PEERAGE
Last updated 19/09/2014
     Date Rank Order Name Born Died  Age
SLIM
15 Jul 1960 V 1 William Joseph Slim 6 Aug 1891 14 Dec 1970 79
Created Viscount Slim 15 Jul 1960
Governor General of Australia 1953-1960
Field Marshal 1949   KG 1959
14 Dec 1970 2 John Douglas Slim 20 Jul 1927
SLYNN OF HADLEY
11 Mar 1992 B[L] 1 Gordon Slynn 17 Feb 1930 7 Apr 2009 79
to     Created Baron Slynn of Hadley for life
7 Apr 2009 11 Mar 1992
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1992-2002
PC 1992
Peerage extinct on his death
SMITH
13 Jul 1978 B[L] 1 Edwin Rodney Smith 10 May 1914 1 Jul 1998 84
to     Created Baron Smith for life 13 Jul 1978
1 Jul 1998 Peerage extinct on his death
SMITH OF BASILDON
7 Jul 2010 B[L] 1 Angela Evans Smith 7 Jan 1959
Created Baroness Smith of Basildon for life
7 Jul 2010
MP for Basildon 1997-2010.  PC 2009
SMITH OF CLIFTON
4 Nov 1997 B[L] 1 Trevor Arthur Smith 14 Jun 1937
Created Baron Smith of Clifton for life
4 Nov 1997
SMITH OF FINSBURY
22 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Christopher Robert Smith 24 Jul 1951
Created Baron Smith of Finsbury for life
22 Jun 2005
MP for Islington South and Finsbury 1983-2005.
Secretary of State for Culture,Media and Sport
1997-2001. PC 1997
SMITH OF GILMOREHILL
17 Feb 1995 B[L] 1 Elizabeth Margaret Smith 4 Jun 1940
Created Baroness Smith of Gilmorehill
for life 17 Feb 1995
SMITH OF KELVIN
29 May 2008 B[L] 1 Robert Haldane Smith 8 Aug 1944
Created Baron Smith of Kelvin for life
29 May 2008
KT 2013
SMITH OF LEIGH
5 Aug 1999 B[L] 1 Peter Smith 24 Jul 1945
Created Baron Smith of Leigh for life
5 Aug 1999
SMITH OF NEWNHAM
12 Sep 2014 B[L] 1 Julie Elizabeth Smith 1 Jun 1969
Created Baroness Smith of Newnham for life
12 Sep 2014
SNAPE
9 Jun 2004 B[L] 1 Peter Charles Snape 12 Feb 1942
Created Baron Snape for life 9 Jun 2004
MP for West Bromwich East 1974-2001
SNELL
23 Mar 1931 B 1 Henry Snell 1 Apr 1865 21 Apr 1944 79
to     Created Baron Snell 23 Mar 1931
21 Apr 1944 MP for Woolwich East 1922-1931. PC 1937
CH 1943
Peerage extinct on his death
SNOW
29 Oct 1964 B[L] 1 Charles Percy Snow 15 Oct 1905 1 Jul 1980 74
to     Created Baron Snow for life 29 Oct 1964
1 Jul 1980 Peerage extinct on his death
SNOWDEN
24 Nov 1931 V 1 Philip Snowden 18 Jul 1864 15 May 1937 72
to     Created Viscount Snowden 24 Nov 1931
15 May 1937 MP for Blackburn 1906-1918 and Colne
Valley 1922-1931. Chancellor of the
Exchequer 1924 and 1929-1931. Lord Privy
Seal 1931-1932.  PC 1924
Peerage extinct on his death
SNOWDON
26 Jul 1726 B 1 Frederick Lewis 20 Jan 1707 20 Mar 1751 44
Created Baron of Snowdon,Viscount
of Launceston,Earl of Eltham,
Marquess of the Isle of Ely and Duke
of Edinburgh 26 Jul 1726
See "Edinburgh"
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6 Oct 1961 E 1 Anthony Charles Robert Armstrong-Jones 7 Mar 1930
Created Earl of Snowdon and Viscount 
Linley 6 Oct 1961
He was also created Baron Armstrong-
Jones for life 16 Nov 1999
SOAMES
19 Apr 1978 B[L] 1 Arthur Christopher John Soames 12 Oct 1920 16 Sep 1987 66
to     Created Baron Soames for life 19 Apr 1978
16 Sep 1987 MP for Bedford 1950-1966. Secretary of
State for War 1958-1960. Minister of Agriculture
Fisheries and Food 1960-1964. Lord President of
the Council 1979-1981,. Governor of Southern
Rhodesia 1979-1980   PC 1958  CH 1980
Peerage extinct on his death
SOBERTON
17 Feb 1806 B 1 Thomas Anson 14 Feb 1767 31 Jul 1818 51
Created Baron Soberton and Viscount
Anson 17 Feb 1806
See "Anson"
SOLEY
29 Jun 2005 B[L] 1 Clive Stafford Soley 7 May 1939
Created Baron Soley for life 29 Jun 2005
MP for Hammersmith North 1979-1983,
Hammersmith 1983-1997 and Ealing,Acton and
Shepherd's Bush 1997-2005
SOLWAY
17 Jun 1707 E[S] 1 Charles Douglas,later [1711] 3rd Duke of
Queensberry and 2nd Duke of Dover 24 Nov 1698 22 Oct 1778 79
Created Lord Douglas,Viscount of
Tiberris and Earl of Solway 17 Jun 1707
See "Queensberry" - extinct on his death
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7 Jun 1833 B 1 Charles Douglas Douglas,6th Marquess of
to     Queensberry Mar 1777 3 Dec 1837 60
3 Dec 1837 Created Baron Solway 7 Jun 1833
Peerage extinct on his death
SOMERHILL
3 Apr 1624 B 1 Richard Bourke,4th Earl of Clanricarde 1572 12 Nov 1635 63
Created Baron of Somerhill and
Viscount Tunbridge 3 Apr 1624 and 
Baron of Imanney,Viscount Galway and
Earl of St.Albans 23 Aug 1628
See "Clanricarde"
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4 Jul 1826 B 1 Ulick John de Burgh,1st Marquess of
Clanricarde 20 Dec 1802 10 Apr 1874 71
  Created Baron Somerhill 4 Jul 1826
      See "Clanricarde"
SOMERLEYTON
26 Jun 1916 B 1 Sir Savile Brinton Crossley,2nd baronet 14 Jun 1857 25 Feb 1935 77
Created Baron Somerleyton
26 Jun 1916
MP for Lowestoft 1882-1890 and Halifax
1900-1906. Paymaster General 1902-1906
PC 1902
25 Feb 1935 2 Francis Savile Crossley 1 Jun 1889 15 Jul 1959 70
15 Jul 1959 3 Savile William Francis Crossley 17 Sep 1928 24 Jan 2012 83
24 Jan 2012 4 Hugh Francis Savile Crossley 27 Sep 1971
SOMERS
2 Dec 1697 B 1 John Somers 4 Mar 1651 26 Apr 1716 65
to     Created Baron Somers 2 Dec 1697
26 Apr 1716 MP for Worcester 1689-1693. Solicitor
General 1689-1692. Attorney General 
1692-1693. Lord Keeper 1693-1697.
Lord Chancellor 1697-1700. President of
the Royal Society 1698-1703. Lord President
of the Council 1708-1710. PC 1693
Peerage extinct on his death
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17 May 1784 B 1 Sir Charles Cocks,1st baronet 29 Jun 1725 30 Jan 1806 80
Created Baron Somers 17 May 1784
MP for Reigate 1747-1784
30 Jan 1806 2 John Sommers Cocks 6 May 1760 5 Jan 1841 80
17 Jul 1821 E 1 Created Viscount Eastnor and Earl 
Somers 17 Jul 1821
MP for West Looe 1782-1784, Grampound
1784-1790 and Reigate 1790-1806. Lord
Lieutenant Hereford 1817-1841
5 Jan 1841 3 John Sommers Somers-Cocks 19 Mar 1788 5 Oct 1852 64
2 MP for Reigate 1812-1818, Hereford 1818-
1832 and Reigate 1832-1841. Lord
Lieutenant Hereford 1845-1852
5 Oct 1852 4 Charles Somers Somers-Cocks 14 Jul 1819 26 Sep 1883 64
to     3 MP for Reigate 1841-1847
26 Sep 1883 On his death the Earldom became extinct
whilst the Barony passed to -
26 Sep 1883 5 Philip Reginald Cocks 22 Aug 1815 30 Sep 1899 84
30 Sep 1899 6 Arthur Herbert Tennyson Somers Cocks 20 Mar 1887 14 Jul 1944 57
Governor of Victoria 1926-1931. Lord
Lieutenant Hereford 1933-1944
14 Jul 1944 7 Arthur Percy Somers Cocks 23 Nov 1864 8 Feb 1953 88
8 Feb 1953 8 John Patrick Somers Cocks 30 Apr 1907 15 Feb 1995 87
15 Feb 1995 9 Philip Sebastian Somers-Cocks 4 Jan 1948
SOMERSET
10 Feb 1397 E 1 John Beaufort c 1371 21 Apr 1410
29 Sep 1397 M 1 Created Earl of Somerset 10 Feb 1397
to     and Marquess of Somerset 29 Sep 1397
1399 KG 1396
He was degraded from the Marquessate
in 1399
21 Apr 1410 2 Henry Beaufort 16 Oct 1401 25 Nov 1418 17
25 Nov 1418 3 John Beaufort 1404 27 May 1444 39
28 Aug 1443 D 1 Created Earl of Kendal and Duke of
to     Somerset 28 Aug 1443
27 May 1444 KG c 1439
On his death the creations of 1443 became
extinct whilst the Earldom passed to -
27 May 1444 4 Edmund Beaufort,1st Marquess of Dorset c 1406 23 May 1455
31 Mar 1448 D 1 Created Duke of Somerset 31 Mar 1448
KG 1436
23 May 1455 2 Henry Beaufort Apr 1436 3 Apr 1464 27
to     he was attainted and the peerages
3 Apr 1464 forfeited
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24 Feb 1499 D 1 Edmund Tudor 10 Feb 1499 19 Jun 1500 1
to     Created Duke of Somerset 24 Feb 1499
19 Jun 1500 Peerage extinct on his death
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18 Jun 1525 D 1 Henry Fitzroy 1519 22 Jul 1536 17
to     Created Earl of Nottingham and Duke
22 Jul 1536 of Richmond and Somerset 18 Jun 1525
illegitimate son of Henry VIII
Peerages extinct on his death
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16 Feb 1547 D 1 Edward Seymour c 1500 22 Jan 1552
to     Created Viscount Beauchamp of Hache
22 Jan 1552 5 Jun 1536, Earl of Hertford 18 Oct 1537
and Duke of Somerset 16 Feb 1547
KG 1541
He was attainted and the peerages
forfeited. Peerage restored 1660 
(see below)
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3 Nov 1613 E 1 Robert Carr c 1587 17 Jul 1645
to     Created Viscount Rochester 25 Mar
17 Jul 1645 1611, and Baron Brancepeth and Earl
of Somerset 3 Nov 1613
KG 1611. Lord Lieutenant Durham 1615
Peerage extinct on his death
For information on this peer and his wife and her
involvement the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury,see
the note at the foot of the page containing details
of the Earls of Essex
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13 Sep 1660 D 2 William Seymour,1st Marquess of Hertford 1588 24 Oct 1660 72
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Beauchamp in Feb 1621.
