out from behind a pillar, clapped one of his pistols to her forehead
and blew out her brains. He then drew the other pistol and tried to shoot himself, but his hand
was trembling so much all he succeeded in doing was giving himself a flesh wound.
Hackman's entry in the Newgate Calendar reads as follows:-
'Mr. James Hackman was born in Gosport, in Hampshire, and originally designed for trade; but
he was too volatile in disposition to submit to the drudgery of the shop or counting-house. His
parents, willing to promote his interest as far as lay in their power, purchased him an ensign's
commission in the 68th Regiment of Foot. He had not long been in the army when he was sent
to command a recruiting party, and being at Huntingdon he was frequently invited to dine with
Lord Sandwich, who had a seat in that neighbourhood. There it was that he first became
acquainted with Miss Reay, who lived under the protection of that nobleman.
'This lady was the daughter of a staymaker in Covent Garden, and served her apprenticeship
to a mantua-maker in George's Court, St. John's Lane, Clerkenwell. She was bound when she
was only thirteen, and during her apprenticeship was taken notice of by the nobleman above
mentioned, who took her under his protection, and treated her with every mark of tenderness.
No sooner had Mr. Hackman seen her than he became enamoured of her, though she had then
lived for nineteen years with his lordship. Finding he could not obtain preferment in the army,
he turned his thoughts to the Church, and entered into orders. Soon after he obtained the
living at Wiveton, in Norfolk, which was only about Christmas preceding the shocking deed
which cost him his life, so that it may be said that he never enjoyed it.
'Miss Reay was extremely fond of music, and as her noble protector was in a high rank we need
not be surprised to find that frequent concerts were performed both in London and at
Hinchinbrook. At the latter place Mr. Hackman was generally of the party, and his attention to
her at those times was very great. How long he had been in London previous to this affair is
not certainly known, but at that time he lodged in Duke's Court, St. Martin's Lane. On the 
morning of the 7th of April, 1779, he sat some time in his closet, reading Dr. Blair's Sermons;
but in the evening he took a walk to the Admiralty, where he saw Miss Reay go into the coach
along with Signora Galli, who attended her. The coach drove to Covent Garden Theatre, where
she stayed to see the performance of Love in a Village. Mr. Hackman went into the theatre at
the same time, but, not being able to contain the violence of his passion, returned to his
lodgings, and having loaded two pistols again went to the playhouse, where he waited till the
play was over. As Miss Reay was ready to step into the coach he took a pistol in each hand,
one of which he discharged against her, which killed her on the spot, and the other at himself,
which, however, did not take effect.
'He then beat himself on his head with the butt-end, in order to destroy himself, so fully bent
was he on the destruction of both. After some struggle he was secured, and his wounds 
dressed. He was then carried before Sir John Fielding, who committed him to Tothill Fields
Bridwell, and next to Newgate, where a person was appointed to attend him, lest he should
lay violent hands upon himself. In Newgate, as he knew he had no favour to expect, he prepared
himself for the awful change he was about to make. He had dined with his sister on the day the
murder was committed, and in the afternoon had written a letter to her husband, Mr. Booth, an
eminent attorney, acquainting him with his resolution of destroying himself.
'At the trial the jury pronounced their fatal verdict, and the unhappy man heard the sentence
against him with calm resignation to his fate.
'During the procession to the fatal tree at Tyburn he seemed much affected, and said but little;
and when he arrived at Tyburn, and got out of the coach and mounted the cart, he took leave
of Dr. Porter and the ordinary. After some time spent in prayer he was turned off, and, having
hung the usual time, his body was carried to Surgeon's Hall for dissection.'
The special remainder to the Barony of Sandys created in 1802
From the "London Gazette" of 12 June 1802 (issue 15488, page 613):-
"The King has been pleased to grant the Dignity of a Baroness of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland to the Most Honorable Mary Marchioness of Downshire, Widow of the Most
Honorable Arthur late Marquis of Downshire, for and during her natural Life, by the Name, Style,
and Title of Lady Sandys, Baroness of Ombersley, in the County of Worcester, and from and
immediately after her Decease, the Dignity of a Baron of the said United Kingdom to the Right
Honorable Arthur Moyses William Hill, (commonly called Lord Arthur Moyses William Hill,) Second
Son of the said Arthur late Marquis of Downshire by the said Mary his Wife, and the Heirs Male
of his Body lawfully begotten, and in default of such issue to the Right Honorable Arthur Marcus
Cecil Hill, (commonly called Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil Hill,) Third Son of the said Arthur, late
Marquis of Downshire, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten; and in default of such
Issue to the Right Honorable Arthur Augustus Edwin Hill, (commonly called Lord Arthur Augustus
Edwin Hill,) Fourth Son of the said Arthur, late Marquis of Downshire, and the Heirs Male of his
Body lawfully begotten; and, in default of such Issue to the Right Honorable George Augusta
Hill, (commonly called Lord George Augusta Hill,) Fifth Son of the said Arthur, late Marquis of
Downshire, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten; and in default of such Issue to
the Most Honorable Arthur Blundell Sandys Trumbull Marquis of Downshire, Eldest Son of the
said Arthur, late Marquis of Downshire, and the Heirs Male of his Body lawfully begotten."
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