Created Marquess of Hertford 3 Jun 1640
Restored to the peerage 1660
Lord Lieutenant Somerset and Wiltshire 1660
KG 1650
24 Oct 1660 3 William Seymour 17 Apr 1652 12 Dec 1671 19
12 Dec 1671 4 John Seymour c 1633 29 Apr 1675
MP for Marlborough 1661-1671. Lord
Lieutenant Somerset and Wiltshire 1672-1675
29 Apr 1675 5 Francis Seymour 17 Jan 1658 20 Apr 1678 20
20 Apr 1678 6 Charles Seymour 13 Aug 1662 2 Dec 1748 86
Lord Lieutenant E Riding Yorkshire 1682-
1687 and Somerset 1683-1687. Lord
President of the Council 1702.  KG 1684
PC 1702
For further information on this peer, see the
note at the foot of this page.
2 Dec 1748 7 Algernon Seymour 11 Nov 1684 7 Feb 1750 65
Summoned to Parliament as Lord Percy 
23 Nov 1722. Created Baron Warkworth and 
Earl of Northumberland 2 Oct 1749 and Baron
Cockermouth and Earl of Egremont
3 Oct 1749
MP for Marlborough 1705-1708 and
Northumberland 1708-1722. Lord 
Lieutenant Sussex 1706-1750. 
7 Feb 1750 8 Sir Edward Seymour,6th baronet 17 Jan 1695 15 Dec 1757 62
MP for Salisbury 1741-1747
15 Dec 1757 9 Edward Seymour 2 Jan 1718 2 Jan 1792 74
PC 1770
2 Jan 1792 10 Webb Seymour 3 Dec 1718 15 Dec 1793 75
15 Dec 1793 11 Edward Adolphus Seymour 24 Feb 1775 15 Aug 1855 80
KG 1837
15 Aug 1855 12 Edward Adolphus Seymour 20 Dec 1804 28 Nov 1885 80
Created Earl Saint Maur 19 Jun 1863
MP for Okehampton 1830-1831 and Totnes
1834-1855. Chief Commissioner of Woods
and Forests 1849-1852. First Lord of the
Admiralty 1859-1866. Lord Lieutenant
Devon 1861-1885. PC 1851  KG 1862
For further information on the two sons of this
peer, see the note at the foot of this page.
28 Nov 1885 13 Archibald Henry Algernon St,Maur 30 Dec 1810 10 Jan 1891 80
10 Jan 1891 14 Algernon Percy Banks St.Maur 22 Dec 1813 2 Oct 1894 80
2 Oct 1894 15 Algernon St.Maur 22 Jul 1846 22 Oct 1923 77
22 Oct 1923 16 Edward Hamilton Seymour 19 May 1860 5 May 1931 70
For further information regarding a counter-
claim to this peerage, see the note at the foot
of this page.
5 May 1931 17 Evelyn Francis Edward Seymour 1 May 1882 26 Apr 1954 71
Lord Lieutenant Wiltshire 1942-1954
26 Apr 1954 18 Percy Hamilton Seymour 27 Sep 1910 15 Nov 1984 74
15 Nov 1984 19 John Michael Edward Seymour 30 Dec 1952
SOMERSET OF CASHEL
8 Dec 1626 V[I] 1 Thomas Somerset 1579 Jun 1649 69
to     Created Viscount Somerset of 
Jun 1649 Cashel 8 Dec 1626
Peerage extinct on his death
SOMERTON
30 Dec 1800 V[I] 1 Charles Agar 22 Dec 1736 14 Jul 1809 72
Created Baron Somerton 12 Jun 1795,
Viscount Somerton 30 Dec 1800 and
Earl of Normanton 4 Feb 1806
See "Normanton"
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9 Apr 1873 B 1 James Charles Herbert Welbore Ellis Agar, 17 Sep 1818 19 Dec 1896 78
3rd Earl of Normanton
Created Baron Somerton 9 Apr 1873
See "Normanton"
SOMERVELL OF HARROW
4 Oct 1954 B[L] 1 Donald Bradley Somervell 24 Aug 1889 18 Nov 1960 71
to     Created Baron Somervell of Harrow for life
18 Nov 1960 4 Oct 1954
MP for Crewe 1931-1945. Solicitor General 1933-
1936. Attorney General 1936-1945. Home
Secretary 1945. Lord Justice of Appeal 1946-1954.
Lord of Appeal in Ordinary 1954-1960. PC 1938
Peerage extinct on his death
SOMERVILLE
c 1435 B[S] 1 Sir Thomas Somerville Dec 1444
Created Lord Somerville c 1435
Dec 1444 2 William Somerville c 1400 20 Aug 1456
20 Aug 1456 3 John Somerville Nov 1491
Nov 1491 4 John Somerville 1523
1523 5 Hugh Somerville c 1484 1549
1549 6 James Somerville c 1518 Dec 1569
Dec 1569 7 Hugh Somerville c 1539 24 Mar 1597
24 Mar 1597 8 Gilbert Somerville c 1568 1618
On his death the peerage became dormant. The 
line of descent was as follows-
[1618] 9 Hugh Somerville c 1573 Apr 1640
[Apr 1640] 10 James Somerville Jan 1596 3 Jan 1677 80
[3 Jan 1677] 11 James Somerville Jan 1632 7 Feb 1693 61
[7 Feb 1693] 12 James Somerville 1674 4 Dec 1709 35
[4 Dec 1709] 13 James Somerville Jan 1698 14 Dec 1765 67
27 May 1723 The House of Lords approved his right to the title
in 1723
14 Dec 1765 14 James Somerville Jan 1727 16 Apr 1796 69
16 Apr 1796 15 John Southey Somerville 21 Sep 1765 5 Oct 1819 54
5 Oct 1819 16 Mark Somerville 26 Oct 1784 3 Jun 1842 57
3 Jun 1842 17 Kenelm Somerville 14 Nov 1787 19 Oct 1864 76
19 Oct 1864 18 Hugh Somerville 11 Oct 1839 17 Nov 1868 29
17 Oct 1868 19 Aubrey John Somerville 1 Feb 1838 28 Aug 1870 32
to     On his death the peerage again became dormant
28 Aug 1870 For further information on this peerage,
see the note at the foot of this page
SOMERY
10 Mar 1308 B 1 John de Somery c 1279 29 Dec 1321
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
29 Dec 1321 Somery 10 Mar 1308
Peerage extinct on his death
SONDES
8 Apr 1676 V 1 Sir George Sondes 1600 16 Apr 1677 76
Created Baron of Throwley,Viscount
Sondes and Earl of Feversham
8 Apr 1676
MP for Ashburton 1661-1676
16 Apr 1677 2 Louis de Duras 1641 19 Apr 1709 67
to     Created Baron Duras 29 Jan 1673
19 Apr 1709 Peerages extinct on his death
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19 Oct 1714 V 1 Lewis Watson,3rd Baron Rockingham 29 Dec 1655 19 Mar 1724 68
Created Baron Throwley,Viscount
Sondes and Earl of Rockingham
19 Oct 1714
See "Rockingham" - extinct 1746
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22 May 1760 B 1 Lewis Watson 28 Nov 1728 30 Mar 1795 66
Created Baron Sondes 22 May 1760
MP for Boroughbridge 1750-1754 and 
Kent 1754-1760
30 Mar 1795 2 Lewis Thomas Watson 18 Apr 1754 20 Jun 1806 52
MP for Hedon 1776-1780
20 Jun 1806 3 Lewis Richard Watson 24 May 1792 14 Mar 1836 43
14 Mar 1836 4 George John Milles 20 Jan 1794 17 Dec 1874 80
17 Dec 1874 5 George Watson Milles 2 Oct 1824 10 Sep 1894 69
4 May 1880 E 1 Created Viscount Throwley and Earl
Sondes 4 May 1880
MP for Kent East 1868-1874
10 Sep 1894 2 George Edward Milles-Lade 11 May 1861 1 Oct 1907 46
1 Oct 1907 3 Lewis Arthur Milles 3 Oct 1866 17 Jan 1941 74
17 Jan 1941 4 George Henry Milles 8 Feb 1914 30 Apr 1970 56
30 Apr 1970 5 Henry George Herbert Milles-Lade 1 May 1940 2 Dec 1996 56
to     Peerage extinct on his death
2 Dec 1996  
SOPER
12 May 1965 B[L] 1 Donald Oliver Soper 31 Jan 1903 22 Dec 1998 95
to     Created Baron Soper for life 12 May 1965
22 Dec 1998 Peerage extinct on his death
SORENSEN
15 Dec 1964 B[L] 1 Reginald William Sorensen 19 Jun 1891 8 Oct 1971 80
to     Created Baron Sorensen for life 15 Dec 1964
8 Oct 1971 MP for Leyton West 1929-1931 and 1935-
1950 and Leyton 1950-1964
Peerage extinct on his death
SOULBURY
16 Jul 1954 V 1 Herwald Ramsbotham 6 Mar 1887 30 Jan 1971 83
Created Baron Soulbury 6 Aug 1941
and Viscount Soulbury 16 Jul 1954
MP for Lancaster 1929-1941. Minister of
Pensions 1936-1939. First Commissioner of
Works 1939-1940. President of the Board
of Education 1940-1941. Governor General
of Ceylon 1949-1954.  PC 1939
30 Jan 1971 2 James Herwald Ramsbotham 21 Mar 1915 12 Dec 2004 89
12 Dec 2004 3 Peter Edward Ramsbotham 8 Oct 1919 9 Apr 2010 90
Governor of Bermuda 1977-1980
9 Apr 2010 4 Oliver Peter Ramsbotham 27 Oct 1943
SOULSBY OF SWAFFHAM PRIOR
22 May 1990 B[L] 1 Ernest Jackson Lawton Soulsby 23 Jun 1926
Created Baron Soulsby of Swaffham Prior
for life 22 May 1990
SOUTHAM
22 Oct 1844 V 1 Edward Law,2nd Baron Ellenborough 8 Sep 1790 22 Dec 1871 81
to     Created Viscount Southam and Earl of
22 Dec 1871 Ellenborough 22 Oct 1844
This peerage extinct on his death
SOUTHAMPTON
18 Oct 1537 E 1 Sir William Fitzwilliam c 1490 15 Oct 1542
to     Created Earl of Southampton
15 Oct 1542 18 Oct 1537
MP for Surrey 1529-1536. Chancellor of
the Duchy of Lancaster 1529-1542. Lord
Privy Seal 1539. KG 1526
Peerage extinct on his death
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16 Feb 1547 E 1 Thomas Wriothesley 21 Dec 1505 30 Jul 1550 44
Created Baron Wriothesley 1 Jan 1544
and Earl of Southampton 16 Feb 1547
MP for Hampshire 1542-1544. Lord
Chancellor 1544-1547.  KG 1545
30 Jul 1550 2 Henry Wriothesley 24 Apr 1545 4 Oct 1581 36
4 Oct 1581 3 Henry Wriothesley 6 Oct 1573 10 Nov 1624 51
He was attainted and the peerages 
forfeited in 1601 but was restored to the
peerages on 21 Jul 1603
KG 1603
10 Nov 1624 4 Thomas Wriothesley  (also 2nd Earl of Chichester) 10 Mar 1607 16 May 1667 60
to     Lord High Treasurer 1660-1667.  KG 1650
16 May 1667 Lord Lieutenant Hampshire 1660-1667, Kent
1662-1667,Norfolk 1660-1661,Wiltshire
1661-1667 and Worcester 1662-1663
Peerages extinct on his death
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3 Aug 1670 E 1 Barbara Palmer 1641 9 Oct 1709 68
Created Baroness Nonsuch,Countess
of Southampton and Duchess of
Cleveland 3 Aug 1670
See "Cleveland"
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10 Sep 1675 D 1 Charles Fitzroy 18 Jun 1662 9 Sep 1730 68
Created Baron of Newbury,Earl of
Chichester and Duke of Southampton
10 Sep 1675
KG 1673
He subsequently succeeded to the Dukedom
of Cleveland (qv) in 1709
9 Sep 1730 2 William Fitzroy 19 Feb 1698 18 May 1774 76
to     Peerages extinct on his death
18 May 1774
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17 Oct 1780 B 1 Charles FitzRoy 25 Jun 1737 21 Mar 1797 59
Created Baron Southampton
17 Oct 1780
MP for Orford 1759-1761, Bury St.Edmunds
1761-1774 and Thetford 1774-1780
For information on his second son, Charles,and
his relationship with Princess Amelia, youngest
daughter of King George III,see the note at the
foot of this page
21 Mar 1797 2 George Ferdinand FitzRoy 7 Aug 1761 24 Jun 1810 48
MP for Bury St.Edmunds 1784-1787
24 Jun 1810 3 Charles FitzRoy 28 Sep 1804 16 Jul 1872 67
Lord Lieutenant Northampton 1867-1872
16 Jul 1872 4 Charles Henry FitzRoy 11 May 1867 7 Dec 1958 91
7 Dec 1958 5 Charles FitzRoy 3 Jan 1904 1989 85
to     He disclaimed the peerage for life in 1964
16 Mar 1964
1989 6 Charles James FitzRoy 12 Aug 1928
SOUTHBOROUGH
1 Nov 1917 B 1 Sir Francis John Stephens Hopwood 2 Dec 1860 17 Jan 1947 86
Created Baron Southborough 
1 Nov 1917
PC 1912
17 Jan 1947 2 James Spencer Neill Hopwood 17 Jan 1889 25 Feb 1960 71
25 Feb 1960 3 Francis John Hopwood 7 Mar 1897 4 Feb 1982 84
4 Feb 1982 4 Francis Michael Hopwood 3 May 1922 15 Jun 1992 70
to     Peerage extinct on his death
15 Jun 1992
SOUTHESK
22 Jun 1633 E[S] 1 David Carnegie 1575 Feb 1658 82
Created Lord Carnegie of Kinnaird
14 Apr 1616,and Lord Carnegie of
Kinnaird and Leuchars and Earl of
Southesk 22 Jun 1633
Feb 1658 2 James Carnegie Mar 1669
Mar 1669 3 Robert Carnegie 19 Feb 1688
19 Feb 1688 4 Charles Carnegie 7 Apr 1661 9 Aug 1699 38
9 Aug 1699 5 James Carnegie 1692 10 Feb 1730 37
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
1715
[10 Feb 1730] [6] [James Carnegie] 30 Apr 1765
[30 Apr 1765] [7] [David Carnegie] 25 May 1805
[25 May 1805] [8] [James Carnegie] 28 Sep 1799 30 Jan 1849 49
[30 Jan 1849] 9 Sir James Carnegie,6th baronet 16 Nov 1827 21 Feb 1905 77
2 Jul 1855 He obtained a reversal of the 
attainder in 1855
Created Baron Balinhard 7 Dec 1869
Lord Lieutenant Kincardine 1849-1856
KT 1869
For information on David Wynford Carnegie,this
peer's youngest son,see the note at the foot
of this page
21 Feb 1905 10 Charles Noel Carnegie 20 Mar 1854 10 Nov 1941 87
10 Nov 1941 11 Charles Alexander Carnegie 23 Sep 1893 16 Feb 1992 98
16 Feb 1992 12 James George Alexander Bannerman
Carnegie 23 Sep 1929
He had previously succeeded to the
Dukedom of Fife (qv) in 1959 with which
title this peerage then merged and still remains so
SOUTHWARK
13 Jul 1910 B 1 Richard Knight Causton 25 Sep 1843 23 Feb 1929 85
to     Created Baron Southwark 13 Jul 1910
23 Feb 1929 MP for Colchester 1880-1885 and
Southwark West 1888-1910. Paymaster General
1905-1910.  PC 1906
Peerage extinct on his death
SOUTHWELL
4 Sep 1717 B[I] 1 Sir Thomas Southwell,2nd baronet 1665 4 Aug 1720 55
Created Baron Southwell 4 Sep 1717
PC [I] 1710
4 Aug 1720 2 Thomas Southwell 7 Jan 1698 19 Nov 1766 68
PC [I] 1726
19 Nov 1766 3 Thomas George Southwell 4 May 1721 29 Aug 1780 59
18 Jul 1776 V[I] 1 Created Viscount Southwell 18 Jul 1776
29 Aug 1780 2 Thomas Arthur Southwell 16 Apr 1742 14 Feb 1796 53
14 Feb 1796 3 Thomas Anthony Southwell 25 Feb 1777 29 Feb 1860 83
KP 1837
29 Feb 1860 4 Thomas Arthur Joseph Southwell 6 Apr 1836 26 Aug 1878 42
Lord Lieutenant Leitrim 1872-1878. KP 1871
26 Aug 1878 5 Arthur Robert Pyers Joseph Mary
Southwell 16 Nov 1872 5 Oct 1944 71
5 Oct 1944 6 Robert Arthur William Joseph Southwell 5 Sep 1898 18 Nov 1960 62
18 Nov 1960 7 Pyers Anthony Joseph Southwell 14 Sep 1930
SOUTHWOOD
25 Jan 1946 V 1 Julius Salter Elias 5 Jan 1873 10 Apr 1946 73
to     Created Baron Southwood 11 Jun 1937
10 Apr 1946 and Viscount Southwood 25 Jan 1946
Peerages extinct on his death
SPELSBURY
5 Jun 1674 B 1 Edward Henry Lee c 1656 14 Jul 1716
Created Baron of Spelsbury,Viscount
Quarendon and Earl of the City of
Lichfield 5 Jun 1674
See "Lichfield"
SPENCER
1 Nov 1765 E 1 John Spencer 19 Dec 1734 31 Oct 1783 48
Created Baron and Viscount Spencer
3 Apr 1761, and Viscount Althorp and
Earl Spencer 1 Nov 1765
MP for Warwick 1756-1761
31 Oct 1783 2 George John Spencer 1 Sep 1758 10 Nov 1834 76
MP for Northampton 1780-1782 and Surrey
1782-1783. Lord Privy Seal 1794. First Lord
of the Admiralty 1794-1801. Home 
Secretary 1806-1807. PC 1794  KG 1799
10 Nov 1834 3 John Charles Spencer 30 May 1782 1 Oct 1845 63
MP for Okehampton 1804-1806,
Northamptonshire 1806-1832 and 
Northamptonshire South 1832-1834.
Chancellor of the Exchequer 1830-1834.
PC 1830
1 Oct 1845 4 Frederick Spencer 14 Apr 1798 27 Dec 1857 59
MP for Worcestershire 1831-1832 and
Midhurst 1832-1834 and 1837-1841. PC 1846
KG 1849
27 Dec 1857 5 John Poyntz Spencer 27 Oct 1835 13 Aug 1910 74
MP for Northamptonshire South 1857.
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1868-1874 and
1882-1885. Lord President of the Council
1880-1883. First Lord of the Admiralty
1892. Lord Lieutenant Northamptonshire
1872-1908.  PC 1859  KG 1865
13 Aug 1910 6 Charles Robert Spencer 30 Oct 1857 16 Sep 1922 64
Created Viscount Althorp 19 Dec 1905
MP for Northamptonshire North 1880-1885
and Northamptonshire Mid 1885-1895 and 
1900-1905. Lord Lieutenant Northampton
1908-1922.  PC 1892  KG 1913
16 Sep 1922 7 Albert Edward John Spencer 23 May 1892 9 Jun 1975 83
Lord Lieutenant Northampton 1952-1967
9 Jun 1975 8 Edward John Spencer 24 Jan 1924 29 Mar 1992 68
29 Mar 1992 9 Charles Edward Maurice Spencer 20 May 1964
SPENCER OF WORMLEIGHTON
21 Jul 1603 B 1 Sir Robert Spencer 1570 25 Oct 1627 57
Created Baron Spencer of
Wormleighton 21 Jul 1603
25 Oct 1627 2 William Spencer 4 Jan 1592 19 Dec 1636 44
MP for Northamptonshire 1620-1625
19 Dec 1636 3 Henry Spencer 23 Nov 1620 20 Sep 1643 22
He was created Earl of Sunderland (qv) in
1643 with which title this peerage then
merged
                     ***************
12 Mar 1806 George Spencer-Churchill 6 Mar 1766 5 Mar 1840 73
He was summoned to Parliament by a Writ of
Acceleration as Baron Spencer of Wormleighton
12 Mar 1806
He succeeded as Duke of Marlborough (qv) in 1817
SPENCER-CHURCHILL
17 May 1965 B[L] 1 Clementine Ogilvy Spencer-Churchill 1 Apr 1885 12 Dec 1977 92
to     Created Baroness Spencer-Churchill for life
12 Dec 1977 17 May 1965
Peerage extinct on her death
SPENS
20 Aug 1959 B 1 William Patrick Spens 9 Aug 1885 15 Nov 1973 88
Created Baron Spens 20 Aug 1959
MP for Ashford 1933-1943 and Kensington
South 1950-1959. Chief Justice of India
1943-1947.  PC 1953
15 Nov 1973 2 William George Michael Spens 18 Sep 1914 23 Nov 1984 70
For further information on this peer,see the
note at the foot of this page
23 Nov 1984 3 Patrick Michael Rex Spens 22 Jul 1942 5 Jan 2001 58
5 Jan 2001 4 Patrick Nathaniel George Spens 14 Oct 1968
SPICER
8 Jul 2010 B[L] 1 Sir William Michael Hardy Spicer 22 Jan 1943
Created Baron Spicer for life 8 Jul 2010
MP for Worcestershire South 1974-1997 and
Worcestershire West 1997-2010.  PC 2013
SPYNIE
4 Nov 1590 B[S] 1 Sir Alexander Lindsay Jul 1607
Created Lord Spynie 4 Nov 1590
Jul 1607 2 Alexander Lindsay Mar 1646
Mar 1646 3 George Lindsay Jan 1671
to     On his death the peerage became dormant
Jan 1671
STAFFORD
6 Feb 1299 B 1 Edmond de Stafford 1308
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Stafford 6 Feb 1299
1308 2 Ralph Stafford 24 Sep 1301 31 Aug 1372 70
3 Mar 1351 E 1 Created Earl of Stafford 3 Mar 1351
KG 1348
31 Aug 1372 2 Hugh Stafford c 1342 2 Oct 1386
KG 1375
2 Oct 1386 3 Thomas Stafford c 1368 4 Jul 1392
4 Jul 1392 4 William Stafford 21 Sep 1375 6 Apr 1395 19
6 Apr 1395 5 Edmund Stafford 2 Mar 1378 21 Jul 1403 25
KG 1402
21 Jul 1403 6 Humphrey Stafford,later [1444] 1st Duke of
Buckingham 15 Aug 1402 10 Jul 1460 57
10 Jul 1460 7 Henry Stafford,2nd Duke of Buckingham 4 Sep 1454 2 Nov 1483 29
to     He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
2 Nov 1483
1485 8 Edward Stafford 3 Feb 1478 17 May 1521 43
to     Restored to the peerage 1485. He was
17 May 1521 attainted and the peerage forfeited
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
4 Nov 1547 B 1 Henry Stafford 18 Sep 1501 30 Apr 1563 61
Created Baron Stafford 4 Nov 1547
Lord Lieutenant Stafford 1559
30 Apr 1563 2 Henry Stafford by 1527 1 Jan 1566
MP for Stafford 1555
1 Jan 1566 3 Edward Stafford 17 Jan 1536 19 Oct 1603 67
MP for Stafford 1558 and 1559
19 Oct 1603 4 Edward Stafford 1572 25 Sep 1625 53
25 Sep 1625 5 Henry Stafford 24 Sep 1621 Oct 1637 16
Oct 1637 6 Roger Stafford c 1573 c 1640
to     Peerage extinct on his death
c 1640
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
11 Nov 1640 V 1 William Howard 30 Nov 1614 29 Dec 1680 66
to     Created Baron Stafford 12 Sep 1640
3 Jun 1678 and Viscount Stafford 11 Nov 1640
He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
See under 4th Earl of 1688 creation
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
5 Oct 1688 E[L] 1 Mary Stafford 1619 23 Jan 1694 74
to     Created Baroness Stafford for life 12 Sep
23 Jan 1694 1640 and Countess of Stafford for life
5 Oct 1688
Peerages extinct on her death
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
5 Oct 1688 E 1 Henry Stafford-Howard c 1648 27 Apr 1719
[2] Created Earl of Stafford 5 Oct 1688
27 Apr 1719 2 William Stafford-Howard c 1690 Jan 1734
[3]
Jan 1734 3 William Matthias Stafford-Howard 24 Feb 1718 28 Feb 1751 33
[4]
28 Feb 1751 4 John Paul Stafford-Howard 26 Jun 1700 1 Apr 1762 61
to     [5] On his death the Earldom became extinct
1 Apr 1762 whilst the Barony of 1640,subject to the
attainder,passed to -
[1 Apr 1762] [6] [Anastasia Stafford-Howard] 21 Oct 1722 27 Apr 1807 84
[27 Apr 1807] [7] [William Jerningham] 7 Mar 1736 14 Aug 1809 73
[14 Aug 1809] Sir George William Stafford-Jerningham,7th baronet 27 Apr 1771 4 Oct 1851 80
17 Jun 1824 8 Obtained a reversal of the attainder 1824
4 Oct 1851 9 Henry Valentine Stafford-Jerningham 2 Jan 1802 30 Nov 1884 82
MP for Pontefract 1830-1834
30 Nov 1884 10 Augustus Frederick Fitzherbert
Stafford-Jerningham 28 Jun 1830 16 Apr 1892 61
16 Apr 1892 11 Fitzherbert Stafford-Jerningham 17 Jul 1833 12 Jun 1913 79
12 Jun 1913 12 Francis Edward Fitzherbert-Stafford 28 Aug 1859 18 Sep 1932 73
18 Sep 1932 13 Edward Stafford Fitzherbert 17 Apr 1864 28 Sep 1941 77
28 Sep 1941 14 Basil Francis Nicholas Fitzherbert 7 Apr 1926 8 Jan 1986 59
8 Jan 1986 15 Francis Melfort William Fitzherbert 13 Mar 1954
STAFFORD
8 Jan 1371 B 1 Sir Richard Stafford 13 Aug 1380
Summoned to Parliament as Lord
Stafford 8 Jan 1371
13 Aug 1380 2 Edmund Stafford 3 Sep 1419
Lord privy Seal 1391. Bishop of Exeter
1395-1419. Lord Keeper 1394-1399 and
1401-1403
3 Sep 1419 3 Thomas Stafford 11 Dec 1425
11 Dec 1425 4 Richard Stafford after 1425
to     On his death the peerage fell into abeyance
after 1425
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  
21 Sep 1411 B 1 Sir Hugh Stafford 25 Oct 1420
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
25 Oct 1420 Stafford 21 Sep 1411
KG 1418
Peerage extinct on his death
STAFFORD
1 Mar 1786 M 1 Granville Leveson-Gower,2nd Earl Gower 4 Aug 1721 26 Oct 1803 82
Created Marquess of Stafford
1 Mar 1786
MP for Bishop's Castle 1744-1747,
Westminster 1747-1754 and Lichfield 1754.
Lord Privy Seal 1755-1757 and 1784-1794.
Lord President of the Council 1767-1779
and 1783-1784. Lord Lieutenant Stafford
1755-1799 and Sutherland 1794-1803
PC 1755  KG 1771
26 Oct 1803 2 George Granville Leveson-Gower 9 Jan 1758 5 Jul 1833 75
He was created Duke of Sutherland (qv) in
1833 with which title this peerage then
merged
STAFFORD DE SUTHWYKE
25 Jul 1461 B 1 Sir Humphrey Stair 17 Aug 1469
to     Summoned to Parliament as Lord
17 Aug 1469 Stafford de Suthwyke 25 Jul 1461
He was attainted and the peerage forfeited
STAIR
21 Apr 1690 V[S] 1 Sir James Dalrymple,1st baronet May 1619 25 Nov 1695 76
Created Lord Glenluce and Stranraer
and Viscount of Stair 21 Apr 1690
25 Nov 1695 2 John Dalrymple 1648 8 Jan 1707 58
8 Apr 1703 E[S] 1 Created Lord Newliston,Glenluce,
and Stranraer,Viscount Dalrymple and
Earl of Stair 8 Apr 1703
Secretary of State for Scotland 1691-1695
PC 1702
8 Jan 1707 2 John Dalrymple 20 Jul 1673 9 May 1747 73
KT 1710  PC 1714  Field Marshal 1742
For further information on this peer's wife, see
the note at the foot of this page
9 May 1747 3 James Dalrymple 30 Nov 1760
30 Nov 1760 4 William Dalrymple-Crichton 1699 27 Jul 1768 69
KT 1752
He had previously succeeded as 5th Earl of
Dumfries in 1742
27 Jul 1768 5 John Dalrymple 13 Oct 1789
13 Oct 1789 6 John Dalrymple 24 Sep 1749 1 Jun 1821 71
1 Jun 1821 7 John William Henry Dalrymple 16 Nov 1784 20 Mar 1840 55
20 Mar 1840 8 Sir John Hamilton Dalrymple,5th baronet 14 Jun 1771 10 Jan 1853 81
Created Baron Oxenford 16 Aug 1841
MP for Midlothian 1832-1835.  KT 1847
10 Jan 1853 9 North Hamilton-Dalrymple 1776 9 Nov 1864 88
9 Nov 1864 10 John Hamilton-Dalrymple 1 Apr 1819 3 Dec 1903 84
MP for Wigtown 1841-1856. Lord Lieutenant
Wigtown 1851-1903 and Ayrshire 1870-1897
KT 1865
3 Dec 1903 11 John Hew North Henry Hamilton Dalrymple 12 Jun 1848 2 Dec 1914 66
2 Dec 1914 12 John James Dalrymple 1 Feb 1879 4 Nov 1961 82
MP for Wigtownshire 1906-1914. Lord
Lieutenant Wigtown 1935-1961. KT 1937
4 Nov 1961 13 John Aymer Dalrymple 9 Oct 1906 26 Feb 1996 89
Lord Lieutenant Wigtown 1961-1983
26 Feb 1996 14 John David James Dalrymple 4 Sep 1961
STALBRIDGE
22 Mar 1886 B 1 Richard de Aquila Grosvenor 28 Jan 1837 18 May 1912 75
Created Baron Stalbridge 22 Mar 1886
MP for Flintshire 1861-1886.  PC 1872
18 May 1912 2 Hugh Grosvenor 5 May 1880 24 Dec 1949 69
to    Peerage extinct on his death
24 Dec 1949 For information on the death of his only son and
heir,see the note at the foot of this page
STALLARD
7 Sep 1983 B[L] 1 Albert William Stallard 5 Nov 1921 29 Mar 2008 86
to     Created Baron Stallard for life 7 Sep 1983
29 Mar 2008 MP for St.Pancras North 1970-1983
Peerage extinct on his death
STAMFORD
26 Mar 1628 E 1 Henry Grey,2nd Baron Grey of Groby c 1600 21 Aug 1673
Created Earl of Stamford 26 Mar 1628
21 Aug 1673 2 Thomas Grey 1654 31 Jan 1720 65
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
1697-1702. President of the Board of Trade
1699-1702. Lord Lieutenant Devon 1696-
1702.  PC 1694
31 Jan 1720 3 Harry Grey 10 Jun 1685 16 Nov 1739 54
16 Nov 1739 4 Harry Grey 18 Jun 1715 30 May 1768 52
MP for Leicestershire 1738-1739
30 May 1768 5 George Harry Grey 1 Oct 1737 23 May 1819 81
MP for Staffordshire 1761-1768. Lord
Lieutenant Cheshire 1783-1819
Created Baron Delamer and Earl of
Warrington 22 Apr 1796
23 May 1819 6 George Harry Grey 31 Oct 1765 26 Apr 1845 79
MP for Aldeburgh 1790-1796 and
St.Germans 1796-1802. Lord Lieutenant
Cheshire 1819-1845
26 Apr 1845 7 George Harry Grey 7 Jan 1827 2 Jan 1883 55
2 Jan 1883 8 Harry Grey 26 Feb 1812 19 Jun 1890 78
For further information on the Stamford Peerage
claim of 1892, see the note at the foot of this page.
19 Jun 1890 9 William Grey 18 Apr 1850 24 May 1910 60
24 May 1910 10 Roger Grey 27 Oct 1896 18 Aug 1976 79
to     Peerage extinct on his death
18 Aug 1976
STAMFORDHAM
23 Jun 1911 B 1 Sir Arthur John Bigge 18 Jun 1849 31 Mar 1931 81
to     Created Baron Stamfordham 
31 Mar 1931 23 Jun 1911
PC 1910
Peerage extinct on his death
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset
The following is extracted from "The Emperor of the United States of America and Other
Magnificent British Eccentrics" by Catherine Caufield (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London 1981)
The Duke of Somerset had the good fortune in 1682 to marry Elizabeth Percy, heir to the ancient
titles and immense wealth of the Earldom of Northumberland. The acquisition of her riches and 
prestige turned Somerset from a merely proud man to an extraordinary model of self-conceit.
Although he loved pomp and eagerly participated in ceremonial occasions, where he cut a 
handsome figure, Somerset's sensibility was offended by the notion of the lower orders witness-
ing his magnificent person on these or any other occasions and he took elaborate steps to
prevent such a distressing occurrence. He built houses at intervals along the main roads 
between London and his estates so that he would not be obliged to suffer the indignity of
staying at a common inn. Outriders preceded him to clear the road of commoners, whom they
unceremoniously ordered out of the way. Somerset was just as reluctant to see such people
as he was to be seen by them. He had to communicate with his servants, of course, but rather
than speak to them he used sign language. Not surprisingly he became known as 'The Proud 
Duke.'
Somerset's family was not exempt from the effects of his pride. His youngest daughter, 
Charlotte, used to sit and watch her father as he took his after-dinner nap on a couch. One 
day she wandered away while he slept and he rolled onto the floor. He woke in a fury and 
ordered the whole household to ostracise her. Everyone was too intimidated to mention
Charlotte's name to the Duke, even to ask when they were allowed to speak to her, so for a 
year she was completely ostracised. Later, she was deprived of £20,000 of her inheritance
for sitting down in his presence.
When Somerset's second wife, herself the daughter of the Earl of Nottingham, tapped him
gently with her fan, he said to her icily, 'Madame, my first Duchess was a Percy and she never
took such a liberty.'
Edward Adolphus Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, and his sons Lord Edward Adolphus
Ferdinand Seymour, styled Earl St. Maur (1835-1869) and Lord Edward Percy Seymour
(1841-1865)
The 12th Duke made the largest mark in public life of any of the Dukes of Somerset, being a
member of the Government on two occasions; as Chief Commissioner of Woods between 1849
and 1852, and First Lord of the Admiralty between 1859 and 1866. Unfortunately, his life was
blighted by family tragedy.
He married one of the most beautiful women of his time, Jane Georgiana Sheridan, grand-
daughter of the playwright, Richard Brinsley Sheridan. To the proud Seymour family, however, 
her beauty did not outweigh the fact that she was 'low-born,' and she was despised by the 
rest of the family. The family described her as a 'low-born greedy beggar woman' but Georgiana,
whose favourite dishes included guinea pigs and who produced a cookbook filled with guinea pig
recipes, lived happily with her husband and 5 children and largely ignored the rest of the family.
The two sons born of this marriage were Edward Adolphus Ferdinand (always known as 'Ferdy')
and, somewhat confusingly, Edward Percy. After 1863, when his father was created Earl St. 
Maur, Ferdy was known by this latter title. Ferdy was not one to relish study, but rather was
eager for a life of action which he soon put into practice by incessant travelling during which
he constantly sought out military activity. He turned up in Persia, where he fought in the 
Anglo-Persian War of 1856-1857; then he volunteered to fight in the relief of Lucknow during
Indian Mutiny, where his bravery was praised and earned him a mention in despatches. He next,
under the name of Richard Sarsfield, joined Garibaldi's forces in their fight for Italian freedom.
While serving in these forces, he became embroiled in a fight with a brother officer, whom Ferdy
had accused of embezzling the army's funds. After being forbidden to engage in a duel with the
other officer, Ferdy returned to England. Although he never again took part in any military
adventure, Ferdy continued to travel widely.
The younger son, Lord Edward Percy Seymour, was far more studious. At the age of 18, he was 
an attaché in the British Embassy in Vienna, followed by the same post in Madrid the following 
year. In December 1865, he found himself in India, where he died after being mauled by a bear.
The following article is from 'The Derby Mercury' of 24 January 1866, reprinted from 'The Bombay
Gazette.'
'We deeply regret to learn that Lord Edward Seymour, who came to India only a few weeks ago,
has died at Yellapoor, from an accident that happened to him in a shooting excursion.
'Lord Edward……..accompanied Sir Bartle Frere [at the time Governor of Bombay] in his tour in 
the Southern Mahratta country. He left his Excellency's camp at Dharwar with Mr. Shaw
Stewart, collector of Carwar, intending to accompany that gentleman to his residence. They
reached Yellapoor on the 13th inst., and on the following morning Lord Edward and Mr. Brand, a
young officer of the Guards, went to a place on the banks of the Kalla Nudda, near Lalgooly, for
bison and bear shooting. They were accompanied by native shikarees and went in different
directions. Mr. Brand returned about nine o'clock, having heard one shot fired by his companion;
and about an hour afterwards a shikaree brought him Lord Edward's belt and hunting knife, on 
the sheath of which he found a written message from him stating that he had been wounded by 
a bear, and wished a surgeon to be sent to him. A messenger was immediately sent to Carwar
for Dr. Davies; and Mr. Shaw Stewart, Mr. Brand, and Mr. Walker, a civil engineer, hurried to 
the place where Lord Edward was lying. They learned from him that he had fired at a bear and
wounded it, and in following it up came upon it at a distance of about 15 yards. After he had
discharged both barrels of his gun the animal rushed upon him, and seizing him by the left knee
both of them rolled down a steep hill, Lord Edward dealing the animal repeated blows with his
hunting knife. His shikarees soon came to his assistance, and the bear left him. His left leg was
found to have been severely hurt, and there was a bad cut across his forehead; but he was
nevertheless very composed and collected, and was able to give directions to those about him.
He was carried to the top of the hill (about 200 feet high) and placed in a temporary shed; and 
another messenger sent off to Dharwar for Dr. Langley. He was taken next morning to Yellapoor,
but the doctors did not arrive until late the following day. He had been attended, however, by a
native hospital assistant, and the medical gentlemen on their arrival found that every possible
care has been bestowed on him. The patient appeared at first to be gradually improving, but on
the 18th an unfavourable change was noticed, and it was found necessary to amputate the left
leg above the knee. The operation was successfully performed, and a subsequent examination of
the limb showed that the doctors had not been wrong in their decision. The symptoms for the 
time were of a favourable character, and the heroic fortitude with which the patient bore his
sufferings seemed of itself to inspire hope; but a change for the worse became perceptible, and
after sinking gradually for some time Lord Edward died shortly after two o'clock in the morning
of the 20th [December 1865].'
After the death of his younger brother, Ferdy lived for a period in Tangiers, before returning to
England in 1868, weakened by various diseases contracted during his travels in the Far East.
In September 1869, Ferdy was suffering from a dangerous chest infection and his mother, the
Duchess, called in a well known specialist, Dr. Charles Williams. After examining the patient, Dr.
Williams obtained permission from Ferdy's parents to perform an emergency tracheotomy, but
it was unsuccessful and Ferdy died. In her grief, the Duchess accused Dr. Williams of criminal
rashness, calling him a 'hypocritical murderer' who had performed the operation to 'satisfy his
own selfish vanity.' In February 1870, Dr. Williams took legal action against the Duke and 
Duchess in order to save his reputation. The Duke and Duchess apologized unreservedly and
were ordered to pay a token five guineas damages. For his part, Dr. Williams was happy to 
accept the apology, and no further action was taken.
The deaths of his two sons left the Duke a broken man, who now had no male heirs to succeed
him. As a result, he amended his will to ensure that, apart from the title, very little of his
property would be left to the rest of his family. Some property was left to his three daughters,
but the family home and its contents were left in trust for two children named Harold St. Maur
and Ruth St. Maur, whose existence was unknown to the rest of the family.
In 1866, Ferdy had met and "married" an illiterate maid named Rosa (or Rosina) Swann. She bore
him two children - Ruth and Harold. After Ferdy's death, she and the children were provided for
by the Duke and Duchess, who kept their existence in the dark. After the death of the Duke in
1885, the two children were still minors, and, under the terms of the Duke's will, under the
guardianship of Lord Henry Thynne, husband of the Duke's daughter, Ulrica. Lord Henry appears 
to have ignored his trustee responsibilities, since he began to sell off the children's heritage.
After Harold came of age, he spent many years attempting to prove that his parents had been
legally married and that, as a result, he was the rightful Duke of Somerset. The story goes that
one day a witness to the marriage turned up, but was immediately hustled away by Lord Henry
Thynne. This mystery witness opened a shop soon after, paid for by an unknown but
guessable benefactor. In the meantime, Harold lived comfortably at the Seymour family home 
while the then Duke lived very frugally at a far smaller house. At the general election in 
December 1910, Harold was elected for Exeter, but he was unseated on petition some four
months later. He died in Kenya in 1927.
As for Ruth, she married in 1887 William George Frederick Cavendish-Bentinck - two of her
sons later succeeded as Dukes of Portland.
 
The Somerset Peerage claim of 1923-1925
On the death of the 15th Duke of Somerset in 1923, his only near relations were his three 
nieces, whose names were Helen, Lettys and Lucy, but who were usually known as "Hell
let loose." Sir Edward Hamilton Seymour, who was the senior male heir of the body of the 
original grantee, the 1st Duke of Somerset, was a distant relation, a third cousin once removed,
who was descended from the 8th Duke, who had died in 1757. However, his right to succeed as
the 16th Duke was challenged by the Marquess of Hertford, another member of the Seymour 
family. The question of who was the rightful heir was, as a result, referred to the House of Lords
Committee of Privileges for its determination, which was finally delivered in March 1925.
Sir Edward Seymour was the great-grandson of Francis Compton Seymour, who was in turn the
grandson of the 8th Duke. In 1787, Francis Compton Seymour had married the daughter of a
London publican. Her name was Leonora Perkins, the widow of a seaman named John Hudson. A 
son, Francis Edward Seymour, was born on 21 September 1788, and Sir Edward Seymour was his 
only surviving grandson. However, it was the Marquess of Hertford's case that the son, Francis
Edward Seymour, was illegitimate on the grounds that, when Francis Compton Seymour had
married the supposed widow Leonora, the marriage was bigamous since John Hudson was still
alive. In addition, a man named Henry Seymour, descended from Leonora's third son by Francis
Compton Seymour also claimed the title, as did Harold St. Maur, son of the Earl St. Maur [see
the note above which discusses his history.] These latter two claimants had no documentary
proofs to offer and their claims soon fell by the wayside.
The John Hudson who was supposed to have married Leonora Perkins, had, according to the
records, died in Calcutta in 1786. However, the Marquess of Hertford pointed out that local
municipal records showed that a John Hudson had died in Middlesex Hospital in 1791; surely,
said Hertford, this John Hudson was Leonora's husband, and the John Hudson who had died in
Calcutta was a different person entirely. Unfortunately for Hertford's case, it was demonstrated
that the John Hudson who had died in Middlesex Hospital in 1791 was aged 44, whereas 
Leonora's husband would have been 53 had he been the dead man. In March 1925, the 
Committee therefore found that Hudson had indeed died in Calcutta, that the marriage of Francis
Compton Seymour and Leonora Perkins was not therefore bigamous and that, as a result, Sir
Edward Hamilton Seymour was the rightful heir and therefore the 16th Duke of Somerset.
The following article is taken from 'The Times' of 26 March 1925:-
'The decision of the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords that Brigadier-General Sir
Edward Hamilton Seymour has made good his claim to succeed to the Dukedom of Somerset,
vacated by the death in October 1923, of his distant cousin, Sir Algernon St. Maur, the 15th
Duke of the 1547 creation, puts an end to one of the most fascinating and romantic peerage
cases that have ever come before it.
'The late Duke died without issue, and before Sir Edward Seymour could make good the claim
to succeed his third cousin once removed doubts had to be set at rest concerning the validity
of the marriage of his great grandfather, Colonel Francis Seymour. The story of this marriage and
of the difficulties it has caused might have been borrowed from the pages of a sensational novel
which had been thrown aside by the impatient reader on the ground that that sort of thing did
not happen in real life. After hearing the arguments of learned counsel, referring to musty rate-
books and land-tax returns, inspecting a ship's log, the faded archives of the long-dead East
India Company, and examining parish registers, the Committee of Privileges has decided that it 
did happen.
'It is, therefore, true that Mr. Perkins, a Woolwich publican, permitted his daughter, Leonora,
to marry John Hudson in 1768. Two years later Perkins died, and Hudson, who seems to have
been in partnership with his father-in-law, took over the licence and held it until 1775. Affairs
do not seem to have prospered with him, for in 1785 he shipped before the mast on board the
Manship, belonging to the Honourable the East India Company, and sailed for Calcutta. Here he
died on 27th September, 1786, and was buried on shore. News of his death reached England, 
and his widow proved his will, and on September 3rd, 1787, married Colonel Francis Seymour,
son of the Dean of Wells and grandson of the 8th Duke of Somerset. Thus, 19 years after her
first marriage the widow of the publican turned merchant-seaman married into a family which
had twice married potential claimants to the Throne, and had a reputation for pride even among
the aristocrats of the day, some of whom were so haughty that they could not bring themselves
to speak to their own servants, but conveyed their pleasure by signs [i.e. the 6th Duke - see 
above]. Still, in the case of Colonel Francis Seymour, there was another hereditary influence at
work, and he may have been predisposed to contract an impulsive and unusual marriage as his
own father, the Dean of Wells, had been married almost clandestinely by the Rev. Alexander
Keith, the notorious proprietor of one of those irregular "wedding-shops" which were suppressed,
together with the "Fleet Marriages" by Lord Hardwicke's Marriage Act of 1754. [The Fleet Prison
was claimed to be outside the jurisdiction of the Church, with the result that large numbers of
clandestine marriages were conducted there.]
'But it appears that Fate, having thus disposed satisfactorily of John Hudson and Leonora, his
widow, had provided for the simultaneous existence of another John Hudson, who figures on
rate books in the same locality, and very inconveniently did not die until 1791 - that is to say,
after the first Leonora had presented her new lord with a son. Her third son, Henry, was born in
1795, and about 1840 a tradition grew up among that third son's descendants that there were
not two John Hudsons, but only one, and that he had only pretended to die in Calcutta in order
to conceal desertion from the Manship, and that he had returned to find his home broken up
and his wife bigamously married to the colonel. The tradition, in the interests of Henry's
legitimacy, generously made out that the colonel, dismayed at John Hudson's return, had
secretly remarried Leonora after his second demise in 1791; but, although search has been made
during 40 years for evidence of that second marriage, which would have been evidence that the
first (in 1787) was not genuine, and that the eldest son had not been born in wedlock, it could
not be found, and Mr. H.S. Seymour, the descendant of the colonel's third son, withdrew the
claim to the Dukedom, which he had preferred. This left the field open for the contest between
Sir Edward Seymour, descended from the colonel's eldest son, and the Marquess of Hertford,
who is descended from the uncle of the 8th Duke, and claimed that if the marriage of Colonel
Seymour and Leonora Hudson was invalid, the legitimate male issue of the eighth Duke was 
extinct, and that he was the real heir, It was, however, shown that the inconvenient John
Hudson who died in 1791 was ten years younger than his important namesake, and this may
have helped the Committee of Privileges to decline to ignore the evidence of the East India
Company's records and the Calcutta registers, which were united in consigning the deceased
mariner to his grave in 1786.'
The Somerville peerage
The 18th Baron Somerville was killed in a hunting accident on 17 November 1868. According to
'The Irish Times' of 19 November 1868 "Lord Somerville was killed in the hunting field in Rutland-
shire......His horse was ridden at a very stiff and high quick fence. The animal stumbled and fell
upon its rider, crushing his head and face. His lordship breathed for a few minutes only."
After his death the following obituary appeared in the 'Illustrated London News' of 28 November
1868:-
'The Right Hon. Hugh Somerville, eighteenth Baron Somerville, in the Peerage of Scotland, who 
was killed on the 17th instant, whilst hunting with Mr. Tailby's hounds near Withcote Hall, about
two miles north of Uppingham, Rutlandshire, was the elder and only surviving son of Kenelm,
seventeenth Baron Somerville, by his wife Francis Louisa, only daughter of John Hayman, Esq. He
was born October 11th, 1839; and was educated at Eton, and Christ Church, Oxford. He was
appointed, in 1861, Lieutenant of the Warwickshire Yeomanry Cavalry. He succeeded his father
as eighteenth Baron Somerville, October 19th, 1864. He was never married. He is succeeded by
his first cousin, Aubrey John, now nineteenth Baron Somerville, who was born February 1st, 1838,
and is the eldest surviving son of the late Hon. And Rev. William Somerville, Rector of Barford,
Warwickshire. 
'This family, of Norman descent, obtained the Barony of Somerville, as far back as 1430. Gilbert,
the eighth Lord Somerville, entertained King James VI [of Scotland] most sumptuously at his
Castle of Cowthaly, which the monarch jocularly called "Cow-daily," from seeing a cow and ten
sheep killed every day. His lordship, by this course of boundless hospitality and extravagance, 
ran entirely through his estates; and he died so poor that the title was not resumed until 1723,
when it was confirmed, by Act of Parliament, to James, the thirteenth lord, [see below for 
further information] who eventually became wealthy through obtaining the reversion of the 
estates of [William] Somerville [1675-1742], the celebrated poet, author of "The Chase;" and it
is a strange and sad coincidence that the recent possessor of the poet's estate should have
perished in the chase so miserably. The thirteenth Lord's grandson, John, fifteenth Lord, 
introduced the breed of merigo [sic - merino] sheep from Lisbon into England. He was uncle of 
the nobleman just deceased, and of his successor, the present Peer.'
The petition mentioned above was presented to the House of Lords on 25 May 1723 and was
referred to the Committee for Privileges. On 27 May 1723, the Committee reported "That 
Directions may be given, for declaring and establishing the Petitioner's Right and Title to the
Honour and Dignity of Lord Somerville; That the Committee have considered the said Petition to
them referred; and have perused an authentic Extract out of the Rolls of Parliament, signed by
the proper Officer, according to the law of Scotland, and an Affidavit that the same was truly
extracted; whereby it appears, that the Lord Somerville is enrolled as present in Parliament the
15th of February, 1524; and is from that Time to the 13th of July, 1587 found in the Parliament
Rolls.
"That the Lord Somerville, who then sat in Parliament, was called Hugh Lord Somerville, and had
Two Sons, Gilbert and Hugh; That Gilbert was also designed Lord Somerville in several authentic
Writings  produced to the Committee.
"That the issue of the said Gilbert has failed; and that James the petitioner, in a connect 
Progress, has been served Heir to the said Gilbert the last Lord Somerville, and ought to be 
placed, in the List or Roll of Peers, in the Place in which his Ancestor first abovementioned sat;
with a Saving, nevertheless, as well to the Petitioner, as to all other Peers of Scotland, their
Rights and Places; upon further and better authority shewed for the same." [Journal of the
House of Lords 27 May 1723].
The 19th Lord Somerville was, at the time of succeeding to the peerage, a 'squatter' in Australia,
where he was involved in the establishment of the sugar cane industry in northern New South
Wales. On hearing of his accession, he returned to England, where he died from bronchitis and
inflammation of the lungs in August 1870. On his death, the peerage is generally considered to
have become dormant, largely because, given the antiquity of the peerage, it is not known 
whether the peerage descended to heirs male or heirs general.
An interesting reference to this peerage appeared in the Broken Hill 'Barrier Miner' on 5 September
1904:-
Mention was......made recently of a curious incident which befell a distinguished Colonial
Governor while he was officiating in Fiji. A  man in a tattered white suit, a typical "Beachcomber"
of the South Seas, called upon him and after a private interview of some duration, the Governor
was persuaded to put a sailing boat at his battered visitor's disposal to take him to an island
which he had named.
'The man said he was by right of descent 20th Baron Somerville, but he had settled down with
a dusky bride in a Polynesian paradise and had no desire to take the status that belonged to him. 
The Governor was sceptical, if soft-hearted. The episode passed into the realm of the half 
forgotten.
'But it is apparently to be revived. News came by the last Australian mail that "Hugh Somerville,
eldest son of Hugh,, rightful 20th Lord Somerville, had arrived in Cooktown, Queensland from
somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Solomon Islands, and was seeking means to enable him
to return to England and claim the title.
He is described as a young man of 22, tall and handsome, and with a complexion bronzed to
the tint of copper, obviously of partly native descent, but well manner and pleasant spoken, and
fairly well educated. No details of his claim are given.
'The Somervilles are a very ancient family. Thomas de Somerville was a justiciary of Scotland in
the early days of the 15th century and was made a peer in 1430. He married the daughter of
Sir Alexander Stewart of Darnley with whom he got the Barony of Cambusnethan.
'Of later Somervilles, the 14th Baron served with the 17th Dragoons in Portugal, the 15th was
President of the Board of Agriculture and a Lord of the Bedchamber. The 17th was the famous
Admiral, Kenelm Somerville. With the death of the 19th baron in 1870 the title was presumed to
have become extinct, but it has always been doubtful whether some of the descendants of
Admiral Kenelm were not still alive.'
In any event, no further action appears to have been taken by any party, including the person
discussed in the newspaper report above, to further their claims to this peerage.
Charles FitzRoy (5 Sep 1762-18 Oct 1831), 2nd son of the 1st Baron Southampton
and HRH Princess Amelia, youngest daughter of King George III
The following story of the relationship between Charles FitzRoy and Princess Amelia appeared in
the Australian monthly magazine "Parade" in its issue for May 1957:-
'After their summer holiday in 1801, George III and his family quit the Royal Lodge at Weymouth
to return to Windsor Castle. They left behind the King's youngest and favourite daughter, 18-
years-old Amelia. Amelia was in poor health and further rest, sea air and riding exercise were
advised by her doctors. She was left in the care of two trusted serving women and the King's
personal equerry, dashing, 38-years-old General Charles FitzRoy. Thus thrown together, the
Princess and the equerry fell in love - and touched off another of the scandals that stud the
chequered history of British royalty.
'Till she died, Princess Amelia and Charles FitzRoy remained devoted lovers. She was said to
steal out nightly for trysts. Sometimes she was lowered from her window in a clothes basket.
Rumours say Amelia married FitzRoy secretly and had a child. The official version is that she 
wished to marry but was thwarted by the rigid clauses of the Royal Marriage Act.
 
'Born on August 7, 1783, Amelia was the 15th and last child of King George III and Queen
Charlotte. Pretty, lovable, she was the special champion of her father. She grew into a bright,
graceful girl full of high spirits and fun and at eight was a prodigy at the piano. At 15, she
"adopted" half a dozen orphan girls and paid for their upkeep from her own money. She added to
their numbers all through life, till at last they landed her in a tangle of debts. She was only 18,
tall, slender with flowing blonde hair, when she paled under what was later found to be the
first onset of tuberculosis. The King left her at Weymouth. It was thought the Dorset sea air
would do her good. Ill, lonely, she was thrown into close contact with a handsome man of the
world, 20 years her senior. 
 
The Honourable Charles FitzRoy himself bore royal blood. He was the second son of Lord 
Southampton and the nephew of the Duke of Grafton. His family traced their origin to the liaison
between King Charles II and the beautiful, money-hungry Barbara Villiers, Countess of 
Castlemaine. FitzRoy was a brilliant soldier and diplomat. He had been taken up by George III
after succeeding in a number of delicate missions on the Continent. The King made FitzRoy his
equerry "to be close to the Royal person at all times." He was favoured even before George's
own sons. Palace gossip called him "Prince Charles."
'Because of the 20 years difference in their ages, plus the faith in FitzRoy's sense of duty, the
King had no hesitation in entrusting his best­loved daughter, Amelia, to him. His confidence was
misplaced. Love intervened. When Amelia returned to Windsor, an ardent attachment existed
between them. Out riding with the Royal family, they lagged behind to hold hands in the leafy
Windsor glades. In church, FitzRoy had to sit so the love-sick princess could feast her eyes on
his profile. Amelia was forever slipping into the grounds of the castle with notes for him. She 
confided to a friend her pleasure in a palace fireworks display - for the opportunity it gave of 
snuggling into FitzRoy's arms in the shadows.
 
The general, most historians believe, was reluctant to share to the full her all-consuming ardour.
Some claim he should have eloped with her or quit his position for military duties abroad. Amelia,
however, constantly played on his affection. Daily she poured out her love for him in letters.
These are now preserved in the Royal archives at Windsor. Each is a poignant mirror into the
soul of a woman eating out her heart. "My own dear love," she wrote hopefully, " I am sure you
love me as well as ever." Repeatedly she begged for a "a kind look or word," or a lock of his
"dear hair." "I really must marry you," she sought reassurance, "though of course we are 
inwardly united and that is much more than the ceremony."
'By now her two faithful serving women - the Misses Gomme and Goldsworthy - were suspicious.
They reported to Queen Charlotte the after-dark trysts between Amelia and FitzRoy, even
describing how the Princess was lowered from her room in an oversize clothes basket. The Queen
was surprisingly unmoved. Her main worry then was the sanity of the King, who was suffering
from frequent mental attacks. She forbade any mention of either the affair or any possible
marriage to him. 
'The Queen was perfectly safe. There could be no open marriage. Enacted in 1772, the Royal
Marriage Act prohibited any member of the Royal Family marrying without the consent of the
King. If over 25, however, the consent could be dispensed with - if the Privy Council were
informed and the ceremony delayed for 12 months. Amelia was then only 20. She was already
thinking of secret marriage. She had plenty of encouragement from her brothers. Her elder
brother, the dissolute Prince of Wales, later King George IV, had secretly married Mrs.
Fitzherbert without the King's consent. The Duke of Sussex secretly married Lady Augusta
Murray only to have the union declared illegal though there were two children. The Duke of Kent
lived for years in happy domestic bliss with his mistress, French-Canadian Julie de St. Laurent,
only to throw her aside to marry the Princess of Leiningen, by whom he sired Queen Victoria.
For good measure in the story of unofficial royal love, the Duke of York got sacked from his job
of Commander-in-Chief of the Army for letting his mistress, the sprightly Mary Anne Clarke, sell
army commissions.
 
'Young Princess Amelia consulted Kent, York and Sussex. They were sympathetic. The Prince
of Wales gave his word she would have permission to marry as soon as he became King, which
no one expected would be so long as it was.
'Because of her sickness, the girl was impatient. According to many contemporaries, she then
plunged into a secret marriage with FitzRoy. After 1803, she often signed herself "A.F.R." for
Amelia FitzRoy. FitzRoy himself neither confirmed or denied the rumours. The wife he married
after Amelia's death often stated he was married to the Princess. The Princess of Wales declared
in 1810 that "everyone believed it." Also cited as proof was the dismissal by Queen Charlotte of
a favoured lady-in-waiting, Lady Georgiana Bulkeley, reputedly for helping to arrange a secret
marriage between Amelia and FitzRoy. To her brother Frederick, Duke of York, Amelia confided
that she "considered herself married." One of her letters to FitzRoy stated: "We are married.
Every thought and every sorrow we must impart to each other."
 
It was openly rumoured round the Royal household that the couple were not only married - but
the parents of children. Amelia's periodic bouts of sickness aided the talk. A child, Theresa,
adopted by her friend, Mrs. George Villiers (related to FitzRoy), was reputed to be her daughter.
Even her last and fatal illness was believed in many quarters to be the result of childbirth. The
FitzRoy family still preserve a story that Amelia died after giving birth to twins. At this time, too,
the voice of slander rose. In some quarters she was accused of having an affair with Edward 
Phelps, a roistering crony of her brother, the Prince of Wales. She was supposed to have had a
a child by him. Descendants of the child still have jewellery, trinkets and china that belonged to
Princess Amelia. 
'For all her unhappiness over the affair with FitzRoy and the disease which prostrated her for
increasing periods, Princess Amelia continued her work for charity. She poured out so much for
her brood of adopted orphans that she was perpetually in debt to her brothers and sisters. She
also borrowed £5000 from FitzRoy which remained unpaid at her death.
'At 25, the "long notorious amour with FitzRoy" (as one diarist called it) was still Amelia's main
reason for living. Tuberculosis was by now wasting her body, but her love for the handsome
equerry burned as brightly as ever. Vainly her sisters pleaded caution as rumours ran round the
palace that FitzRoy was seen entering or leaving her room at night. 
 
'At that time, her father's mind showed some improvement. Though she was then old enough to
apply to the Privy Council for permission to regularise any affection she had for FitzRoy, Amelia
refused to do so for fear the shock would send her father back to irredeemable insanity.
Hopefully, she prepared the necessary documents to present to the Privy Council. They were 
never used and were among her papers at her death. "General FitzRoy possesses all my affection
and nothing can ever alter that," the Princess wrote. "For years I have considered myself his
lawful wife - suffering all the trials of that, without ever enjoying the rights."
 
'Her own complaint worsened. By 1808 she was practically an invalid. To add to her unhappiness,
she decided that her mother, Queen Charlotte, was not eager for her to recover. Amelia accused
her mother of conniving with doctors so she would die and thus could not worry the King with her
love affair. Her sufferings increased when the tuberculosis was complicated by an attack of "St.
Anthony's fire" (erysipelas). Doctors warned there was no hope of recovery. Princess Amelia
refused to accept the verdict. She wanted to live more than ever now. She hired a new and
revolutionary doctor named Pope at a fee of £1000 to treat her. Pope gave new hope by
diagnosing not tuberculosis but a liver complaint. Clutching at a straw, the Princess placed
herself entirely in his hands - even leaving her beloved FitzRoy for sea-bathing at the resort of
Worthing. Dr. Pope's treatment consisted of warm baths, copious drinking of wine and "elm-
bark tea" and large doses of calomel [mercurous chloride, used as a purgative]. Nothing could 
have been worse for tuberculosis. Her condition rapidly worsened. 
'After some months Amelia returned more wasted than ever to her ordinary physicians at Windsor.
Her father built a special lodge for her in the castle grounds. There she was tended by her sister
Mary as she slowly wasted away. She sent messages to FitzRoy, but in her final sickness, which
he claimed "affected him too much," he visited her only once. Amelia lay like a frail china doll and
used her last strength to draw up her will. In it she left everything she possessed to "dear 
Charles FitzRoy." 
 
'Though she left all to Charles Fitzroy, Amelia thought also of her father. Wishing to give him a
final keepsake, she had a special mourning ring made. It comprised a lock of her hair, under
crystal, set round with diamonds. When he visited her, she took his hand and pressed the ring on
his finger. The old King broke into uncontrollable tears. The gift churned up such poignant grief
that he lapsed into final and complete madness. 
 
'Thus poor Amelia caused the calamity she feared. To avoid it, she had barred herself from life
with the man she loved. On November 11, 1810, Princess Amelia coughed away her life in the
lodge at Windsor, attended only by her sister. Her last words were: "Tell Charles I die blessing
him." She had penned him a final note. "No two ever loved or were so tried as we," it said. "You
have given me every moment of comfort and happiness I have ever enjoyed." According to her
sister Mary, she died of a broken heart. FitzRoy, a shadowy unreal figure through the whole 
affair, referred to her after death as "the adored Amelia."
'The Princess' estate, after payment of debts, comprised only a few thousand pounds in
jewellery. To avoid scandal, the Prince of Wales confiscated Amelia's will. He sent word to
FitzRoy that he would personally reimburse him in cash for the value of the jewellery. He gave
the jewels instead to his sister Mary, who had devotedly nursed Amelia. The Prince then
conveniently forgot all about the payment to FitzRoy. Later he pointedly turned his back on the
general whenever they met.'
 
 
David Wynford Carnegie, youngest son of the 9th Earl of Southesk
Carnegie was an early explorer of the interior of Western Australia, whose name and work are
now, unfortunately, largely forgotten. 
He was born in Scotland on 23 March 1871, the youngest son of the 9th Earl of Southesk. He
was educated at the Charterhouse School and the Royal Indian Engineering College at Windsor.
After his education was completed, he travelled to Ceylon and for a time worked on a tea 
plantation, but finding the work not to his liking, he moved on to Australia in 1892, where he
became a prospector on the goldfields at Coolgardie, near Kalgoorlie, in Western Australia.
In 1894, he led the first of his exploration expeditions to the north of Coolgardie, covering 
about 850 miles during 90 days, through country which had been hitherto unexplored. At the
end of 1894, he set out again, but he contracted a fever and was forced to return. While he
convalesced in Perth, he compiled a series of maps of all the country which he had covered.
 
The following year he returned to Britain for a short visit, but in 1896 he returned to Australia
with plans for an expedition which would be far more ambitious than his previous ventures. His
plan was to discover whether there were any gold-bearing areas to be found between the
goldfields in the south around Coolgardie and Kalgoorlie, and the Kimberley goldfields in the
north. At the same time, he wished to discover the nature of the unexplored country which
lay between the routes of previous expeditions made by Peter Egerton Warburton in 1873 and
John Forrest (later Baron Forrest) in 1874. As an aside to this expedition, he also sought to
examine the possibility of opening a direct stock-route between the two goldfields. 
Carnegie financed his expedition from his gold-mining activities. Starting at Hall's Creek in the
Kimberleys, he headed south, reaching Coolgardie eight months later after travelling 3000
miles. Although he found several possible gold-bearing areas, he was unable to find much in 
the way of permanent water, which ruled out the idea of a stock-route. 
In 1897, Carnegie departed from Australia permanently and returned to Britain, where he was
awarded the Gill Memorial Medal by the Royal Geographical Society in recognition of his feats
of exploration. In 1898, he published his book "Spinifex and Sand,' which describes his
adventures.
In 1899, Carnegie joined the Civil Service and was sent to western Africa as Assistant Resident
in Northern Nigeria. Although apparently popular with the natives, he was killed by a poisoned
arrow on 27th November 1900, aged only 29, while trying to suppress a revolt led by one of the
local native chiefs.
William George Michael Spens, 2nd Baron Spens
The 2nd Baron Spens was sentenced to two and a half years imprisonment in October 1974
after being found guilty of fraudulent conversion and theft. The following report is taken from
'The Times' of 5 October 1974:-
'Lord Spens, aged 60, described as a "reluctant peer", was jailed for two and a half years at the
Central Criminal Court yesterday. The court was told that compulsive gambling had led him to use
for himself funds belonging to the Federation of British Carpet Manufacturers, of which he was
director.
'Lord Spens, of Lambden, Pluckley, near Ashford, Kent, admitted six charges of fraudulent
conversion and theft of funds totalling £151,000.
'Mr Stephen Mitchell, for the prosecution, said that during seven years when Lord Spens had
complete control of the finances of the federation's carpet centre in Regent Street, London, the
accounts were not audited.
'Judge Christmas Humphreys, QC, told him: "This is stark tragedy." The judge said he was 
impressed to hear of the "almost incredible position" in which Lord Spens had been allowed to
stand. "That any one man in the City of London today should be allowed such enormous financial
power puzzles me. You had literally no control. The so-called auditors were your own employers,
who were heavily involved in the total situation." There was a likelihood of temptation being
created and Judge Humphreys said he would regard it as a powerful factor of mitigation.
'The judge said that Lord Spens had had a fine career, had a fine character and bore a fine 
name. "This federation was your child." The federation, now well known in the City and
internationally, had been built up by Lord Spens and by the enormous amount of work he had put
into it.
'The judge said he recognized the situation had been brought about by overwork and lack of 
proper rest and recreation. In such circumstances Lord Spens had taken to gambling to relieve
his boredom. "You became a compulsive gambler."
'Mr Mitchell said the money, taken between 1968 and 1973, belonged to the constituent members
of the federation which included about 40 carpet companies.
'The federation, which aimed to promote the woven carpet industry on a national level, employed
as accountants Fuller Jenks and Beecroft, of which Lord Spens was a partner. He as appointed
secretary of the federation and in June, 1966, became director. He had complete control over
the financial affairs and administration and his professional activities were exclusively confined
to the federation's business.
'A bank account was opened in the name of the British Carpet Centre. In the seven years 
covered by the charges a total of £184,620 in cash was withdrawn from the account. Of that,
£151,300  was unaccounted for but, counsel said, Lord Spens claimed £25,000 of this went on
legitimate expenses. He was unable to provide documentary evidence.
 
'Mr Mitchell said Fuller, Jenks and Beecroft had fully reimbursed the British Carpet Federation.
They, in turn, had recovered £14,451 from credit standing to Lord Spens, and received £125,542
from their underwriters.
  'Mr Jeremy Hutchinson, QC, for the defence, said the federation's development had been entirely
the creation of Lord Spens. There came a time when he could not cope with the obligations 
which had come through his own enthusiasm and hard work. Because of the pressure of work he
had to spend many nights in London and he began to drink too much and visit gambling casinos.
He had to lead an enormously expensive life, dealing with clients who unlike himself were
"extraordinarily well-off."
"It was the old, old story of losing and hoping that you will win it back, and totally failing to do
so. Then going on with this sort of rake's progress hoping against hope in your heart that it will
be discovered and stopped."
'Lord Spens had attempted suicide at one stage. "He succeeded to his title as a reluctant peer
last year. He has no intention of taking up his seat because of his totally modest way of life and
background. He has no ideas of grandeur."
'The judge was told that as director of the federation Lord Spens earned between £8,000 and
£10,000 a year. Having regard to the cash unaccounted for, he was spending an additional 
£20,000 a year.'
Eleanor Dalrymple, Countess of Stair, wife of the 2nd Earl of Stair
Included in 'The Keepsake Annual' for 1828 is a short story by Sir Walter Scott entitled "My Aunt
Margaret's Mirror." This story is available on-line via a number of sites such as Project
Gutenberg.
Whilst the names used in the story have been changed, the story is based upon an incident in
the life of Eleanor, Countess of Stair.  The following is a summary of Eleanor's entry in the
'Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.'
Eleanor was the youngest daughter of James Campbell, 2nd Earl of Loudoun, and his wife, Lady
Margaret Montgomerie, daughter of the 7th Earl of Eglinton. In 1697 she married, as her first
husband, Sir James Primrose, 3rd baronet, who was later created Viscount Primrose in 1703. By
him she had three sons and a daughter. Primrose was, by all accounts, cruel and dissolute, with
the result that Eleanor lived in mortal fear of him. One day, while Eleanor was dressing herself,
she saw his reflection moving towards her, carrying a drawn sword and with murder written on
his face. Terrified for her life, she scrambled out the window and, half-naked, fled to her
mother's house for protection.
After this incident she refused to live with Primrose, who soon afterwards went abroad. Months
later, having heard nothing from him, one of Eleanor's female friends persuaded her to visit a 
foreign fortune-teller who had recently arrived in Edinburgh. At the fortune-teller's lodgings, she
was shown a mirror. As she looked into it, she was amazed to see an image of the interior of
a church appearing in the mirror. As she watched, she realised that she was watching a 
marriage ceremony, and that the bridegroom was her own husband. Suddenly, a man entered
the church, whom she recognised as being one of her brothers. He rushed up to Primrose in
a threatening manner, but the image then dissolved and she saw no more. Eleanor was so
impressed with her vision that she wrote and retained a detailed account of it.
When Eleanor's brother returned from a journey to Holland, he told his sister that, whilst in
Holland, he had become friendly with a wealthy Dutch merchant, who invited him to attend
the wedding of his daughter. When the brother arrived at the church, he was horrified to find
that the bridegroom was Sir James Primrose. He immediately informed the bride's father that
the groom was already married, and the ceremony was halted. By referring to her notes
taken after her visit to the fortune-teller, Eleanor and her brother were able to establish that 
both events had taken place on the same day. 
After Primrose's death in 1706, John Stair, 2nd Earl of Stair, declared his love for her. Eleanor
told him that, in the light of her previous marital experience, she would never re-marry. He
therefore adopted sneak tactics - one evening he bribed her servants to admit him to her
house where he hid in a closet. Next morning, he made sure that he was seen, half-dressed,
standing in her window. The natural inference was that he had spent the night with her, and,
in order to save her reputation, she agreed to marry him.
The 2nd Earl was a heavy drinker, but, after striking her when drunk, he was overcome with
remorse and promised to change his ways. From that time on, she always sat beside him at
social functions and rationed the amount of wine that he was allowed to drink.
Hugh Raufe Grosvenor, son and heir of the 2nd Baron Stalbridge  (17 August 1904-
6 January 1930)
Grosvenor was the only son and heir of the 2nd Baron Stalbridge. He was killed in an aircraft
accident when the flying-boat in which he was travelling crashed into Port Phillip Bay off 
Melbourne, Victoria, on 6 January 1930. The following account of the accident appeared in the 
Hobart 'Mercury' on 7 January 1930:-
'Within a mile of Point Cook [25 km SW of Melbourne and the birthplace of the Royal Australian
Air Force], Wackett's Widgeon II, a flying-boat owned by the Royal Australian Air Force, nose-
dived into Port Phillip Bay this afternoon [i.e. 6 January 1930]. The machine, it is thought, sank
immediately, carrying with it three aviators of whom no definite trace has been found.
'They were Captain the Honourable Hugh Grosvenor, Aide-de-camp to the Governor of South
Australia; Flight-Lieut. Frederick Albert Briggs, of the Royal Australian Air Force; and Leading-
Aircraftsman D.C. Ewen, of the Royal Australian Air Force, stationed at Point Cook.
'Fragments of wreckage from the flying-boat were found later by a launch which visited the 
scene, and a flying jacket was recovered which apparently had belonged to one of the three
occupants of the Widgeon.
'One of the pilots of an airplane circling overhead reported the Widgeon lying in about 30ft.
of water. Salvage operations will commence tomorrow.
'The accident, which occurred in the course of a routine test flight, is the first serious crash that
has occurred to the flying-boats in Australia. The pilot, Flying-Officer F.A. Briggs, who is second
instructor at Point Cook, was testing equipment in preparation for the opening of the training
course, which will begin at the school next week. He had made several flights in the Widgeon
earlier in the afternoon. Shortly before 4 o'clock Captain Grosvenor, who had arrived in Melbourne
by the Adelaide express in the morning, and who had arranged to fly with Flying-Officer Briggs to
England shortly, reached the station to discuss details of the projected flight. Captain Grosvenor
was not an officer of the Royal Australian Air Force, and therefore could not fly an Air Force
machine, but he accepted an invitation to accompany Flying-Officer Briggs as a passenger. The
third member of the flying-boat's crew was Leading-Aircraftsman D.C. Ewen. The Widgeon, which
had been overhauled, appeared to be in excellent condition, and took off without difficulty. For
about half an hour the machine manoeuvred in wide circles over the bay. It attracted little
attention.
'As far as could be ascertained only one man saw the Widgeon fall. This was a mechanic at Point
Cook, who happened to be watching the machine in its progress across the bay. Suddenly he 
was startled to see the nose of the machine dip sharply. Instead of flattening out it dropped with
great velocity. A column of water rose in the air, and when it subsided no trace of the Widgeon
could be seen. The mechanic promptly reported what he had seen, and orders were given 
immediately for every available machine on the station to fly over the spot where the Widgeon
had gone down, and ascertain, if possible, its fate and that of its occupants. Without loss of time
six machines were in the air, and circling over the bay in the vicinity of the tragedy. So disturbed
was the water, however, by the stiff south-westerly breeze that was blowing, the observers on
these machines could only guess the locality.
'In the meantime a powerful launch and a rowing boat put out from Point Cook Pier in order to
render assistance, if there should be anybody alive to assist. So rough was the water that the
boats were obliged to put back before they had gone very far.
'A pilot of one of the searching planes from Point Cook reported on returned to the airdrome that
he had seen the Widgeon lying in thirty feet of water about a mile from the shore. A launch was
directed to the spot and recovered some wreckage  and a flying jacket, which, it is assumed,
belonged to one of the missing men. The Widgeon was constructed largely of wood, and as
little wreckage was found floating it is believed that the machine suffered comparatively slight
damage.
'The mechanic who saw the machine fall estimated its height when the dive into the bay began
at 400 feet. The flying-boat fell almost vertically nosedown. The streamline construction of
the hull, which projects about 12 feet in front of the main planes, is such that it would dive
into the water with a minimum damage if falling vertically.
'Officers of the Air Force to-night expressed the view that all the occupants of the Widgeon
must have been injured by the terrific impact of the craft with the water. The discovery of the
floating coat suggests that one of the crew had attempted to free himself as the machine was
falling in the hope of jumping clear. In all such accidents escape is difficult unless one is free
before the crash. The men would probably be too seriously injured to attempt to escape.'
Because Grosvenor was the 2nd Baron's only son, and the 2nd Baron's two younger brothers
both pre-deceased him, the peerage became extinct on the death of the 2nd Baron.
The Stamford Peerage Case of 1892
The following extract is taken from 'The Chicago Daily Tribune' of 29 May 1910. Its whole
tenor clearly illustrates the racist sentiments prevalent at that time.
'Lord Stamford [the 9th Earl] who died last Tuesday, a quiet unassuming man, of pronounced
evangelical tendencies, enjoyed to a marked degree the sympathy and regard of his fellow peers
in the upper house. For it was through his exertions and at the cost of no end of trouble and
money that he prevented the House of Lords from being compelled to receive in their midst and
accord a seat beside them to a mulatto.
'The eighth Earl, who was a distant cousin, shortly after becoming a clergyman of the Church of
England, married a servant, and became involved in difficulties which made his expatriation
necessary. He migrated to South Africa, his wife abandoning him. After her death he married 
again, in South Africa, a white woman, also of humble station, who died two years later. 
Thereupon he lived for a number of years with a coal black Hottentot woman, who occupied the
position of cook and laundress in his household.
'Eventually some of the missionaries of the district in which he lived persuaded him to legalize his
relations with her by marriage, and she was thus transformed into a peeress of the realm as
Countess of Stamford and Baroness Grey of Groby. This marriage took place after she had given
birth to a son, John Grey, who was, however, made legitimate according to the terms of the old
Dutch law still in force in that part of South Africa where he was born.
On the death of the eighth Earl this mulatto son assumed his honours as ninth Earl of Stamford
and proceeded to England with his mother to take his seat in the House of Lords and to present 
himself at Court. The peers did not relish the idea and were therefore immensely gratified when 
a claim was put forward by a colonial school teacher named William Grey to the Earldom of 
Stamford and a protest filed against the succession of the mulatto. The litigation was long and 
tiresome.
'But eventually the Committee of Privileges of the House of Lords decided that succession to
English peerages was governed by English law exclusively and that, although the marriage of the
eighth Earl and his Hottentot cook had been sufficient to legitimize the birth of their son 
according to the Dutch law of South Africa, it did not have the effect of legitimizing him 
sufficiently to meet the requirements of English law.
'He therefore was barred from taking his seat in the upper house and the Earldom was awarded 
to William Grey, who, born on this side of the Atlantic, in Newfoundland, had spent the greater
part of his life until then earning his living as a school teacher in the colonies, especially at 
Barbados……
'The negro Countess of Stamford returned with her son and daughter (who, born subsequent
to her marriage, is fully entitled to the name of Lady Mary Grey) to South Africa, where they 
met with a sorry reception on the part of those who had advanced money to them on the
strength of their belief in the validity of the mulatto's succession to the earldom and estates.
'What has become of John Grey I am unable to say. But his sister, Lady Mary Grey, like himself
a dark hued mulatto, has married a Boer and, as the legitimate daughter of an earl, retains her
title. The Countess also is married, this time to a South African half breed named Pieter Pieterse,
and has therefore forfeited her rank and prerogatives as a peeress of the realm.'
                                                  ********************
This extract is from the Law Report in 'The Times' of 4 May 1892:-
'……….the history of the late earl presented some very curious features. He was in holy orders
and in 1844 married a person called Susan Gaydon, who was in a humble station of life. In or
about 1854 he separated from her and left England for the Cape, where he resided continuously
until the date of his death. There was no issue of that marriage, and Susan Gaydon died in 
1869. In 1872 Harry Grey, as he then was, married at Wynberg, Cape of Good Hope, Annie
Macnamara, who was also in a comparatively humble situation in life, and after a married life
of two years, or nearly two years, she died in 1874. At this time there was living in the house
as a servant a woman of colour named Martha Solomon or Simon. After the death of his second
wife it appeared that Mr Grey cohabited with this woman, with the result that two illegitimate
children were born - a son, John, who was born in 1877, and a daughter, Frances, who was
born in 1879. In the following year, 1880, Harry Grey married the woman Solomon, on December
6. He believed in was a matter of common knowledge that, according to the Roman-Dutch law
which prevailed in the Cape Colony, the effect of a marriage was to legitimate children born
before the marriage.  Subsequently to the marriage there was only one child born, a daughter,
Mary, who was born in 1881. She was, for the purpose of succession to this peerage, the only
legitimate offspring of the eighth earl.'
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